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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 8401 matches for " Dai Mizuno "
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The Molecular Mechanisms of Zinc Neurotoxicity and the Pathogenesis of Vascular Type Senile Dementia
Dai Mizuno,Masahiro Kawahara
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijms141122067
Abstract: Zinc (Zn) is an essential trace element that is abundantly present in the brain. Despite its importance in normal brain functions, excess Zn is neurotoxic and causes neurodegeneration following transient global ischemia and plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of vascular-type dementia (VD). We have investigated the molecular mechanisms of Zn-induced neurotoxicity using immortalized hypothalamic neurons (GT1-7 cells) and found that carnosine (β-alanyl histidine) and histidine (His) inhibited Zn 2+-induced neuronal death. A DNA microarray analysis revealed that the expression of several genes, including metal-related genes (metallothionein and Zn transporter 1), endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress related genes ( GADD34, GADD45, and p8), and the calcium (Ca)-related gene Arc (activity-related cytoskeleton protein), were affected after Zn exposure. The co-existence of carnosine or His inhibited the expression of GADD34, p8, and Arc, although they did not influence the expression of the metal-related genes. Therefore, ER-stress and the disruption of Ca homeostasis may underlie the mechanisms of Zn-induced neurotoxicity, and carnosine might be a possible drug candidate for the treatment of VD.
Heterogeneity and Colonial Governance  [PDF]
Nobuhiro Mizuno
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2015.52032
Abstract: Some existing studies argue that indirect colonial rule adversely affects postcolonial development. To analyze the situation under which a colonial power adopts indirect rule to govern a colony, we analyze a delegation model wherein the colonial power decides whether to delegate policy choice to an agent who has an information advantage but has different policy preferences from that of the colonial power. The colonial power decides whether to delegate policy choice in multiple districts, and can acquire information by paying a cost in each district. We show that colonial powers are prone to adopt indirect rule when the heterogeneity among districts is high. The results are a possible explanation for why colonial powers utilized indirect rule in Africa, a region with high levels of ethnic diversity.
Up-Regulation of Local TGF-β Contributes to a Decrease in Renal Tubular Na+-K+ ATPase and Hyperkalemia in a Mouse Model of Crush Syndrome  [PDF]
Shinya Mizuno, Yoko Mizuno-Horikawa
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2016.712054
Abstract: Hyperkalemia is one of the most important risk factors in patients suffering from crush syndrome with rhabdomyolysis. Glycerol-injected animals have been used as an experimental model of rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI), but little information is available for the onset and molecular mechanism of hyperkalemia. In our murine model, plasma potassium levels increased after a single injection of 50%-glycerol solution (10 ml/kg, i.m.) during the progression of muscular and renal injuries. Renal tubular Na+-K+-ATPase functions as ion-exchange pomp for potassium clearance from blood into renal tubular epithelial cells. Renal histochemistry revealed an apparent decrease in the tubular Na+-K+-ATPase expression, especially at 24 hours post-glycerol challenge in our AKI model. In contrast to the loss in active Na+-K+-ATPase, there was a significant increase in the renal levels of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) that is known to suppress Na+-K+-ATPase production in vitro. When anti-TGF-β antibody was administered in mice after the glycerol challenge, the suppression of renal Na+-K+-ATPase activity was partially restored. As a result, hyperkalemia was improved in the TGF-β-neutralized AKI mice, associated with a significant decrease in plasma potassium concentration. Taken together, we predict that endogenous TGF-β is a key regulator for inhibiting Na+-K+-ATPase production and, in part, enhancing hyperkalemia during progression of rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI. This is, to our knowledge, the first report to determine a critical role of endogenous TGF-β in renal potassium metabolism during crush syndrome.
Strategic Reason for Employing Workers with Public Service Motivation  [PDF]
Wakana Hatada, Tomomichi Mizuno
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2013.34018
Abstract:

We construct a simple game-theoretic model in which one private firm and one public (or state-owned) firm compete in quantity of goods produced or service provided. The private and public firms each decide how many workers with public service motivation they will employ as part of an incentive scheme. We assume that both firms produce homogeneous goods with a quadratic cost function but that the private firm is more efficient than the public firm. Both firms are faced with linear inverse demand. We show that whether public firms employ more workers with public service motivation than private firms depends on the efficiency gap between the public and private sectors. This result explains why some literature in public administration reports a significant difference in public service motivation between employees in the private and public sectors and the other literature does not.

