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Evaluation of an Amniotic Membrane-Collagen Dermal Substitute in the Management of Full-Thickness Skin Defects in a Pig
Hyunji Kim,Daegu Son,Tae Hyun Choi,Samhyun Jung
Archives of Plastic Surgery , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5999/aps.2013.40.1.11
Abstract: Background To minimize the inflammatory reaction and improve healing, a new modifieddermal substitute composed of an atelocollagen, chondroitin-6-sulfate, and amnioticmembrane (AM) was applied to full-thickness skin defects in a pig. Atelocollagen was extractedfrom bovine skin, and two modified dermal substitutes were generated according to the crosslinkingtype.Methods The AM-collagen dermal substitutes were characterized and compared withcurrently used dermal substitutes in a pig skin defect model. There were five experimentalgroups: dehydrothermal (DHT) cross-linking atelocollagen with the AM on the top (AM-DHT),DHT and chemical cross-linking atelocollagen with the AM on the top (AM-DHT/chemical),Terudermis, Integra, and AlloDerm. After 3×3 cm full-thickness skin defects on the back ofa pig were created, each dermal substitutes dermal substitutes was randomly grafted on thedefects. Two weeks after grafting, autologous partial-thickness skin was over-grafted on theneodermis. The take rate of the dermal substitutes, skin, and histological sections were allassessed at 1, 2, and 4 weeks postoperatively.Results More rapid healing and a higher take rate were evident in the AM-DHT and Terudermisgroups. Histological examination revealed fewer inflammatory cells and more fibroblasthyperplasia in these two groups. Four weeks after surgery, the amount of newly formedcollagen was significantly more appropriate in the AM-DHT group.Conclusions These observations provide supporting evidence that a newly developed amnioticcollagendermal substitute may inhibit inflammatory reactions and promote wound healing.
Large Auricular Chondrocutaneous Composite Graft for Nasal Alar and Columellar Reconstruction
Daegu Son,Minho Kwak,Sangho Yun,Hyeonjung Yeo
Archives of Plastic Surgery , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5999/aps.2012.39.4.323
Abstract: Background Among the various methods for correcting nasal deformity, the compositegraft is suitable for the inner and outer reconstruction of the nose in a single stage. In thisarticle, we present our technique for reconstructing the ala and columella using the auricularchondrocutaneous composite graft.Methods From 2004 to 2011, 15 cases of alar and 2 cases of columellar reconstructionemploying the chondrocutaneous composite graft were studied, all followed up for 3 to 24months (average, 13.5 months). All of the patients were reviewed retrospectively for thedemographics, graft size, selection of the donor site and outcomes including morbidity andcomplications.Results The reasons for the deformity were burn scar (n=7), traumatic scar (n=4), smallpoxscar (n=4), basal cell carcinoma defect (n=1), and scar contracture (n=1) from implant inducedinfection. In 5 cases of nostril stricture and 6 cases of alar defect and notching, composite graftsfrom the helix were used (8.9×12.5 mm). In 4 cases of retracted ala, grafts from the posteriorsurface of the concha were matched (5×15 mm). For the reconstruction of the columella,we harvested the graft from the posterior scapha (9×13.5 mm). Except one case with partialnecrosis and delayed healing due to smoking, the grafts were successful in all of the casesand there was no deformity of the donor site.Conclusions An alar and columellar defect can be reconstructed successfully with a relativelylarge composite graft without donor site morbidity. The selection of the donor site should beindividualized according to the 3-dimensional configuration of the defect.
Influence of Microstructural Changes on Some Macro Physical Properties of Cement Mortar during Accelerated Carbonation  [PDF]
Son Tung Pham
Open Journal of Civil Engineering (OJCE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojce.2014.42008

The objective of this work was to examine the changes in the microstructure and macro physical properties caused by the carbonation of normalised CEM II mortar. Samples were prepared and subjected to accelerated carbonation at 20°C, 65% relative humidity and 20% CO2 concentration. On the microstructure scale, the evolutions of the cumulative pore volume, pore size distribution, and specific surface area during carbonation were calculated from the adsorption desorption isotherms of nitrogen. We also examined the evolution of macro physical properties such as the solid phase volume using helium pycnometry, porosity accessible to water, gas permeability, and thermal conductivity. The conflict between nitrogen porosity and water porosity results indicated that the porous domains explored using these two techniques are different and help to complementarily evaluate the effects of carbonation. This is a multi-scale study where results on microstructural changes can help to explain the evolution of macro physical properties.

