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OALib Journal期刊

ISSN: 2333-9721

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Présence en Tunisie d'isolats de Fusarium sambucinum résistants aux benzimidazoles : développement in vitro et agressivité sur tubercules de pomme de terre
Daami-Remadi M.,El Mahjoub M.
Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement , 2006,
Abstract: Presence in Tunisia of Fusarium sambucinum isolates resistant to benzimidazoles: in vitro growth and aggressiveness on potato tubers. The behaviour of 55 isolates of Fusarium spp. causing dry rot of the potato tubers, is studied against some enzimidazoles fungicides. Tunisian isolates of F. solani (12), F. oxysporum (23) and F. graminearum (10) are sensitive in vitro to carbendazime and benomyl at 5 mg.l-1. Their interaction with thiophanate-methyl is different; a complete inhibition of their mycelial growth is observed at doses higher than 500 mg.l-1. Tunisian isolates of F. sambucinum collected during 2002, 2003 and 2004 are resistant to these benzimidazoles showing existence of a cross-resistance. In fact, these isolates tolerated carbendazime (and benomyl) at 200 mg.l-1 and thiophanate-methyl at 1000 mg.l-1. This is the first study in Tunisia indicating emergence of this type of F. sambucinum resistance. Control isolates of F. sambucinum and those treated with carbendazime at 100 mg.l-1 showed a similar aggressiveness on potato tubers of the Spunta cultivar.
Effets de certains fongicides de synthèse et biologiques sur la croissance mycélienne et l'agressivité de Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici
Hibar, K.,Daami-Remadi, M.,El Mahjoub, M.
Tropicultura , 2007,
Abstract: Effect of some Chemical and Biological Fungicides on Mycelial Growth and Disease Severity of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici. Fusarium is among the most aggressive telluric fungi causing wilt and root rots in several vegetable crops. A new disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici was recorded in southern Tunisia in the "Cinquième Saison" farm, situated in Hammet Gabès during 2000-2001 crop season. It caused death of up to 90% of tomato plants in some greenhouses. In the present research, the effect of 3 chemical and 4 biological fungicides was tested in vitro on mycelial growth and in vivo on disease severity of F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici. Hymexazol, benomyl and manebe were used as chemical fungicides whereas four biological products, i.e. two based on Trichoderma harzianum, one on Bacillus subtilis and another one on Bacillus thuringiensis were also tested. Among the chemical fungicides which were used, hymexazol and benomyl were the most effective in vitro and inhibited mycelial growth up to 80%. However, in vivo assays showed that only hymexazol was effective with a reduction in disease incidence of about 76%. In vitro, the product based on B. thuringiensis entailed a mycelial growth inhibition of less than 20%. This value is more than 75% higher than what was obtained through the other biological fungicides based on either T. harzianum or in B. subtilis. The efficacy of the latter 2 biological fungicides was more important in vivo assays using inoculated tomato plants. Indeed, by the use of the product based on B. subtilis, the reduction of disease incidence exceeded 95%. These results show that some biological fungicides can be used in controlling Fusarium crown and root rot of tomato.
Effects of Some Bacillus sp. Isolates on Fusarium spp. in vitro and Potato Tuber Dry Rot Development in vivo
Mejda Daami-Remadi,Fakher Ayed,Hayfa Jabnoun-Khiareddine,Khaled Hibar
Plant Pathology Journal , 2006,
Abstract: Four Bacillus sp. isolates were individually essayed against Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum f.sp. tuberosi, F. graminearum and F. sambucinum following an in vitro dual culture plate technique and in vivo pre-inoculation tuber treatment. All tested bacterial isolates significantly reduced radial mycelial growth of Fusarium spp., on PDA after 3 days of incubation at 25°C, comparatively to the untreated controls. Light microscopic studies of antagonist x Fusarium spp. in vitro interaction showed several hyphal abnomalies traduced particularly by lesser mycelium density, severe hyphal lysis, lesser sporulation, mycelial cords formation and early chlamydospores induction observed only at the confrontation zone. Potato tubers, cv. Spunta, treated by Bacillus sp. 24 h before individually inoculation by Fusarium species, showed reduced dry rot development after 21 days of incubation at 25-27°C comparatively to untreated controls.