Preparation of Iron Ferrocyanide-Supported Nanofiber Membrane for Purification of Cesium-Contaminated Water  [PDF]
Yasuhito Mukai, Ayana Mizuno
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.64030
Abstract:

The earthquake in northeastern Japan that occurred on March 11, 2011 brought about the nuclear accident, resulting in the detection of radioactive cesium in soil and water over a wide region around Fukusihma. In this study, with the aim of the establishment of an effective method for removing cesium from water contaminated with cesium, the functionalized membrane with large cesium adsorption capacity per unit mass was prepared by combining nanofibers having a large specific surface area with iron ferrocyanide having a high selectivity for cesium adsorption. The nanofiber membrane made of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was used as a base material of the functionalized membrane. Nanofiber membranes were immersed in the dispersions of iron ferrocyanide with various concentrations and pH values. After taking it out, it was dried at various temperatures and then non-immobilized iron ferrocyanide was completely removed through cleaning. As a result of the evaluation of completed affinity membranes, the amount of iron ferrocyanide immobilized by the nanofiber membrane increased significantly with the increase in the iron ferrocyanide concentration but subsequently showed a tendency to decrease rapidly, resulting in a distinct maximum at the iron ferrocyanide concentration of 3 wt%. And, the supported amount of iron ferrocyanide to the nanofiber membrane increased as pH became lower. Moreover, it was found that as high temperature as possible without exceeding the glass transition temperature of PAN was optimal as a drying temperature of prepared affinity membrane.

The Biphasic Role of Microglia in Alzheimer's Disease
Tetsuya Mizuno
International Journal of Alzheimer's Disease , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/737846
Abstract: Neuroinflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Microglia, macrophage-like resident immune cells in the brain, play critical roles in the inflammatory aspects of AD. Microglia may be activated by oligomeric and fibrillar species of amyloid β (Aβ) that are constituents of senile plaques and by molecules derived from degenerated neurons, such as purines and chemokines, which enhance their migration and phagocytosis. The main neurotoxic molecules produced by activated microglia may be reactive oxygen species, glutamate, and inflammatory cytokines such as tumor-necrosis-factor-α and interleukin- (IL-) 1β These molecules differentially induce neurotoxicity. Aβ itself directly damages neurons. In terms of neuroprotective properties, microglia treated with fractalkine or IL-34 attenuate Aβ neurotoxicity by Aβ clearance and the production of antioxidants. Therefore, regulation of the microglial role in neuroprotection may be a useful therapeutic strategy for AD. 1. Introduction Microglia, macrophage-like immune cells in the central nervous system (CNS), cluster around the senile plaques that along with polymorphous amyloid β (Aβ) deposits are the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Microglia have a biphasic neurotoxic-neuroprotective role in the pathogenesis of AD. In regard to their neurotoxic properties, microglia may be involved in the inflammatory component of AD [1, 2]. In AD, the trigger molecule for microglial activation may be Aβ and molecules derived from degenerated neurons may enhance microglial neurotoxicity [3]. Aβ exists in different assembly forms including monomers, oligomers, and fibrils. Both oligomeric Aβ (oAβ) and fibrillar Aβ (fAβ) have been shown to stimulate microglial secretion of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, and tumor-necrosis-factor-α (TNF-α); chemokines including monocyte chemotactic-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 (MIP-1); complement components; free radicals such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide anions and hydroxy radicals [4, 5]. Glutamate also plays an important role in microglial neurotoxicity in AD. Activated microglia produce large amounts of glutamate, which induces excitotoxicity via N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor signaling [6–9]. Chronic activation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors leads to increased Aβ production [10]. Aβ itself is toxic to neurons in AD, with oAβ being more toxic than fAβ (Figure 1). The toxicity of oAβ manifests itself in terms of synaptic dysfunction, including inhibition of
Transformative Erfahrungen einer Türkin in Deutschland: ein fallvermittelter Ansatz zur Analyse eines autobiografisch-narrativen Interviews Transformative Experiences of a Turkish Woman in Germany: A Case-Mediated Approach toward an Autobiographical Narrative Interview Experiencias de transformación en una mujer turca en alemania: un análisis según el método de mediación de casos orientado al análisis de un entrevista narrativa autobiográfica
Setsuo Mizuno
Forum : Qualitative Social Research , 2003,
