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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3136 matches for " Daisuke Aoki "
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Gynecological tumors in patients with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS)  [PDF]
Arisa Ueki, Iori Kisu, Kouji Banno, Megumi Yanokura, Kennta Masuda, Yusuke Kobayashi, Akira Hirasawa, Daisuke Aoki
Open Journal of Genetics (OJGen) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojgen.2011.13012
Abstract: Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the development of hamartomatous polyposis in the gastrointestinal tract and melanin-pigmented macules on the skin mucosa. The responsible gene is a tumor suppressor, STK11/LKB1, on chromosome 19p13.3. PJS complicates with benign and malignant tumors in various organs. In gynecology, there has been a particular focus on complications of PJS with sex cord tumor with annular tubules (SCTAT) and minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA), which are rare diseases. Approximately 36% of patients with SCTAT are complicated with PJS and these patients are characterized by multifocal, bilateral, small and benign lesions that develop into tumors with mucinous to serous ratios of 8:1. In addition, 10% of cases of MDA are complicated with PJS and mutation of STK11, the gene responsible for PJS, has a major effect on onset and prognosis. The disease concept of lobular endocervical glandular hyper-plasia (LEGH) has recently been proposed and LEGH is thought to be a potential premalignant lesion of MDA, however, the relationship between PJS and LEGH remains unclear. Several case reports of PJS patients complicated with gynecological tumors have been published and further studies are needed to determine the underlying causes
Automated Dynamic Cellular Analysis in Time-Lapse Microscopy  [PDF]
Shuntaro Aotake, Chamidu Atupelage, Zicong Zhang, Kota Aoki, Hiroshi Nagahashi, Daisuke Kiga
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2016.43008

Analysis of cellular behavior is significant for studying cell cycle and detecting anti-cancer drugs. It is a very difficult task for image processing to isolate individual cells in confocal microscopic images of non-stained live cell cultures. Because these images do not have adequate textural variations. Manual cell segmentation requires massive labor and is a time consuming process. This paper describes an automated cell segmentation method for localizing the cells of Chinese hamster ovary cell culture. Several kinds of high-dimensional feature descriptors, K-means clustering method and Chan-Vese model-based level set are used to extract the cellular regions. The region extracted are used to classify phases in cell cycle. The segmentation results were experimentally assessed. As a result, the proposed method proved to be significant for cell isolation. In the evaluation experiments, we constructed a database of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell’s microscopic images which includes various photographing environments under the guidance of a biologist.

Oncofertility in Gynecologic Malignant Tumors  [PDF]
Masataka Adachi, Kouji Banno, Iori Kisu, Megumi Yanokura, Moito Iijima, Takashi Takeda, Kiyoko Umene, Yuya Nogami, Eiichiro Tominaga, Daisuke Aoki
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2015.614128
Abstract: Long-term survival is the priority in treatment of patients with malignant tumors. In the field of gynecology, fertility preservation has also recently become an important objective due to improved treatment outcomes and different needs of patients. Methods for fertility preservation include cervical conization, ovarian protection against radiation or chemotherapy for ovarian cancer since the ovary is hypersensitive to cancer therapies, treatment of gynecological cancer during pregnancy, and cryopreservation of oocytes, embryos or ovarian tissue before treatment of malignant tumors. Radical trachelectomy for early cervical cancer and treatment with medroxy progesterone acetate for early endometrial carcinoma are also options for fertility preservation, but the efficacy and risk of recurrence have yet to be fully evaluated. The first childbirth following uterine transplantation was also achieved last year and this success has expanded the potential for pregnancy and delivery among cancer survivors.
Time and space variations of the O2/N2 ratio in the troposphere over Japan and estimation of the global CO2 budget for the period 2000–2010
Shigeyuki Ishidoya,Shuji Aoki,Daisuke Goto,Takakiyo Nakazawa
Tellus B , 2012, DOI: 10.3402/tellusb.v64i0.18964
Abstract: Systematic measurements of the atmospheric O2/N2 ratio have been made using aircraft and ground-based stations in Japan since 1999. The observed seasonal cycles of the O2/N2 ratio and atmospheric potential oxygen (APO) vary almost in opposite phase to that of the CO2 concentration at all altitudes, and their amplitudes and phases are generally reduced and delayed, respectively, with increasing altitude. Simulations of APO using two atmospheric transport models reproduce general features of the observed seasonal cycle, but both models fail to reproduce the phase at an altitude ranging from 8 km to the tropopause. By analysing the observed secular trends of APO and CO2 concentration, and assuming a global net oceanic O2 outgassing of 0.2±0.5 GtC yr 1, we estimate global average terrestrial biospheric and oceanic CO2 uptake for the period 2000–2010 to be 1.0±0.8 and 2.5±0.7 GtC yr 1, respectively.
