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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 34454 matches for " Danai Tavonga Zhou "
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Significant Differences in the Prevalence of Elevated HbA1c Levels for Type I and Type II Diabetics Attending the Parirenyatwa Diabetic Clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe
Kurai Z. Chako,Heather Phillipo,Erisi Mafuratidze,Danai Tavonga Zhou
Chinese Journal of Biology , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/672980
Abstract: Diabetics have chronically elevated glucose levels. High levels of glucose result in nonenzymatic formation of glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Therefore, elevated HbA1c is a good indicator of poorly controlled diabetes. We used the standard HbA1c method to determine glycemic control in diabetics attending a public health facility in Harare, Zimbabwe. Our study sought to assess the prevalence of elevated HbA1c amongst treated diabetics and compare the HbA1c levels by type of diabetes. The cross-sectional study was carried out at one of the main public health centres in Zimbabwe: the Parirenyatwa Group of Hospitals in Harare. Type I and type II diabetics were recruited and had their blood HbA1c levels measured. The standard one tailed proportion z test was used to test the hypothesis at 5% significance level. Combined prevalence of type I and type II diabetics with elevated HbA1c was 27%. There was no significant difference in levels of HbA1c by age and sex. Over half (54%) of Type I diabetics had elevated HbA1c, suggesting poor glycemic control. In contrast only 24% of the Type II diabetics studied had elevated HbA1c. The difference in proportion of Type I and Type II diabetics with elevated HbA1c suggestive of poor glycemic control was significant ( ). 1. Introduction According to the World Health Organization (WHO) diabetes mellitus is a state of chronic hyperglycaemia due to genetic and environmental factors. In Type 1 diabetes mellitus there is no production of insulin whereas in Type 2 diabetes mellitus there is insufficient insulin or cells do not respond to insulin present in the body (insulin resistance). The most frequent form is Type 2 diabetes (80% of cases) whilst Type 1 diabetes accounts for 10% of cases and specific diabetes such as gestational diabetes accounts for 5% of cases [1, 2]. In 2004 it was estimated that up to 3.4 million people died from diabetes and 80% of these deaths occurred in low and middle income countries such as Zimbabwe [3–5]. Half of the people who died as a result of diabetes were under the age of 70, 55% of them women [3–5]. Diabetes mellitus was generally considered to be a rare condition in Africa before the 1990s. Evidence of increased incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus was provided by some epidemiological studies carried out in that decade [5–7]. Africa is experiencing a demographic and epidemiological transition with a rise in diseases like diabetes mellitus. Most reports published between 1959 and 1985 indicated a prevalence of diabetes below 1.4% with the exception of those from South
Differences in Serum Levels of Magnesium, Phosphate, and Albumin for HAART-Experienced and HAART-Na?ve Female Patients Attending Parirenyatwa Opportunistic Infections Clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe
Denise Mudzinge,Tinashe Kenny Nyazika,Tawanda Jonathan Chisango,Danai Tavonga Zhou
ISRN AIDS , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/383214
Abstract: Antiretroviral therapy inhibits HIV replication, maintains health, and preserves life. However, both antiretroviral therapy and HIV infection have been reported to have short- and long-term effects on bone metabolism. A cross-sectional study was performed to compare serum bone profiles in HIV positive patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy and compare them to therapy-na?ve patients. Serum levels of calcium, magnesium, phosphate, and albumin were measured in 40 female participants on highly active antiretroviral therapy, recruited sequentially from Parirenyatwa Opportunistic Infections Clinic, Harare, Zimbabwe. The 40 women were matched for age with 40 antiretroviral therapy-na?ve women. Magnesium, phosphate, and albumin levels were significantly higher in the therapy-na?ve than in therapy-experienced patients. There was no statistically significant difference in calcium levels of the two groups of women. Evidence from this study suggests that highly active antiretroviral therapy lowers levels of magnesium, phosphate, and albumin but has no effect on levels of serum calcium. 