Abstract:
Awfully idiosyncratic lecture notes from CMI summer school in arithmetic geometry July 31-August 4, 2006. Does not include: rationality problems, techniques of the minimal model problem and much of the rest. Includes: Lecture 0: geometry and arithmetic of curves Lecture 1: Kodaira dimension and properties, rational connectendess, Lang's and Campana's conjectures. Lecture 2: Campana's program; Campana constellations framed in terms of b-divisors, to allow for a definition of Kodaira dimension directly on the base. A speculative notion of firmaments which may deserve further investigation, especially the arithmetic side. Lecture 3: the minimal model program: very short discussion of bend-and-break; even shorter discussion of finite generation and the existence of flip. Lecture 4: Vojta's conjectures, Campana's conjectures, and ABC.

Abstract:
This is mostly* a non-technical exposition of the joint work arXiv:1212.0373 with Caporaso and Payne. Topics include: Moduli of Riemann surfaces / algebraic curves; Deligne-Mumford compactification; Dual graphs and the combinatorics of the compactification; Tropical curves and their moduli; Non-archimedean geometry and comparison. * Maybe the last section is technical.

Abstract:
A common practice in arithmetic geometry is that of generalizing rational points on projective varieties to integral points on quasi-projective varieties. Following this practice, we demonstrate an analogue of a result of L. Caporaso, J. Harris and B. Mazur, showing that the Lang - Vojta conjecture implies a uniform bound on the number of stably integral points on an elliptic curve over a number field, as well as the uniform boundedness conjecture (Merel's theorem).

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We prove the following theorem: Fibered Power Theorem: Let $X\rar B$ be a smooth family of positive dimensional varieties of general type, with $B$ irreducible. Then there exists an integer $n>0$, a positive dimensional variety of general type $W_n$, and a dominant rational map $X^n_B \das W_n$.

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The result in the title is proven, using the Selberg estimate on the leading eigenvalue of the non-Euclidean Laplacian, and the method of conformal volumes of Li and Yau.

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A cheap method for constructing canonical models and complete moduli for complex projective varieties with a structure called "rational plurifibration" is given. A result about semistable reduction (whose nature is slightly different from alg-geom/9707012) is deduced. The method involves recursive application of moduli stacks of twisted stable maps (math.AG/9908167) and a systematic circumvention of any difficult MMP issues.

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These are lecture notes of a C.I.M.E. course I gave at Cetraro, June 6-11 2005. The theory described is the version of Chen-Ruan's Gromov-Witten theory of orbifolds developed by Graber, Vistoli and me in the algebraic setting, but with introduction beginning in Kontsevich's formula on rational plane curves and through Gromov-Witten theory of algebraic manifolds. As this is not a joint paper, I finally get to give direct credit to Vistoli's beautiful ideas! In the appendix, I include, with permissions, two relevant letters Kontsevich wrote to Borisov in July 1996. People who study motivic integration might want to read and understand something they have found confounding.

Abstract:
We refine a result of L. Caporaso, J. Harris and B. Mazur, and prove: Supposons que la conjecture de Lang soit vraie. Soit $K$ un corps des nombres et $g>1$ un entier. Il existe un nombre $N(K,g)$ tel que si $L$ est une extension de degr\'e $\leq 3$ de $K$ et $C$ est une courbe lisse projective conn\`exe, de genre $g$ d\'efinie sur $L$ on a $$\# C(L) < N(K,g). $$

Abstract:
The purpose of this note is to wish a happy birthday to Professor Lucia Caporaso.* We prove that Conjecture H of Caporaso et. al. ([CHarM], sec. 6) together with Lang's conjecture implies the uniformity of rational points on varieties of general type, as predicted in [CHarM]; a few applications in arithmetic and geometry are stated. Let X be a variety of general type defined over a number field K. It was conjectured by S. Lang that the set of rational points X(K) is not Zariski dense in X. In the paper [CHarM] of L. Caporaso, J. Harris and B. Mazur it is shown that the above conjecture of Lang implies the existence of a uniform bound on the number of K-rational points of all curves of fixed genus g over K. The paper [CHarM] has immediately created a chasm among arithmetic geometers. This chasm, which often runs right in the middle of the personalities involved, divides between loyal believers of Lang's conjecture, who marvel in this powerful implication, and the disbelievers, who try (so far in vain) to use this implication to derive counterexamples to the conjecture. In this paper we will attempt to deepen this chasm, using the techniques of [CHarM] and continuing [aleph], by proving more implications, some of which very strong, of various conjectures of Lang. Along the way we will often use a conjecture donned by Caporaso et. al. Conjecture H (see again [CHarM], sec. 6) about Higher dimensional varieties, which is regarded very plausible among experts of higher dimensional algebraic geometry. In particular, we will show

Abstract:
The Lang map, namely the universal dominant rational map to a variety of general type, is constructed and briefly discussed in relation with arithmetic conjectures of Harris, Lang and Manin. Existence of the Lang map follows from the additivity of Kodaira dimension, but the fine structure depends on conjectures on birational classification of algebraic varieties. Serious applications of the Lang map are still being searched.