Abstract: Mithilfe eines fallvermittelten Ansatzes im Umgang mit einem bestimmten Text werden zentrale Charakteristika der transformativen Erfahrungen des Individuums, um das es hier geht (es handelt sich um Hülya, eine Türkin, die in einer deutschen Gro stadt lebt), herausgearbeitet. Die entscheidenden analytischen Prozeduren dieses Ansatzes bestehen aus sechs miteinander verbundenen Aktivit ten: den Aktivit ten des 1) wiederholten Aufspürens, 2) des Generierens, 3) des Ausdehnens und Verbindens, 4) des Kl rens, 5) des überprüfens und 6) des erneuten Kl rens und Rekonfigurierens. In der Durchführung des ersten Schritts der Textbearbeitung – des wiederholten Aufspürens – werden drei bestimmte zeitliche Einschnitte und fünf Perioden identifiziert, und potentiell wichtige Ausdrücke werden registriert. Die zentralen Merkmale des ersten Stadiums – n mlich des Stadiums, in dem sich Hülya vor ihrer Migration nach Deutschland befunden hat – und des zweiten Stadiums – d.h. des Stadiums, in dem sie sich w hrend des Interviews befand – werden miteinander kontrastiert. Unter Berücksichtigung solcher Dinge wie der Episoden, die Hülya durchlebte, bewusster Schritte, die sie unternahm, und der "Wert-" und "Krankheitsfaktoren" werden verschiedene Phasen der Transformation des ersten in das zweite Stadium vorgeschlagen. Einige Implikationen ihrer Reflexionen über das, was sie zum Zeitpunkt des Interviews vor allem besch ftigte, für die Charakterisierung des zweiten Stadiums werden ebenfalls diskutiert. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0303220 By making use of the Case-Mediated (CM) Approach toward a particular text, major characteristics of transformative experiences of the individual in question (Hulya, a Turkish woman living in a German city) are elucidated. The key analytical procedures of this approach consist of six interrelated activities: 1) those of tracing and retracing, 2) generating, 3) expanding and linking, 4) clarifying, 5) checking, and 6) re-clarifying and re-configuring. Through the tracing and retracing of the text in question, three particular dates and five periods are identified, and potentially important expressions are recognized. The main characteristics of State 1, referring to the state Hulya had been in before coming to Germany, and those of State 2, that is, the state she was in at the time of interview, are presented in contrast. Taking into consideration such things as the episodes Hulya experienced, conscious moves that she made, and "value" and "illness" factors, several phases of transformation of State 1 into State 2 are suggested. Some implications of he
A Propaganda Film Subverting Ethnic Hierarchy?: "Suicide Squad at the Watchtower" and Colonial Korea
Naoki Mizuno
Cross-Currents : East Asian History and Culture Review , 2012,
Abstract: In the film "Suicide Squad at the Watchtower" (1943), the appearance of a Korean female physician carries with it the potential to subvert the film’s representation of the colonial ethnic hierarchy. The film’s director, Ch’oe In-gyu, had in his earlier film "Homeless Angels" presented the edifying message that a Korean female orphan could aspire to become a physician. This message was also incorporated into "Suicide Squad at the Watchtower." In these two films the story of a Korean woman who studies to become a physician (or at least desires to become one) unfolds through the same actress, Kim Sin-jae. The suggestion that a Korean could achieve a social position equal to or even higher than a Japanese introduced the possibility of subverting the colonial ethnic hierarchy. But while the screenplay for the film had explicitly portrayed the female physician, the film version suppressed the representation, making it less evident. Nevertheless, it is possible to see "Suicide Squad at the Watchtower"’s enlightened message as an element with the potential to upset the ruling colonial order.
Power Law of Customers' Expenditures in Convenience Stores
Takayuki Mizuno
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1143/JPSJ.77.035001
Abstract: In a convenience store chain, a tail of the cumulative density function of the expenditure of a person during a single shopping trip follows a power law with an exponent of -2.5. The exponent is independent of the location of the store, the shopper's age, the day of week, and the time of day.
The Role of the Equation of State in Resistive Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics
Yosuke Mizuno
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/205/1/7
Abstract: We have investigated the role of the equation of state in resistive relativistic magnetohydrodynamics using a newly developed resistive relativistic magnetohydrodynamic code. A number of numerical tests in one-dimension and multi-dimensions are carried out in order to check the robustness and accuracy of the new code. The code passes all the tests in situations involving both small and large uniform conductivities. Equations of state which closely approximate the single-component perfect relativistic gas are introduced. Results from selected numerical tests using different equations of state are compared. The main conclusion is that the choice of the equation of state as well as the value of the electric conductivity can result in considerable dynamical differences in simulations involving shocks, instabilities, and magnetic reconnection.
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