Weak solution of the non-perturbative renormalization group equation to describe the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking
Ken-Ichi Aoki,Shin-Ichiro Kumamoto,Daisuke Sato
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: We analyze the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (D$\chi$SB) in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model by using the non-perturbative renormalization group (NPRG) equation. The equation takes a form of two-dimensional partial differential equation for the multi-fermion effective interactions $V(x,t)$ where $x$ is $\bar\psi\psi$ operator and $t$ is the logarithm of the renormalization scale. The D$\chi$SB occurs due to the quantum corrections, which means it emerges at some finite $t_{\rm c}$ in the mid of integrating the equation with respect to $t$. At $t_{\rm c}$ some singularities suddenly appear in $V$ which is compulsory in the spontaneous symmetry breakdown. Therefore there is no solution of the equation beyond $t_{\rm c}$. We newly introduce the notion of weak solution to get the global solution including the infrared limit $t\rightarrow \infty$ and investigate its properties. The obtained weak solution is global and unique, and it perfectly describes the physically correct vacuum even in case of the first order phase transition appearing in finite density medium. The key logic of deduction is that the weak solution we defined automatically convexifies the effective potential when treating the singularities.
Exotic Heavy-Fermion State in Filled Skutterudite SmOs4Sb12
Shotaro Sanada,Yuji Aoki,Hidekazu Aoki,Akihisa Tsuchiya,Daisuke Kikuchi,Hitoshi Sugawara,Hideyuki Sato
Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1143/JPSJ.74.246
Abstract: Specific heat and transport measurements have revealed an unconventional heavy-fermion (HF) state in SmOs4Sb12 single crystals. The electronic specific-heat coefficient (gamma=0.82 J/K^2mol) and the coefficient (A) of the quadratic temperature dependence of electrical resistivity are largely enhanced, although the ratio A/gamma^2 is reduced from the Kadowaki-Woods ratio of HF materials. Both gamma and A do not show any significant decrease in applied field in contrast with Ce-based HF compounds, suggesting an unconventional origin of the heavy quasiparticles. A weak ferromagnetic ordering sets in below about 3 K, probably originating in the itinerant quasiparticles.
Epigenetic Aberrant Hypermethylation of DNA in Endometrial Cancer: Application as a Biomarker  [PDF]
Asuka Ono, Iori Kisu, Kouji Banno, Megumi Yanokura, Kenta Masuda, Yusuke Kobayashi, Kosuke Tsuji, Arisa Ueki, Wataru Yamagami, Hiroyuki Nomura, Nobuyuki Susumu, Daisuke Aoki
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2011.25082
Abstract: Endometrial cancer is the seventh most common cancer worldwide among females and accounts for about 40% of cancers of the uterus in Japan. An increase in incidence and a reduction in onset age of this disease are also likely, which makes it important to define the pathogenesis and develop effective treatment. However, the mechanism of canceration in the endometrium is unclear and development of endometrial cancer cannot be explained only by mutations of cancer-related genes. In contrast, epigenetic analyses have shown the importance of aberrant DNA hypermethylation in the canceration mechanism. In development of type 1 endometrial cancer, breakdown of the DNA mismatch repair system plays a large role, with changes in the human mutL homologue 1 (hMLH1) gene being of most importance. Studies to detect aberrant DNA hypermethylation of cancer cells present in microscopic amounts in vivo and to apply these data to diagnosis of cancer have been started. Epigenetic changes have also been examined as a marker of sensitivity to anticancer drugs. Aberrant hypermethylation of checkpoint with forkhead-associated and ring finger (CHFR), a mitotic phase checkpoint gene, is correlated with sensitivity to treatment with microtubule inhibitors and may be a marker for the response of endometrial cancer to anticancer drugs. Epigenetic aberrant DNA methylation of other genes may also be useful as clinical biomarkers for diagnosis and treatment of endometrial cancer.