Effects of Carbonation on the Microporosity and Macro Properties of Portland Cement Mortar CEM I  [PDF]
Son Tung Pham
Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering (MSCE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/msce.2014.27005

The aim of this work was to examine the microstructural changes of CEM I standardised cement mortar caused by accelerated carbonation (20% CO2 concentration) using porosity accessible to water and nitrogen adsorption. The conflicted results obtained by these two techniques showed the differences in porous domains explored, while the pore size distributions calculated from nitrogen adsorption provided evolution of the micro and meso pores during carbonation. The porosity accessible to water showed changes in all three porous domains: macro, meso and micro pores. This is because of difference in the molecular sizes between water and nitrogen molecules. Although these two techniques are different, they help to complementarily evaluate the effects of carbonation. The results also indicated the influence of type of cement on microstructural evolutions and the correlation between variations of mesopores volume and specific surface area. Changes in microstructure induce changes in macroscopic properties that we also examined such as the solid phase volume using helium pycnometry, the gas permeability, the thermal conductivity, the thermal diffusivity, and the longitudinal and transverse ultrasonic velocities.

Supply Chain Risk Management: A Review of Thirteen Years of Research  [PDF]
Célestin Elock Son
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2018.812154
Abstract: This paper performs a systematic literature review on supply chain risk management (SCRM). This review analyzes 133 articles published between 2005 and the first quarter of 2018. Its main purpose is to identify the developed strategies used to mitigate risks and improve supply chain performance. It appears that there is heterogeneity in the developed strategies and that quantitative methods simulation/modeling are the most used by researchers to mitigate supply chain risks (SCR). Although emphasis is made on the links between SCRM and performance or resilience, risk prevention strategies remain the least represented in the papers analyzed. We also find that there is no superior approach in the set of various risks management strategies and thus it is difficult to linearly establish, the successive evolutions of the models that would replace others.
Some Properties of a Recursive Procedure for High Dimensional Parameter Estimation in Linear Model with Regularization  [PDF]
Hong Son Hoang, Remy Baraille
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2014.411087
Abstract: Theoretical results related to properties of a regularized recursive algorithm for estimation of a high dimensional vector of parameters are presented and proved. The recursive character of the procedure is proposed to overcome the difficulties with high dimension of the observation vector in computation of a statistical regularized estimator. As to deal with high dimension of the vector of unknown parameters, the regularization is introduced by specifying a priori non-negative covariance structure for the vector of estimated parameters. Numerical example with Monte-Carlo simulation for a low-dimensional system as well as the state/parameter estimation in a very high dimensional oceanic model is presented to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach.
The Image of Talented Scholar, Beauty and Love in Vietnamese Nom Narrative Poetry  [PDF]
Guojian Xun, Pham Quynh Son
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.55017
Abstract: The emergence and prevalence of Nom narrative poetry associated with the decline of feudalism in Vietnam. The feudal system began to weaken since the 16th century and the 18th century became severe, and mid-19th century entered the crisis period. Social contradictions, class contradictions brought huge differentiation inside the ruling class which had brought a large part of writers, poets closer to people. Overcoming class ideology, those intellectuals had represented the aspirations of the times, the voice of the people with all their hearts. Humanism literature is the result of that social struggle and ideological struggle process. Along with the development of Nom letter and the sin-eight-word, the Nom first poems were formed and developed that way. Nom narrative poetry about “talented scholar and beauty” told the story of love between a man and a woman. They were not only outstanding in their appearance but also faithful in love. To protect their love, they had to overcome the resistance of feudal rites, the harm of those mean people, and they even had to look for the death to keep a vow with their lovers. All those things had made up the beauty of Nom narrative poetry. That also explains why Nom narrative poetry was soon welcomed socially and had such huge influence on Vietnamese’s life. However, in field of literature research, there has not been a unified notion of Nom narrative poetry about talented scholar and beauty. Therefore a viewpoint about the notion of Nom narrative poetry will be discussed. Moreover the writer also analyzes the talented scholars, the beauties and their love. As a result, the value of this type of poetry in Vietnam national literature will be affirmed.