Evaluation of Fungicides for Control of Fusarium Wilt of Potato
Fakher Ayed,Mejda Daami-Remadi,Hayfa Jabnoun-Khiareddine,Khaled Hibar
Plant Pathology Journal , 2006,
Abstract: Four fungicides, which active ingredients are hymexazol, azoxystrobin, fludioxonil and quinoline, are tested in vitro and in vivo against five isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tuberosi, causal agent of potato Fusarium wilt. Pathogen radial growth noted on PDA amended with fungicides after incubation for four days at 25°C varied upon pathogen isolates. Mycelial growth of all pathogen isolates was significantly inhibited by fungicide PDA amendment; inhibition obtained by hymexazol treatment reached 77% comparatively to untreated control. All chemical fungicides reduced disease incidence compared to the untreated control. Hymexazol and azoxystrobin are the most active during all the bioassay period. Whereas, fludioxonil and quinoline showed a limited effect in controlling Fusarium wilt development.
In vitro and in vivo Interaction of Four Fungicides with the Fusarium Species Complex Causing Tuber Dry Rot in Tunisia
M. Daami-Remadi,H. Jabnoun-Khiareddine,F. Ayed,M. El Mahjoub
Plant Pathology Journal , 2006,
Abstract: Several fungicides were tested against some isolates belonging to four Fusarium species causing potato tuber dry rot in Tunisia. Incorporated into the culture media PDA, the tested fungicides significantly inhibited the mycelial growth, observed after incubation at 25°C for 4 days, of all Fusarium isolates including those of F. sambucinum resistant to benzimidazoles. A significant interaction (p =< 0.05) was observed between both fixed factors where inhibition percentage varied depending on tested pathogens and fungicides. Applied on potato tubers (tuber immersion for 10 min) prior inoculation, certain tested fungicides such as azoxystrobin and fludioxonil significantly reduced by more than 50%, comparatively to the untreated controls, the development of dry rot occasioned by F. graminearum and F. sambucinum observed after 21 days of incubation at 25-27°C. A significant interaction (p =< 0.05) was noted between the treatments and the Fusarium species traduced by a variable inhibition percentage depending on tested pathogen and fungicides.
Temperature Effect on Mycelial Growth and on Disease Incidence of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici
Khaled Hibar,Mejda Daami-Remadi,Hayfa Jabnoun-Khiareddine,Mohamed El Mahjoub
Plant Pathology Journal , 2006,
Abstract: Fusarium crown and root rot of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici is a new damaging disease of greenhouse crops in Tunisia. This pathogen was detected in Southern Tunisia, where temperature is usually high. Thus, temperature effect on its development was studied in vitro, on mycelial growth and in vivo, on disease incidence. Temperature effect on mycelial growth of Fusarium oxysporum. sp. radicis-lycopersici, evaluated on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) media, revealed that this pathogen grows well at temperatures ranged from 20 to 30°C. However, the optimum of mycelial growth was recorded at 25°C (growth speed exceeded 13 mm D-1). On disease incidence, temperature effect was evaluated by breeding inoculated plants under two thermal conditions: 19 and 29°C. Damages observed, after an incubation period ranged between 30 and 50 days, were more important at 19°C than that at 29°C. Indeed, at 19°C, disease incidence exceeded 96% and it was always more than 70%. At 29°C, however, this value didn`t exceed 60% and this by using two inoculation methods.
