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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 324 matches for " Damiano Fiorillo "
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Structural social capital and health in Italy
Damiano Fiorillo,Fabio Sabatini
Quantitative Finance , 2014,
Abstract: This paper presents the first empirical assessment of the causal relationship between social capital and health in Italy. The analysis draws on the 2000 wave of the Multipurpose Survey on Household conducted by the Italian Institute of Statistics on a representative sample of the population (n = 46,868). Our measure of social capital is the frequency of meetings with friends. Based on IV and bivariate probit estimates, we find that individuals who meet friends every day or at least two times a week are approximately 11% to 16% more likely to report good health.
Claro Enigma:o discurso da Obscuridade
Marilia Fiorillo
Galáxia , 2012,
Abstract: Contrariando o molde clssico, o intenso poder comunicativo da primeira retrica crist repousa no paradoxo, no exagero e na ambivalncia. A retrica crist nasceu no da simplicidade dos lrios dos campos, mas de uma exortao ao assombro e ao enigma como pathos das boas-novas. Neste ensaio, analisamos em mincia esta caracterstica, numa passagem (perikope) do mais antigo evangelho de que se tem conhecimento, o Evangelho de Tom.
Apontamentos sobre o Enigma Gnóstico
Marilia Fiorillo
REVER : Revista de Estudos da Religi?o , 2008,
Abstract: Since the publication of The Nag Hammadi Library (NHL) in the late 1970s, there has been an increased interest in academic studies on Gnosticism, especially the Christian variant. This article, based on the theoretical approaches of Hans Jonas and E. R. Dodds, addresses the Gnostic vision of Creation, as well as the unique and exaggerated rhetoric to which the Gnostic imagination must resort in order to shape its excessive syncretism.
Towards a General Theory of Neural Computation Based on Prediction by Single Neurons
Christopher D. Fiorillo
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003298
Abstract: Although there has been tremendous progress in understanding the mechanics of the nervous system, there has not been a general theory of its computational function. Here I present a theory that relates the established biophysical properties of single generic neurons to principles of Bayesian probability theory, reinforcement learning and efficient coding. I suggest that this theory addresses the general computational problem facing the nervous system. Each neuron is proposed to mirror the function of the whole system in learning to predict aspects of the world related to future reward. According to the model, a typical neuron receives current information about the state of the world from a subset of its excitatory synaptic inputs, and prior information from its other inputs. Prior information would be contributed by synaptic inputs representing distinct regions of space, and by different types of non-synaptic, voltage-regulated channels representing distinct periods of the past. The neuron's membrane voltage is proposed to signal the difference between current and prior information (“prediction error” or “surprise”). A neuron would apply a Hebbian plasticity rule to select those excitatory inputs that are the most closely correlated with reward but are the least predictable, since unpredictable inputs provide the neuron with the most “new” information about future reward. To minimize the error in its predictions and to respond only when excitation is “new and surprising,” the neuron selects amongst its prior information sources through an anti-Hebbian rule. The unique inputs of a mature neuron would therefore result from learning about spatial and temporal patterns in its local environment, and by extension, the external world. Thus the theory describes how the structure of the mature nervous system could reflect the structure of the external world, and how the complexity and intelligence of the system might develop from a population of undifferentiated neurons, each implementing similar learning algorithms.
Beyond Bayes: On the Need for a Unified and Jaynesian Definition of Probability and Information within Neuroscience
Christopher D. Fiorillo
Information , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/info3020175
Abstract: It has been proposed that the general function of the brain is inference, which corresponds quantitatively to the minimization of uncertainty (or the maximization of information). However, there has been a lack of clarity about exactly what this means. Efforts to quantify information have been in agreement that it depends on probabilities (through Shannon entropy), but there has long been a dispute about the definition of probabilities themselves. The “frequentist” view is that probabilities are (or can be) essentially equivalent to frequencies, and that they are therefore properties of a physical system, independent of any observer of the system. E.T. Jaynes developed the alternate “Bayesian” definition, in which probabilities are always conditional on a state of knowledge through the rules of logic, as expressed in the maximum entropy principle. In doing so, Jaynes and others provided the objective means for deriving probabilities, as well as a unified account of information and logic (knowledge and reason). However, neuroscience literature virtually never specifies any definition of probability, nor does it acknowledge any dispute concerning the definition. Although there has recently been tremendous interest in Bayesian approaches to the brain, even in the Bayesian literature it is common to find probabilities that are purported to come directly and unconditionally from frequencies. As a result, scientists have mistakenly attributed their own information to the neural systems they study. Here I argue that the adoption of a strictly Jaynesian approach will prevent such errors and will provide us with the philosophical and mathematical framework that is needed to understand the general function of the brain. Accordingly, our challenge becomes the identification of the biophysical basis of Jaynesian information and logic. I begin to address this issue by suggesting how we might identify a probability distribution over states of one physical system (an “object”) conditional only on the biophysical state of another physical system (an “observer”). The primary purpose in doing so is not to characterize information and inference in exquisite, quantitative detail, but to be as clear and precise as possible about what it means to perform inference and how the biophysics of the brain could achieve this goal.
