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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 327150 matches for " Daniel J. Graham "
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On the Spectral Entropy of Thermodynamic Paths for Elementary Systems
Daniel J. Graham
Entropy , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/e11041025
Abstract: Systems do not elect thermodynamic pathways on their own. They operate in tandem with their surroundings. Pathway selection and traversal require coordinated work and heat exchanges along with parallel tuning of the system variables. Previous research by the author (Reference [1]) focused on the information expressed in thermodynamic pathways. Examined here is how spectral entropy is a by-product of information that depends intricately on the pathway structure. The spectral entropy has proven to be a valuable tool in diverse fields. This paper illustrates the contact between spectral entropy and the properties which distinguish ideal from non-ideal gases. The role of spectral entropy in the first and second laws of thermodynamics and heat → work conversions is also discussed.
Routing in the brain
Daniel J. Graham
Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fncom.2014.00044
Abstract:
Doubly robust dose-response estimation for continuous treatments via generalized propensity score augmented outcome regression
Daniel J. Graham,Emma J. McCoy,David A. Stephens
Statistics , 2015,
Abstract: This paper constructs a doubly robust estimator for continuous dose-response estimation. An outcome regression model is augmented with a set of inverse generalized propensity score covariates to correct for potential misspecification bias. From the augmented model we can obtain consistent estimates of mean average potential outcomes for distinct strata of the treatment. A polynomial regression is then fitted to these point estimates to derive a Taylor approximation to the continuous dose-response function. The bootstrap is used for variance estimation. Analytical results and simulations show that our approach can provide a good approximation to linear or nonlinear dose-response functions under various sources of misspecification of the outcome regression or propensity score models. Efficiency in finite samples is good relative to minimum variance consistent estimators.
Clade Age and Species Richness Are Decoupled Across the Eukaryotic Tree of Life
Daniel L. Rabosky,Graham J. Slater,Michael E. Alfaro
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001381
Abstract: Explaining the dramatic variation in species richness across the tree of life remains a key challenge in evolutionary biology. At the largest phylogenetic scales, the extreme heterogeneity in species richness observed among different groups of organisms is almost certainly a function of many complex and interdependent factors. However, the most fundamental expectation in macroevolutionary studies is simply that species richness in extant clades should be correlated with clade age: all things being equal, older clades will have had more time for diversity to accumulate than younger clades. Here, we test the relationship between stem clade age and species richness across 1,397 major clades of multicellular eukaryotes that collectively account for more than 1.2 million described species. We find no evidence that clade age predicts species richness at this scale. We demonstrate that this decoupling of age and richness is unlikely to result from variation in net diversification rates among clades. At the largest phylogenetic scales, contemporary patterns of species richness are inconsistent with unbounded diversity increase through time. These results imply that a fundamentally different interpretative paradigm may be needed in the study of phylogenetic diversity patterns in many groups of organisms.
Some free-by-cyclic groups
Ian J. Leary,Graham A. Niblo,Daniel T. Wise
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: We exhibit free-by-cyclic groups containing non-free locally-free subgroups, including some word hyperbolic examples. We also show that these groups are not subgroup separable. We use Bestvina-Brady Morse theory in our arguments.
Beyond Screen Time: Assessing Recreational Sedentary Behavior among Adolescent Girls
Katherine W. Bauer,Sarah Friend,Daniel J. Graham,Dianne Neumark-Sztainer
Journal of Obesity , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/183194
Abstract: Most studies of sedentary behavior have focused on television use or screen time. This study aims to examine adolescent girls' participation in a variety of recreational sedentary behaviors (e.g., talking on the phone and hanging around), and their association with physical activity (PA), dietary behaviors, and body mass index. Data were from a sample of 283 adolescent girls. Recreational sedentary behavior, PA, and dietary behaviors were self-reported, and girls' height and weight were measured. Over 95% of girls engaged in at least one recreational sedentary behavior during the recall period. Watching television and hanging around were the most common behaviors. Watching television, using the Internet, and hanging around were associated with less PA; watching television, hanging around, and talking on the phone were associated with less healthful dietary behaviors. No associations were found with body mass index. Interventions may benefit from capitalizing on and intervening upon girls' common recreational sedentary behaviors.