1. Introduction Zimbabwe is in sub-Saharan Africa which is at the epicenter of the human immune deficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. According to UNAIDS the prevalence of HIV in Zimbabwe has decreased to about 1 in 10 adults (2012) from a high one of almost 1 in 4 in 2002 [1]. While the decline is commendable HIV infection still remains a major problem in Zimbabwe with 14.3% of adults being HIV positive [2]. The high disease burden of HIV has necessitated a rapid increase in the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). As of 2012, over 476 thousand HIV-infected Zimbabweans were on HAART compared to only 8000 in 2003 [1]. In the Zimbabwe National Program, first line drug combinations include a dual combination of tenofovir/TDF/disoproxil fumarate (Gilead Sciences, USA); a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) and lamivudine/3TC/2,3 dideoxy-3-thiacytidine (GlaxoSmithKline and Pfizer, UK), an NRTI and a triple combination of tenofovir, lamivudine with nevirapine/XR/viramune (Boehringer Ingelheim, USA) a non-nucleoside reverse Transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) [3, 4]. In the event of treatment failure the patients are treated with second line drugs including zidovudine/AZT (Company) an NRTI; didanosine/DDI/Videx (Bristol-Myers Squibb Co, USA), an NRTI together with lopinavir and ritonavir; protease inhibitors (PIs) also known as kaletra/aluvia (Abbot Laboratories) [3]. HAART has reduced both the morbidity and mortality of HIV-infected people due to AIDS.
Airway Tube Exchanger Techniques in Morbidly Obese Patients
Danai Udomtecha
Anesthesiology Research and Practice , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/968642
Abstract: Morbidly obese patients may present a challenge during airway management. When airway tube exchange is required, it can even be more challenging than the primary intubation. With the increasing prevalence of morbid obesity over the years, there will be increasing numbers of these patients presenting for surgical procedures, including ones that require endotracheal tube exchanges. It is therefore important for anesthesiologists to be familiar with options and limitations of the airway tube exchanger techniques. 1. Introduction Obesity has become a public health crisis in the United States. The prevalence of obesity doubled between 1976–1980 and 1999-2000, increasing from 15.1 percent to 30.9 percent [1]. Results from the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) indicate that an estimated 34.2% of US adults aged 20 years and over are overweight, 33.8% are obese, and 5.7% are extremely obese [2]. With the prevalence of obesity and morbid obesity on the rise, all healthcare specialties will see more and more of these patients. There will be increasing numbers of obese patients presenting for surgical procedures, including ones that require endotracheal tube exchanges. Obese patients may present a challenge during airway management. However, a debate continues to whether morbidly obese patients are more difficult to intubate than the general population. Juvin et al. reported the incidence of difficult intubation to be 15.5% in morbidly obese patients, compared with 2.2% in controls [3]. Gonzalez et al. found the difficult intubation rate of 14.3% in obese patients versus 3% in nonobese patients [4]. In contrast, Ezri et al. and Lundstr?m et al. reported that BMI was weakly associated with difficult intubation in morbidly obese patients, when compared to nonobese patients [5, 6]. Among morbidly obese patients, Brodsky et al. and Neligan et al. demonstrated that increased BMI was not an independent risk factor of difficult intubation [7, 8]. Morbidly obese patients have decreased functional capacity (FRC), increased alveolar-to-arterial (A-a) oxygen gradient [9, 10], and increased oxygen consumption [11]. Therefore, even if airway management—including airway tube exchange—is not difficult, they will desaturate faster than their leaner counterpart after cessation of ventilation. Patients whose airway management is difficult will be even more at risk of desaturation. Due to concerns of possible difficult airway and/or rapid desaturation after cessation of spontaneous ventilation, some anesthesiologists opt to perform awake fiberoptic
