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De Hawai al Mediterráneo: La génesis del surf en Espa a. (From Hawaii to the Mediterranean Sea: the Beginnings of Surfing in Spain).
Daniel Esparza
RICYDE : Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte , 2011,
Abstract: Resumen En este artículo se presenta, por primera vez, una historia del surf en Espa a tratada en su conjunto. Hasta la fecha solo existían algunas exploraciones en el nivel local o regional. En primer lugar se lleva a cabo una puesta al día de los principales estudios acometidos sobre surf desde diferentes disciplinas. Posteriormente se explica la metodología y las fuentes utilizadas (primarias y secundarias). Antes de iniciar el estudio de la génesis del surf en Espa a, se presentan brevemente los orígenes del surf en Hawai, su expansión por el mundo y su llegada a Europa. Una de las principales conclusiones observa como el surf en Espa a no surgió desde un núcleo concreto -a diferencia de EEUU (Hawai), Francia (Biarritz), o Perú (Lima)- sino que surgió, casi al mismo tiempo, en varios núcleos del: a) Cantábrico (Asturias, Cantabria, País Vasco y Galicia), b) del Atlántico (Canarias y Cádiz), y c) del Mediterráneo (Málaga), sin que al principio tuvieran dichos núcleos, salvo excepciones, conocimiento unos de otros.Abstract This article presents, for the first time, a history of surfing in Spain as a whole. Since now, only some explorations in the local and regional level had been undertaken. First of all, it presents an estate of matter of the main studies about surfing from several disciplines. Later on, it explains the methodology and the main sources. Before starting the study of the beginnings of surfing in Spain, it shows in brief the origins of surfing in Hawaii and its expansion around the World until its arrival in Europe. One of the main conclusions shows, that in Spain, surfing did not start from a concrete area –as it happened in US (Hawaii), Peru (Lima), and France (Biarritz)- but it emerged, almost at the same time in various areas of the: I) Cantabrian Sea (Asturias, Cantabria, Basque Country and Galicia), II) Atlantic Ocean (Canaries and Cadiz), and III) Mediterranean Sea (Malaga).
Crisis de identidad y revolución digital
Daniel Esparza
Caracteres : Estudios Culturales y Críticos de la Esfera Digital , 2012,
Abstract: In this article, I propose a theoretical framework related to identity construction and transformation. The main aim is to explore some symptoms and incidences associated to the arrival of digital revolution, like the identity crisis provoked by the deep changes in the notion of time and space, which have disoriented the human being at the dawn of the revolution. One of the main conclusions to be debated is the following: in the society of the image and information that we are living, paradoxically, what is still predominating is the victory of the myth, headline or branding.
The Global HIV Vaccine Enterprise
Esparza,José;
International Microbiology , 2005,
Abstract: aids, which twenty-five years ago no one even knew it existed, has become the most serious infectious disease worldwide. the development of an hiv vaccine is one of the most difficult challenges that modern biomedical science is confronting. to address this challenge, scientists may need to organize themselves in a more intense, targeted, and collaborative effort, such as the one proposed by the global hiv/aids vaccine enterprise. the enterprise concept proposes to complement the creativity of individual investigators with a collaborative system that ensures a more effective use of human and financial resources to produce new scientific knowledge. it also implies that the scientific knowledge can be harnessed in a targeted way to develop practical solutions to urgent global health problems, including explicit product development activities. different modalities of the enterprise concept are being explored for the development of drugs to treat tuberculosis and vaccines to prevent malaria.
En Las Manos Del Ejército: Violencia Y Posguerra En Guatemala
Esparza,Marcia;
Análisis Político , 2007,
Abstract: the fratricide war between sectors of the mayan population in guatemala (1962-1996) and the permanent militarization has left sequels printed in the social tissue. in my research, that includes the work of field for la comisión de la verdad supported by the nations united in that country (1997-1998), i was witness of the destruction of confidence bows and solidarity, key components in the support of the communal identity.. my study shows how the persistent militarization produces that the most impoverished sectors from the rural population, look for the army like the guardian of its communities.
An HIV vaccine: how and when?
Esparza,José;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862001001200009
Abstract: the best long-term hope for controlling the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (hiv/aids) pandemic is a safe, effective and affordable preventive vaccine, but its development has encountered unprecedented scientific challenges. the first phase i trial of an hiv vaccine was conducted in 1987. subsequently, more than 30 candidate vaccines have been tested in over 60 phase i/ii trials, involving approximately 10 000 healthy volunteers. most of these trials have been conducted in the usa and europe, but several have also been conducted in developing countries. the first phase iii trials began in the usa in 1998 and in thailand in 1999 to assess the efficacy of the first generation of hiv vaccines (based on the hiv envelope protein, gp120); the results will be available within the next 1-2 years. to accelerate the development of an hiv vaccine, additional candidate vaccines must be evaluated in parallel in both industrialized and developing countries. this will require international collaboration and coordination and critical ethical issues will need to be addressed. to ensure that future hiv vaccines contribute to the overall hiv/aids prevention effort, we should begin planning now on how best to use them.