ITAM Signaling by Vav Family Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors Regulates Interstitial Transit Rates of Neutrophils In Vivo
Daniel B. Graham, Bernd H. Zinselmeyer, Francesca Mascarenhas, Ryan Delgado, Mark J. Miller, Wojciech Swat
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004652
Abstract: Background In response to infection, neutrophils are quickly recruited from the blood into inflamed tissues. The interstitial migration of neutrophils is crucial for the efficient capture and control of rapidly proliferating microbes before microbial growth can overwhelm the host's defenses. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate interstitial migration are incompletely understood. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we use two-photon microscopy (2PM) to study discrete steps of neutrophil responses during subcutaneous infection with bacteria. Our study demonstrates that signals emanating from ITAM-containing receptors mediated by Vav family Rho GEFs control the velocity, but not the directionality, of neutrophil migration towards sites of bacterial infection. Conclusions/Significance Here we show that during neutrophil migration towards sites of bacterial infection, signals emanating from ITAM-containing receptors specifically control interstitial neutrophil velocity.
Limits to modern contraceptive use among young women in developing countries: a systematic review of qualitative research
Lisa M Williamson, Alison Parkes, Daniel Wight, Mark Petticrew, Graham J Hart
Reproductive Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4755-6-3
Abstract: Literature searches of 23 databases, including Medline, Embase and POPLINE?, were conducted. Literature from 1970–2006 concerning the 11–24 years age group was included. Studies were critically appraised and meta-ethnography was used to synthesise the data.Of the 12 studies which met the inclusion criteria, seven met the quality criteria and are included in the synthesis (six from sub-Saharan Africa; one from South-East Asia). Sample sizes ranged from 16 to 149 young women (age range 13–19 years). Four of the studies were urban based, one was rural, one semi-rural, and one mixed (predominantly rural). Use of hormonal methods was limited by lack of knowledge, obstacles to access and concern over side effects, especially fear of infertility. Although often more accessible, and sometimes more attractive than hormonal methods, condom use was limited by association with disease and promiscuity, together with greater male control. As a result young women often relied on traditional methods or abortion. Although the review was limited to five countries and conditions are not homogenous for all young women in all developing countries, the overarching themes were common across different settings and contexts, supporting the potential transferability of interventions to improve reproductive health.Increasing modern contraceptive method use requires community-wide, multifaceted interventions and the combined provision of information, life skills, support and access to youth-friendly services. Interventions should aim to counter negative perceptions of modern contraceptive methods and the dual role of condoms for contraception and STI prevention should be exploited, despite the challenges involved.Improving reproductive health is central to achieving the Millennium Development Goals on improving maternal health, reducing child mortality and eradicating extreme poverty [1,2]. This requires that women have access to safe and effective methods of fertility control. The promotion o
The Far North Act (2010) Consultative Process: A New Beginning or the Reinforcement of an Unacceptable Relationship in Northern Ontario, Canada?
Holly L. Gardner,Stephen R.J. Tsuji,Daniel D. McCarthy,Graham S. Whitelaw
International Indigenous Policy Journal , 2012,
Abstract: In northern Ontario, Canada, there have been two “negotiated” documents that required consultation between First Nations and the federated government of the land: Treaty No. 9 signed in 1905-1906 (Dominion of Canada, with the concurrence of the Province of Ontario) and Ontario’s Far North Act (2010). Treaty No. 9 has defined the relationship between First Nations and Canada; while, the Far North Act will define the relationship with Ontario. This article evaluated whether the Far North Act marked a new beginning or the reinforcement of an unacceptable relationship, using primary and secondary data analyses. Analyses revealed that the passing of the Far North Act was not a new beginning, but the continuation of an unacceptable relationship.
Clade Age and Species Richness Are Decoupled Across the Eukaryotic Tree of Life
Daniel L. Rabosky equal contributor ,Graham J. Slater equal contributor,Michael E. Alfaro equal contributor
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001381
Abstract: Explaining the dramatic variation in species richness across the tree of life remains a key challenge in evolutionary biology. At the largest phylogenetic scales, the extreme heterogeneity in species richness observed among different groups of organisms is almost certainly a function of many complex and interdependent factors. However, the most fundamental expectation in macroevolutionary studies is simply that species richness in extant clades should be correlated with clade age: all things being equal, older clades will have had more time for diversity to accumulate than younger clades. Here, we test the relationship between stem clade age and species richness across 1,397 major clades of multicellular eukaryotes that collectively account for more than 1.2 million described species. We find no evidence that clade age predicts species richness at this scale. We demonstrate that this decoupling of age and richness is unlikely to result from variation in net diversification rates among clades. At the largest phylogenetic scales, contemporary patterns of species richness are inconsistent with unbounded diversity increase through time. These results imply that a fundamentally different interpretative paradigm may be needed in the study of phylogenetic diversity patterns in many groups of organisms.
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