Giant fibrovascular polyp of the oesophagus: a case report and review of the literature
Danai Chourmouzi, Antonios Drevelegas
Journal of Medical Case Reports , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1752-1947-2-337
Abstract: A 65-year-old Greek man presented with a 9-month history of gradually progressive intermittent dysphagia. Radiologic work-up with oesophagogram and computed tomography revealed a large, sausage-shaped intraluminal polyp extending from the level of the cervical oesophagus to the level of the upper body of the stomach. The diagnosis of giant fibrovascular polyp was made radiographically and confirmed by endoscopic biopsy. The polyp was removed using a biapproach surgical technique: pharyngotomy and subsequent gastrostomy.Fibrovascular polyp is a rare submucosal tumour. Proper treatment depends on accurate assessment of the origin, size, and vascularity of the pedicle and the size of the tumour. Choice of the appropriate surgical approach depends on the correct diagnosis, which can usually be indicated radiographically by the presence of a smooth, sausage-shaped defect with a discrete bulbous tip.A fibrovascular polyp (FVP) is a rare, benign, intraluminal, submucosal tumour-like lesion, characterised by the development of pedunculated, intraluminal masses that can exhibit enormous intraluminal growth. These lesions are composed of loose or dense fibrous tissue, adipose tissue, and vascular structures and are covered by normal squamous epithelium. The most common location is the upper third of the oesophagus, near the cricopharyngeus. Dysphagia, vomiting, weight loss, and respiratory symptoms are the most frequent complaints. However, long pedunculated lesions can regurgitate into the pharynx or mouth and cause death from asphyxiation if the larynx is occluded [1]. We present a case of FVP associated with intermittent dysphagia.A 65-year-old Greek man presented with a 9-month history of gradually progressive intermittent dysphagia. He also reported significant weight loss but no haemetemesis or melaena. The rest of his medical history was not significant. No specific abnormality was revealed during the physical examination.Radiologic work-up with oesophagogram showed a
Fast Capacitance Extraction for Finite Planar Periodic Structures Using the Generalized Forward-Backward and Novel Spectral Acceleration Method
Chatrpol Lertsirimit;Danai Torrungrueng
PIER , 2009, DOI: 10.2528/PIER09081004
Abstract: The generalized forward-backward and novel spectral acceleration (GFB/NSA) method is applied to capacitance extraction problems of finite planar periodic structures. In the GFB method, the interaction within a unit cell can be calculated and stored beforehand. The interactions between relatively far-separated unit cells are however calculated by the GFB/NSA method to further accelerate the calculation speed. The contributions to a receiving element on finite planar periodic structures are separated into weak and strong source contributions by an appropriate separation index, which is conveniently specified by an amount of unit cells rather than a distance. The strong source contribution is performed by the standard matrix-vector multiplication in the GFB method, while the weak source contribution is computed using the NSA algorithm. Numerical examples show comparisons of the GFB/NSA method with a commercial software, including the efficiency of the method. With the array increment in one direction, the GFB/NSA method shows O() in the calculation time per iteration, while its memory requirement for a very large problem also tends to be O(), where is the number of unknowns.
Analysis of Planar Multilayer Structures at Oblique Incidence Using an Equivalent Bcitl Model
Danai Torrungrueng;Suthasinee Lamultree
PIER C , 2008,
Abstract: Planar multilayer structures have found several applications in electromagnetics. In this paper, an equivalent model based on the bi-characteristic-impedance transmission line (BCITL) is employed to model planar multilayer structures effectively for both and cases. It is found that the equivalent BCITL model provides identical results, for both perpendicular and parallel polarizations, as those obtained from the propagation matrix approach.