Dreyfus, Mariela y Rocío Silva Santisteban (eds.). Nadie sabe mis cosas: reflexiones en torno a la poesía de Blanca Varela. Lima: Fondo Editorial del Congreso de la República, 2008, 551 pp.
Cecilia Esparza
Lexis , 2008,
Abstract: La rese a no presenta resumen.
En Las Manos Del Ejército: Violencia Y Posguerra En Guatemala In The Army Hands: Violence And Post War In Guatemala
Marcia Esparza
Análisis Político , 2007,
Abstract: La Guerra muchas veces de carácter fraticida entre sectores de la población maya en Guatemala (1962-1996) ha dejado secuelas impresas en el tejido social. En mi investigación, que incluye el trabajo de campo para la Comisión de la Verdad auspiciada por las Naciones Unidas en ese país (1997-1998), fui testiga de la destrucción de lazos de confianza y solidaridad, componentes claves en el soporte de la identidad comunal indígena. Mi estudio muestra cómo la persistente militarización produce que los sectores más empobrecidos de la población rural busquen al Ejército, como guardián de sus comunidades. The fratricide war between sectors of the Mayan population in Guatemala (1962-1996) and the permanent militarization has left sequels printed in the social tissue. In my research, that includes the work of field for La Comisión de la Verdad supported by the Nations United in that country (1997-1998), I was witness of the destruction of confidence bows and solidarity, key components in the support of the communal identity.. My study shows how the persistent militarization produces that the most impoverished sectors from the rural population, look for the Army like the guardian of its communities.
Casi La Verdad: Silencios Y Secretos En La Posdictadura Del General Augusto Pinochet En Chile.
Marcia Esparza.
Antipoda. Revista de Antropología y Arqueología , 2007,
Abstract: Ourstudy, AlmosttheTruth: Silences and Secrets in General Augusto Pinochet's dictatorship in Chile, examines intelligentsia, militaryand civilian staff's judicial testimonies, accused of participating in crimes committed during the Augusto Pinochet's dictatorship (1973-1990). Our aim is to interrogate the social role played by this silence influenced, we argue, by a persisting military culture. In these confessions, we identify subordination to the Armed Forces and not the acknowledgement for responsibilities for the crimes committed.
An HIV vaccine: how and when?
Esparza José
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2001,
Abstract: The best long-term hope for controlling the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) pandemic is a safe, effective and affordable preventive vaccine, but its development has encountered unprecedented scientific challenges. The first phase I trial of an HIV vaccine was conducted in 1987. Subsequently, more than 30 candidate vaccines have been tested in over 60 phase I/II trials, involving approximately 10 000 healthy volunteers. Most of these trials have been conducted in the USA and Europe, but several have also been conducted in developing countries. The first phase III trials began in the USA in 1998 and in Thailand in 1999 to assess the efficacy of the first generation of HIV vaccines (based on the HIV envelope protein, gp120); the results will be available within the next 1-2 years. To accelerate the development of an HIV vaccine, additional candidate vaccines must be evaluated in parallel in both industrialized and developing countries. This will require international collaboration and coordination and critical ethical issues will need to be addressed. To ensure that future HIV vaccines contribute to the overall HIV/AIDS prevention effort, we should begin planning now on how best to use them.
What Has 30 Years of HIV Vaccine Research Taught Us?
José Esparza
Vaccines , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/vaccines1040513
Abstract: When HIV was discovered and established as the cause of AIDS in 1983–1984, many people believed that a vaccine would be rapidly developed. However, 30 years have passed and we are still struggling to develop an elusive vaccine. In trying to achieve that goal, different scientific paradigms have been explored. Although major progress has been made in understanding the scientific basis for HIV vaccine development, efficacy trials have been critical in moving the field forward. Major lessons learned are: the development of an HIV vaccine is an extremely difficult challenge; the temptation of just following the fashion should be avoided; clinical trials are critical, especially large-scale efficacy trials; HIV vaccine research will require long-term commitment; and sustainable collaborations are needed to accelerate the development of an HIV vaccine. Concrete actions must be implemented with the sense of urgency imposed by the severity of the AIDS epidemic.
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