Abstract:
We theoretically propose a method to identify $\pm s$-wave order parameter in recently discovered Fe-pnictide superconductors. Our idea uses the Riedel anomaly in ac-Josephson current through an SI($\pm$ S) (single-band s-wave superconductor/insulator/$\pm$s-wave two-band superconductor) junction. We show that the Riedel peak effect leads to vanishing ac-Josephson current at some values of biased voltage. This phenomenon does not occur in the case when the $\pm s$-wave superconductor is replaced by a conventional s-wave one, so that the observation of this vanishing Josephson current would be a clear signature of $\pm s$-wave pairing state in Fe-pnictide superconductors.

Abstract:
We investigate superfluid properties of a one-component Fermi gas with a uniaxially anisotropic $p$-wave pairing interaction, $U_x>U_y=U_z$ (where $U_i$ ($i=x,y,z)$ is a $p_i$-wave pairing interaction). This type of interaction is considered to be realized in a $^{40}$K Fermi gas. Including pairing fluctuations within a strong-coupling $T$-matrix theory, we determine the $p_x$-wave superfluid phase transition temperature $T^{p_x}_{\rm c}$, as well as the other phase transition temperature $T_{\rm c}^{p_x+ip_y}$ ($

Abstract:
We investigate the center-of-mass momentum distribution $n_{\boldsymbol Q}$ of Cooper pairs and their first-order correlation function $g_1(r)$ in a strongly interacting two-dimensional Fermi gas. Recently, the BKT (Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless) transition was reported in a two-dimensional $^6$Li Fermi gas, based on (1) the observations of anomalous enhancement of $n_{{\boldsymbol Q}={\boldsymbol 0}}$ [M. G. Ries, et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 230401 (2015)], as well as (2) a power-law behavior of $g_1(r)$ [P. A. Murthy, et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 010401 (2015)]. However, including pairing fluctuations within a $T$-matrix approximation (TMA), we show that these results can still be explained as strong-coupling properties of a normal-state two-dimensional Fermi gas. Our results indicate the importance of further experimental observations, to definitely confirm the realization of the BKT transition in this system. Since the BKT transition has been realized in a two-dimensional ultracold Bose gas, our results would be useful for the achievement of this quasi-long range order in an ultracold Fermi gas.

Abstract:
We investigate superfluid properties and strong-coupling effects in a one-component Fermi gas with an anisotropic p-wave interaction. Within the framework of the Gaussian fluctuation theory, we determine the superfluid transition temperature $T_{\rm c}$, as well as the temperature $T_0$ at which the phase transition from the $p_x$-wave pairing state to the $p_x+ip_y$-wave state occurs below $T_{\rm c}$. We also show that while the anisotropy of the p-wave interaction enhances $T_{\rm c}$ in the strong-coupling regime, it suppresses $T_0$.

Abstract:
We present a superfluid theory of a polarized dipolar Fermi gas. For two dipolar molecules each of which consists of two atoms with positive charge and negative charge, we derive an effective dipole-dipole pairing interaction. Using this pairing interaction, we show that the resulting BCS gap equation is not suffered from the well-known ultraviolet divergence, so that one can quantitatively predict superfluid properties of a dipolar Fermi gas. Using this cutoff-free superfluid theory, we examine the symmetry of the superfluid order parameter at T=0. We also discuss the deformation of the Fermi surface, originating from the anisotropy of the dipole-dipole interaction.

Abstract:
We investigate single-particle properties of a mass-imbalanced Fermi gas in the BCS (Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer)-BEC (Bose-Einstein condensation) crossover region. In the presence of mass imbalance, we point out that the ordinary $T$-matrix approximation, which has been extensively used to clarify various BCS-BEC crossover physics in the mass-balanced case, unphysically gives a double-valued solution in terms of the superfluid phase transition temperature $T_{\rm c}$ in the crossover region. To overcome this serious problem, we include higher order strong-coupling corrections beyond the $T$-matrix level. Using this extended $T$-matrix theory, we calculate single-particle excitations in the normal state above $T_{\rm c}$. The so-called pseudogap phenomena originating from pairing fluctuations are shown to be different between the light mass component and heavy mass component, which becomes more remarkable at higher temperatures. Since Fermi condensates with hetero-Cooper pairs have recently been discussed in various fields, such as exciton (polariton) condensates, as well as color superconductivity, our results would be useful for the further development of Fermi superfluid physics, beyond the conventional superfluid state with homo-Cooper pairs.

Abstract:
We investigate the possibility that the broken spatial inversion symmetry by a trap potential induces a spin-triplet Cooper-pair amplitude in an $s$-wave superfluid Fermi gas. Being based on symmetry considerations, we clarify that this phenomenon may occur, when a spin rotation symmetry of the system is also broken. We also numerically confirm that a triplet pair amplitude is really induced under this condition, using a simple model. Our results imply that this phenomenon is already present in a trapped $s$-wave superfluid Fermi gas with spin imbalance. As an interesting application of this phenomenon, we point out that one may produce a $p$-wave superfluid Fermi gas, by suddenly changing the $s$-wave pairing interaction to a $p$-wave one by using the Feshbach resonance technique. Since a Cooper pair is usually classified into the spin-singlet (and even-parity) state and the spin-triplet (and odd-parity) state, our results would be useful in considering how to mix them with each other in a superfluid Fermi gas. Such admixture has recently attracted much attention in the field of non-centrosymmetric superconductivity, so that our results would also contribute to the further development of this research field, on the viewpoint of cold Fermi gas physics.

Abstract:
We investigate the superfluid phase transition and effects of mass imbalance in the BCS (Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer)-BEC (Bose-Einstein condensation) crossover regime of an cold Fermi gas. We point out that the Gaussian fluctuation theory developed by Nozi\`eres and Schmitt-Rink and the $T$-matrix theory, that are now widely used to study strong-coupling physics of cold Fermi gases, give unphysical results in the presence of mass imbalance. To overcome this problem, we extend the $T$-matrix theory to include higher-order pairing fluctuations. Using this, we examine how the mass imbalance affects the superfluid phase transition. Since the mass imbalance is an important key in various Fermi superfluids, such as $^{40}$K-$^6$Li Fermi gas mixture, exciton condensate, and color superconductivity in a dense quark matter, our results would be useful for the study of these recently developing superfluid systems.

Abstract:
An extension of the Ambegaokar-Baratoff relation to a superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) Josephson junction with multiple tunneling channels is derived. Appling the resultant relation to a SIS Josephson junction formed by an iron-based (five-band) and a single-band Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) type superconductors, a theoretical bound of the Josephson critical current ($I_{\rm c}$) multiplied by the resistance of the junction ($R_{\rm n}$) is given. We reveal that such a bound is useful for identifying the pairing symmetry of iron-pnictide superconductors. One finds that if a measured value of $I_{\rm c}R_{\rm n}$ is smaller than the bound then the symmetry is $\pm s$-wave, and otherwise $s$-wave without any sign changes. In addition, we stress that temperature dependence of $I_{\rm c}R_{\rm n}$ is sensitive to the difference of the gap functions from the BCS type gap formula in the above heterojunction.

Abstract:
Increase of irregular workers called working-poor is
a problem. This unstable employment makes the poor more poverty. The
possibility that a simple work is deprived by the development of artificial
intelligence is increasing. From this background, restructuring of social
structure and policies become important. In Japan, as the declining birthrate
and aging population progresses, there is concern that more people need medical
care and nursing care services, so increasing social security expenses is also
a problem.