Atypical Polypoid Adenomyoma (APAM) of the Uterine: Relationship with Endometrial Cancer  [PDF]
Iori Kisu, Kouji Banno, Megumi Yanokura, Yusuke Kobayashi, Arisa Ueki, Asuka Ono, Kennta Masuda, Wataru Yamagami, Hiroyuki Nomura, Akira Hirasawa, Nobuyuki Susumu, Daisuke Aoki
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2011.24061
Abstract: Atypical polypoid adenomyoma (APAM) is a rare polypoid tumor that generally occurs in women of reproductive age who have abnormal genital bleeding. The tumor was reported as a new disease concept by Mazur in 1981. Pathologically, APAM consist of irregularly proliferated endometrial gland cells and interlacing bundles of smooth muscle cells within the stroma, and have a similar form to adenocarcinoma, adenofibroma, adenosarcoma, and carcinosarcoma. Therefore, differential diagnosis is required in many cases. APAM is pathologically classified as a benign lesion and clinically has a comparatively favorable outcome. However, treatment and follow-up observation should be performed carefully because recurrence and residual lesions occur in many patients after conservative treatment. Concomitant development of endometrial adenocarcinoma also occurs in many cases and it is difficult to differentiate this disease from APAM. Thus, diagnosis of APAM should be made carefully, particularly since the number of cases of endometrial adenocarcinoma has increased in recent years. Furthermore, APAM tends to develop during a woman’s reproductive years, and fertility sparing treatment should be considered. Here, we review the clinicopathological characteristics of APAM, including the difficulty of diagnosis as a benign or malignant uterine tumor, and we examine the relationship between APAM and endometrial cancer.
Metformin: A possible drug for treatment of endometrial cancer  [PDF]
Kosuke Tsuji, Iori Kisu, Kouji Banno, Megumi Yanokura, Arisa Ueki, Yusuke Kobayashi, Wataru Yamagami, Hiroyuki Nomura, Nobuyuki Susumu, Daisuke Aoki, Kenta Masuda
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2012.21001
Abstract: Metformin is a widely used first-line drug for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In recent years, it has been reported that administration of metformin can reduce carcinogenic risk and inhibit proliferation of cancer cells including those from glioma and breast cancer. The underlying mechanism is thought to involve increased LKB-1 phosphorylation induced by metformin, followed by LKB-1 phosphorylation and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which then inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and results in inhibition of cell proliferation. In endometrial cancer, metformin causes cell cycle arrest in vitro, reduces hTERT mRNA, inhibits the mTOR pathway via AMPK, and is involved in inhibition of phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein (S6RP). Metformin promotes expression of progesterone receptor by an action opposite to that of insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2) when used in combination with medroxyprogesterone acetate. This enhances the antitumor effect and this approach may be applicable in a clinical setting.
Factors Associated with Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome under CPAP Treatment  [PDF]
Wataru Yamadera, Shintaro Chiba, Masayuki Iwashita, Ryo Aoki, Daisuke Harada, Miki Sato, Hiroto Moriwaki, Keita Obuchi, Motohiro Ozone, Seiji Nishino, Hiroshi Itoh, Kazuhiko Nakayama
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2012.33039
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to assess factors associated with subjective sleep evaluation, chiefly excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) adult outpatients under continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment. One thousand and forty-eight OSAS outpatients (mean age: 51.4% male: 90.5%) who were treated by CPAP were consecutively collected. Age, sex, CPAP compliance (CPAP usage as their device of nights with application-time of at least 4 hours per night objectively; %usage ≥ 4 h/d), and Japanese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI-J) of the patients showing EDS (Japanese version of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale; JESS ≥ 11) were compared cross-sectionally with those of the patients who did not show EDS (JESS < 11). Nineteen point two % of all patients showed EDS subjectively. Two hundred one patients were classified to an EDS(+) group and an 847 patients were classified to EDS(–) group. Age and global PSQI-J scores were significantly different between the two groups. Logistic regression showed that EDS was significantly associated with global PSQI-J scores, but not with age. Among PSQI-J components, overall sleep quality, duration of sleep, sleep disturbance, and day dysfunction due to sleepiness were significantly higher in the EDS(+) group. Especially, 19.4% of patient in the EDS(+) group reported actual sleep time during the past month to be less than 5 hours/day. Although functional relationship should be further evaluated, insufficient sleep is the main factor associated with EDS in the OSAS patients under CPAP treatment.
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