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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 32687 matches for " Daniel Kalibbala "
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Nsambya Community Home-Based Care Complements National HIV and TB Management Efforts and Contributes to Health Systems Strengthening in Uganda: An Observational Study
William Massavon,Levi Mugenyi,Martin Nsubuga,Rebecca Lundin,Martina Penazzato,Maria Nannyonga,Charles Namisi,Resty Ingabire,Daniel Kalibbala,Susan Kironde,Paola Costenaro,Davide Bilardi,Antonio Mazza,Bart Criel,James K. Tumwine,Janet Seeley,Carlo Giaquinto
ISRN Public Health , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/623690
Abstract: Community Home-Based Care (CHBC) has evolved in resource-limited settings to fill the unmet needs of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA). We compare HIV and tuberculosis (TB) outcomes from the Nsambya CHBC with national averages in Kampala, Uganda. This retrospective observational study compared HIV and TB outcomes from adults and children in the Nsambya CHBC to national averages from 2007 to 2011. Outcomes included numbers of HIV and TB patients enrolled into care, retention, loss to follow-up (LTFU), and mortality among patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) at 12 months from initiation; new smear-positive TB cure and defaulter rates; and proportion of TB patients tested for HIV. Chi-square test and trends analyses were used to compare outcomes from Nsambya CHBC with national averages. By 2011, approximately 14,000 PLHA had been enrolled in the Nsambya CHBC, and about 4,000 new cases of TB were detected and managed over the study period. Overall, retention and LTFU of ART patients 12 months after initiation, proportion of TB patients tested for HIV, and cure rates for new smear-positive TB scored higher in the Nsambya CHBC compared to national averages. The findings show that Nsambya CHBC complements national HIV and TB management and results in more positive outcomes. 1. Background In the wake of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), alternative service delivery models like the Community Home-Based Care (CHBC) [1–6] have evolved to fill the gap left by overstretched and underresourced health systems. CHBC includes any form of care (physical, psychosocial, palliative, and spiritual) given to the sick and the affected in their own homes and care extended from the hospital or health facility to their homes through family participation and community involvement [7, 8]. CHBC provides for the unmet needs of the large and growing population of PLHA in many resource-limited settings [7, 9, 10]. However, the effects of CHBC on national HIV and TB outcomes have not been examined in detail. In Uganda, the first CHBC programmes were established in 1987 in response to increasing numbers of acutely ill HIV/AIDS patients leading to congestion of hospital wards, increased staff workload, and excessive pressure on infrastructure. Three different organisations pioneered this approach: Kitovu Mobile HIV Programme, The AIDS Support Organization (TASO), and Nsambya Hospital Home Care Department, popularly known as Nsambya Home Care (NHC). TASO was started by local people, whereas, Kitovu Mobile and Nsambya Home Care were pioneered
Field Evaluation of PIMA Point-of-Care CD4 Testing in Rakai, Uganda
Ronald M. Galiwango, Lawrence Lubyayi, Richard Musoke, Sarah Kalibbala, Martin Buwembo, Jjingo Kasule, David Serwadda, Ronald H. Gray, Steven J. Reynolds, Larry W. Chang
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088928
Abstract: Objective To assess the accuracy of PIMA Point-of-Care (POC) CD4 testing in rural Rakai, Uganda. Methods 903 HIV positive persons attending field clinics provided a venous blood sample assessed on site using PIMA analyzers per manufacturer's specifications. The venous samples were then run on FACSCalibur flow cytometry at a central facility. The Bland–Altman method was used to estimate mean bias and 95% limits of agreement (LOA). Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV), and positive predictive value (PPV) were calculated for a CD4 threshold of <350 and <500 cells/uL for antiretroviral eligibility. Results There was a high correlation between PIMA and FACSCalibur CD4 counts (r = 0.943, p<0.001). Relative to FACSCalibur, the PIMA POC CD4 had negative mean bias of ?34.6 cells/uL (95% LOA: ?219.8 to 150.6) overall. The dispersion at CD4<350 cells/uL was 5.1 cells/uL (95% LOA: ?126.6 to 136.8). For a threshold of CD4<350 cells/uL, PIMA venous blood had a sensitivity of 88.6% (95%CI 84.8–92.4%), specificity of 87.5% (95%CI 84.9–90.1%), NPV of 94.9% (95%CI 93.1–96.7%), and PPV of 74.4% (95%CI 69.6–79.2%). PIMA sensitivity and PPV significantly increased to 96.1% and 88.3% respectively with increased threshold of 500 cells/uL. Conclusions Overall, PIMA POC CD4 counts demonstrated negative bias compared to FACSCalibur. PIMA POC sensitivity improved significantly at a higher CD4 threshold of 500 than a 350 cells/uL threshold.
Poetry Teaching and Multimodality: Theory into Practice  [PDF]
Daniel Xerri
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.34077
Abstract: This article discusses the theoretical concepts underpinning a multimodal approach to poetry teaching and considers a number of ways in which this can be adopted in practice. It discusses what is entailed by the concept of multimodality and examines the claims made about the benefits of employing a multimodal approach. It reviews the literature on multimodality and examines how teachers may blend a variety of techniques and resources in order not just to engage their students with poetry but also to activate language learning. In particular, this article examines how by tapping students’ visual and digital literacy skills they are enabled to create video poems, podcasts, hypertexts and wikis, all of which represent new ways of using language and experiencing poetry. Through constant reference to the research carried out so far, this article seeks to show how by means of a multimodal approach poetry can act as a springboard for the development of students’ language proficiency and creative engagement.
Mathematical Derivation of Angular Momenta in Quantum Physics  [PDF]
Daniel Grucker
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.47125
Abstract:

For a two-dimensional complex vector space, the spin matrices can be calculated directly from the angular momentum commutator definition. The 3 Pauli matrices are retrieved and 23 other triplet solutions are found. In the three-dimensional space, we show that no matrix fulfills the spin equations and preserves the norm of the vectors. By using a Clifford geometric algebra it is possible in the four-dimensional spacetime (STA) to retrieve the 24 different spins 1/2. In this framework, spins 1/2 are rotations characterized by multivectors composed of 3 vectors and 3 bivectors. Spins 1 can be defined as rotations characterized by 4 vectors, 6 bivectors and 4 trivectors which result in unit multivectors which preserve the norm. Let us note that this simple derivation retrieves the main spin properties of particle physics.

Contribution of Vertical Farms to Increase the Overall Energy Efficiency of Urban Agglomerations  [PDF]
Podmirseg Daniel
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2014.24013
Abstract: The 21st century keeps huge challenges for the system “city”. Shortage of resources and world population growth forces architects to think in spaces with increasingly more structural linkages. No era has shaped the system of a city like the oil age did. Its grown structures are dependent from cheap and easy to produce petroleum. The postmodern city, facing the end of cheap and abundant oil, is now dependent from this finite resource. To minimize the dependency from hydrocarbon energy it is necessary to increase urban density, to switch to renewable energy production and to create new spaces for multifunctional purposes. An essential problem of urban agglomeration, though, is the fact that distances between food production and consumption have increased drastically in the last fifty years. Cheap oil made it possible to implement a global food transportation
network and it also supported intensive monocultural food production. Today’s food no more gets bought from local markets, but from labels. Its value is dependent from the brand-image, represented from the tertiary sector. The end of cheap fossil fuels carries a huge potential for architects and urban planners—we can move away from representing abstract, non-spatial processes and identities but creating spaces for dynamic local interactions. A promising typus for this might be the Vertical Farm.
The Computational Theory of Intelligence: Information Entropy  [PDF]
Daniel Kovach
International Journal of Modern Nonlinear Theory and Application (IJMNTA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijmnta.2014.34020
Abstract: This paper presents an information theoretic approach to the concept of intelligence in the computational sense. We introduce a probabilistic framework from which computation alintelligence is shown to be an entropy minimizing process at the local level. Using this new scheme, we develop a simple data driven clustering example and discuss its applications.
The Computational Theory of Intelligence: Applications to Genetic Programming and Turing Machines  [PDF]
Daniel Kovach
International Journal of Modern Nonlinear Theory and Application (IJMNTA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ijmnta.2015.41002
Abstract:

In this paper, we continue the efforts of the Computational Theory of Intelligence (CTI) by extending concepts to include computational processes in terms of Genetic Algorithms (GA’s) and Turing Machines (TM’s). Active, Passive, and Hybrid Computational Intelligence processes are also introduced and discussed. We consider the ramifications of the assumptions of CTI with regard to the qualities of reproduction and virility. Applications to Biology, Computer Science and Cyber Security are also discussed.

On Hypercomplex Extensions of Quantum Theory  [PDF]
Daniel Sepunaru
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.65075
Abstract: This paper discusses quantum mechanical schemas for describing waves with non-abelian phases, Fock spaces of annihilation-creation operators for these structures, and the Feynman recipe for obtaining descriptions of particle interactions with external fields.
On the Charges and Currents in the Quantum Field Theory  [PDF]
Daniel Sepunaru
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2016.710096
Abstract: This paper is concerned with the determination of currents and charges in hypercomplex extensions of the Feynman-Dyson derivation of the Maxwell-Faraday equations. We analyze the appearance of charges and currents in non-Abelian versions of that approach: SU(2), SU(3) and G2. The structure constants of G2 Lie algebra are computed explicitly. Finally, we suggest a seven-dimensional treatment of color.
The Evolution of Pro-Social Behavior and the Role of the Government  [PDF]
Daniel Farhat
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2016.66116
Abstract: This study explores the impact of government intervention on the evolution of cooperation using a popular framework for understanding cooperative behavior (the public goods game). Agents either contribute to the production of a shared public good or free-ride on the efforts of others. This game traditionally results in mass free-riding (a sub-optimal outcome), in which case a government can intercede by levying taxes and providing the public good to increase welfare. Is this still the case when looking at an evolutionary framework with natural selection? Theoretical results suggest that the government “levels the playing field”, allowing cooperative and uncooperative behavior to coexist longer than it ordinarily would, but it cannot change the course of evolution.
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