Directed Motion and Non-Predicative Path P
Minjeong Son
Nordlyd : Troms? University Working Papers on Language & Linguistics / Institutt for Spr?k og Litteratur, Universitetet i Troms? , 2006,
Abstract: In this paper, I argue that an atelic path PP headed by -(u)lo ‘toward’ in Korean is an argument of a directed motion verb on a par with its telic counterpart headed by the locative -ey ‘(be) AT’. I further argue that, despite having the same argumental status, the atelic path PP is distinguished from the goal-marking locative PP in terms of an entailment of a result state and predicativity; while the goal PP in directed motion constructions forms a secondary predicate associated with a resultative interpretation, the atelic path PP merges with the verb as a non-predicative complement and does not license a resultative interpretation.
Resultatives in Korean Revisited: Complementation versus Adjunction
Minjeong Son
Nordlyd : Troms? University Working Papers on Language & Linguistics / Institutt for Spr?k og Litteratur, Universitetet i Troms? , 2008,
Abstract: Korean resultatives are divided into two types depending on whether the subject of a resultative secondary predicate is assigned accusative case or nominative case. The former is comparable to selected object resultatives (e.g., Mary wipe the table clean), and the latter to unselected object resultatives (e.g., John screamed himself hoarse) in English. Korean resultatives have received a great deal of attention in the literature due to different case markings on the subject of a secondary predicate. However, there has been no agreement regarding whether Korean resultatives should be analyzed as small clause complements, similar to English, or adjunct phrases. Some argue that both resultative types are small clause complements (e.g., Kim 1999, Chang and Kim 2001), but some argue that only the selected object resultatives are true small clause type resultatives while the unselected object resultatives are VP adjuncts (e.g., Song 2005, Yeo 2006). A recent proposal by Shim and den Dikken (2007), however, suggests that both types should be analyzed as TP adjuncts. This paper defends the second position, a split analysis for the two types of resultatives: a complementation analysis for selected object resultatives, and an adjunction analysis for unselected object resultatives. Supporting evidence for the split analysis is provided by a few syntactic and semantic facts that lead to the conclusion that the two resultatives must be structurally distinguished from one another in terms of their complementhood/adjuncthood.
Directionality and Resultativity: The Cross-linguistic Correlation Revisited
Minjeong Son
Nordlyd : Troms? University Working Papers on Language & Linguistics / Institutt for Spr?k og Litteratur, Universitetet i Troms? , 2007,
Abstract: Recent approaches to the cross-linguistic variation in the expressions of directed motion assume a tight correlation between adjectival resultative and directed motion constructions (e.g., Beck and Snyder 2001, Mateu and Rigau 2001; 2002, McIntyre 2004, Beavers et al. 2004). Beck and Snyder (2001), in particular, argue that languages that allow adjectival resultatives also allow directed motion with goal PP (or telic Path PP) based on the compounding parameter proposed by Snyder (1995; 2001). This paper, however, shows that such ‘macro’-parametric approaches to the cross-linguistic variation (in directed motion) fail when individual languages are investigated in detail. Based on Korean, Japanese, Hebrew, Czech, and Indonesian, I show that there is no necessary correlation between directed motion (i.e., goal PP) constructions and the availability of resultative phrases, and that the previous parameter approaches face challenges in explaining the facts drawn from these languages. I further show that the variation in directed motion is better explained by careful examination of individual adpositions that differ from one language (e.g., English) to another (e.g., Korean).
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