Mulheres que foram reis
Marilia Pacheco Fiorillo
Pro-Posi??es , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/s0103-73072008000100009
Abstract:
Weighted power counting, neutrino masses and Lorentz violating extensions of the Standard Model
Anselmi, Damiano
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2008, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.79.025017
Abstract: We study the Standard-Model extensions that have the following features: they violate Lorentz invariance explicitly at high energies; they are unitary, local, polynomial and renormalizable by weighted power counting; they contain the vertex (LH)^2, which gives Majorana masses to the neutrinos after symmetry breaking, and possibly four fermion interactions; they do not contain right-handed neutrinos, nor other extra fields. We study the simplest CPT invariant Standard-Model extension of this type in detail and prove the cancellation of gauge anomalies. We investigate the low-energy recovery of Lorentz invariance and comment on other types of extensions.
Ense ando a investigar: Gino Germani y la sociología científica
Franco Damiano
Trabajo y sociedad , 2009,
Abstract:
Les missions pédagogiques fran aises en Allemagne : un exemple de circulation transfrontière des modèles scolaires (1860-1914)
Damiano Matasci
Trajectoires , 2009,
Abstract: Cet article étudie les missions pédagogiques fran aises en Allemagne entre 1860 et 1914 et plus particulièrement les chargés de mission qui alimentent la circulation des idées et des modèles scolaires. Le but est d’examiner la construction du modèle scolaire allemand et son emprise sur les réformes scolaires fran aises de la fin du XIXe siècle. La contribution pose le problème central de l’usage de la référence allemande lors des processus de réforme, ce qui renvoie à la question plus globale de l’internationalisation du discours pédagogique au XIXe siècle et à son importance dans la construction des systèmes scolaires modernes. Dieser Artikel untersucht die p dagogischen Missionen der Franzosen in Deutschland zwischen 1860 und 1914 und interessiert sich insbesondere für die chargés de mission, die zur Zirkulation der schulischen Ideen und Modelle beitragen. Ziel ist, die Entstehung eines deutschen Modells“ hervorzuheben und dessen Rolle in der Formgebung der franz sischen Schulreformen einzusch tzen. Dies verweist auf das allgemeinere Problem der Internationalisierung des p dagogischen Diskurses des 19. Jahrhunderts und auf die Bedeutung dieses Diskurses in der Ausformung der modernen Schulsysteme.
Collection, warehousing and dissemination of specimen information: an added value for theriological collections
Damiano Preatoni
Hystrix : the Italian Journal of Mammalogy , 2008, DOI: 10.4404/hystrix-18.2-4402
Abstract: Recent achievements in the technologies for information management and sharing would allow to make more available and exploitable the wealth of data represented by theriological museum collections. Anyway, the scarce diffusion of Information Technology knowledge in the theriological field hinders the transition towards digital cataloguing of collections, often leading to the creation of data bases unable to last through time and without coherent information management policies. The aim of this contribute is to present a concise review of the existing practices and technologies used to design and implement information systems, in order to promote the increasing application of such technologies in the theriological and, in general, in the natural resource conservation field. Riassunto Raccolta e condivisione delle informazioni sui reperti: un valore aggiunto per le collezioni teriologiche. I recenti sviluppi delle tecnologie per la gestione e la condivisione delle informazioni rendono oggi possibile una maggiore fruibilità e disponibilità del patrimonio costituito dalle collezioni teriologiche. Tuttavia, la scarsa diffusione nel contesto teriologico e museologico delle conoscenze nel campo dell’Information Technology rende difficoltosa la transizione verso la catalogazione in formato digitale, portando spesso alla creazione di banche dati che non garantiscono una ragionevole durata nel tempo né la necessaria coerenza nell’organizzazione delle complesse informazioni concernenti il catalogo di una collezione. Il presente contributo offre una concisa rassegna dei principi di base e delle pratiche più comuni nello sviluppo di sistemi informativi, con l’obiettivo di favorire una loro sempre maggiore applicazione nel campo della teriologia e della conservazione delle risorse naturali in generale.
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