Theoretical Study of Microwave Transistor Amplifier Design in the Conjugately Characteristic-Impedance Transmission Line (Ccitl) System Using a Bilinear Transformation Approach
Rardchawadee Silapunt;Danai Torrungrueng
PIER , 2011, DOI: 10.2528/PIER11080504
Abstract: Conjugately characteristic-impedance transmission lines (CCITLs) are a class of transmission lines possessing conjugately characteristic impedances (Z) for waves propagating in the opposite direction. A typical Z uniform transmission line is a special case of CCITLs whose argument of Z is equal to 0. This paper aims to generalize the CCITL system by demonstrating a theoretical study of CCITLs and their applications in the microwave transistor amplifier design. It is found that the bilinear transformation plays an important role in transforming circles in the reflection coefficient Г-plane in the Z system to the Г-plane in the CCITL system. In addition, Meta-Smith charts, a graphical tool developed for solving problems in the CCITL system, are employed to design matching networks to achieve desired amplifier properties. Results show that stability regions on Meta-Smith charts can be determined, and source and load reflection coefficients can be selected properly to obtain desired operating power gain. In addition, an example shows that Meta-Smith charts offer a simple approach for matching network design using open-circuited single-stub shunt tuners.
Equivalent Graphical Solutions of Terminated Conjugately Characteristic-Impedance Transmission Lines with Non-Negative and Corresponding Negative Characteristic Resistances
Danai Torrungrueng;Suthasinee Lamultree
PIER , 2009, DOI: 10.2528/PIER09031001
Abstract: This paper presents the graphical solutions of conjugately characteristic-impedance transmission lines (CCITLs) implemented by periodically loaded lossless transmission lines (TLs), which can exhibit both non-negative (NNCR) and negative characteristic resistances (NCR) with the corresponding propagation constants. The standard T-chart and the extended T-chart are employed to solve CCITL problems with NNCR and NCR cases respectively, depending on the argument of CCITL characteristic impedances. The range of plotting of the standard T-chart and the extended T-chart is always inside or on the unit circle, and always outside or on the unit circle of the voltage reflection coefficient plane, respectively. Two examples of finite periodic TL structures providing both NNCR and NCR cases are given. It is found that both T-charts provide the same input impedance of the corresponding CCITLs as expected, and the standard T-chart is more familiar and easier to deal with.
Induction of resistance to Penicillium digitatum in tangerine fruit cv. Sai Num Phung flavedo by hot water treatment
Sirisopha Inkha,Danai Boonyakiat
Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: The effects of hot water treatment (HWT) were investigated for enhancing host resistance to green mold rot causedby Penicillium digitatum. Tangerine fruits cv. Sai Num Phung were dipped in hot water at 50±2°C for 3 minutes and 55±2°Cfor 2 and 3 minutes after inoculation with P. digitatum and then stored at 4±2C with 90±5% relative humidity for 30 days. Theresults showed that the HWT remarkably delayed the onset of disease infection, reduced the number of infected fruits andlowered the severity of infection (lesion diameter). The chitinase and -1,3-glucanase activities in flavedo tissues of treatedfruits increased after storage for 15 days, but activity of peroxidase increased after storage for 25 days, compared with untreatedand uninoculated fruits. The protein patterns of tangerine fruit peels treated with HWT appeared to have 112.20 and100.00 kDa proteins only on the fifth day of storage which indicated that HWT led to heat stress circumstances in the fruitpeel tissue and induced biochemical changes. The protein patterns of HWT treated fruit at 22.39 kDa exhibited thicker bandcompared to untreated and uninoculated fruit peels. The findings indicated that HWT reduced disease incidence partly byinducing defence mechanism in the fruit peel tissue.
Glitch recoveries in radio-pulsars and magnetars
Brynmor Haskell,Danai Antonopoulou
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/mnrasl/slt146
Abstract: Pulsar glitches are sudden increases in the spin frequency of an otherwise steadily spinning down neutron star. These events are thought to represent a direct probe of the dynamics of the superfluid interior of the star. However glitches can differ significantly from one another, not only in size and frequency, but also in the post-glitch response of the star. Some appear as simple steps in frequency, while others also display an increase in spin-down rate after the glitch. Others still show several exponentially relaxing components in the post-glitch recovery. We show that if glitches are indeed due to large scale unpinning of superfluid vortices, the different regions in which this occurs and respective timescales on which they recouple can lead to the various observed signatures. Furthermore we show that this framework naturally accounts for the peculiar relaxations of glitches in Anomalous X-ray Pulsars.
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