Pathogenecity of Tunisian Isolates of Three Verticillium Species on Tomato and Eggplant
Hayfa Jabnoun-Khiareddine,Mejda Daami-Remadi,Khaled Hibar,Fakher Ayed
Plant Pathology Journal , 2006,
Abstract: In many surveys in the Tunisian Sahel, several isolates of Verticillium have been collected from vegetable crops showing symptoms of Verticillium wilt. These isolates were identified as V. dahliae, V. albo-atrum and V. tricorpus on the basis of their morphological and cultural characteristics. Four isolates of V. dahliae, two isolates of V. albo-atrum and two isolates of V. tricorpus were examined for their mycelial growth at different incubation temperatures and their virulence against tomato and eggplant cultivars. Seedlings at the three leaf stage were root-dipped in a conidial suspension (107 conidia mL-1) and maintained in the glasshouse at 21-25°C. Disease severity was assessed through the index of leaf damage and plant height, recorded eight weeks after inoculation. Growth test showed that the majority of Verticillium isolates were able to grow from 10 to 30°C. All tomato and eggplant seedlings exhibited typical Verticillium symptoms compared to the non-inoculated control. The index of leaf damage, as well as plant height, differs significantly depending on cultivars and isolates. V. albo-atrum and V. tricorpus were moderately to highly pathogenic against eggplant and tomato plants. V. dahliae was the most aggressive against these hosts, showing a high level of pathogenicity to both eggplant and tomato plants.
Effect of Temperature on Verticillium Wilts of Tomato in Tunisia
Hayfa Jabnoun-Khiareddine,Mejda Daami-Remadi,Khaled Hibar,Jane Robb
Plant Pathology Journal , 2006,
Abstract: Verticillium dahliae and Verticillium albo-atrum have been isolated from tomato cultivars possessing the Ve gene in many greenhouses in the Chott-Mariem region. Two isolates of Verticillium, one from each species, were examined for their mycelial growth at different incubation temperatures and their pathogenicity to three tomato cultivars. Seedlings at the three leaf stage were root-dipped in a conidial suspension (107 conidia mL-1) and maintained in two glasshouse cells at 17-21 C and 21-30 C. Disease severity was assessed through the index of leaf damage calculated 60 days after inoculation, at each temperature range. Growth test showed that V. albo-trum isolate as well as V. dahliae, were able to grow from 10 to 30 C. The three tomato cultivars exhibited typical Verticillium symptoms. The index of leaf damage differs significantly depending on cultivars, isolates and temperature ranges. V. albo-atrum was most virulent at 17-21 C; however, V. dahliae was more virulent at 21-30 C, despite the presence of the Ve-gene. These results confirmed the first report in Tunisia of a new pathotype of V. albo-atrum able to grow at 30 C and to infect cultivars having the Ve gene.
Potato Vascular Fusarium wilt in Tunisia: Incidence and Biocontrol by Trichoderma spp.
Fakher Ayed,Mejda Daami-Remadi,Hayfa Jabnoun-Khiareddine,Mohamed El Mahjoub
Plant Pathology Journal , 2006,
Abstract: Pathogen isolations from potato tubers showing dry rot symptoms revealed the presence of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tuberosi in different Tunisian regions. Pathogenicity tests of different isolates were realized on potato plants. Typical symptoms of vascular wilt disease were observed and noted. After wilting, inoculated plants were totally damaged. Trichoderma spp. were evaluated for their antagonistic potential against F. oxysporum f. sp. tuberosi in vitro and in vivo. Trichoderma harzianum, T. viride and T. virens inhibited the mycelial growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. tuberosi. The antagonism included lysis and dissolution of the host cytoplasm and/or transformation into cords and/or coiling around pathogen hyphae. Moreover, substrate application of Trichoderma species (108 spores per mL) before inoculation by F. oxysporum f. sp. tuberosi controlled Fusarium wilt of potato plants compared with non-inoculated plants and untreated-inoculated plants. This approach may be beneficial for biological control in F. oxysporum f. sp. tuberosi and could allow protecting plants from this pathogen.
Control of Fusarium Crown and Root Rot of Tomato, Caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, by Grafting onto Resistant Rootstocks
Khaled Hibar,Mejda Daami-Remadi,Hayfa Jabnoun-Khiareddine,Mohamed El Mahjoub
Plant Pathology Journal , 2006,
Abstract: In this study, the efficacy of grafting two tomato cultivars onto two rootstocks was examined in growth chamber and in greenhouse conditions. The rootstock cultivars Beaufort F1 and He-Man F1, already known and confirmed as resistant to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, were evaluated during two crop seasons under greenhouse heated with geothermal water in South Tunisia. The cv. Durintha F1 showed the best plant growth, fruit yield and fruit quality when grafted onto Beaufort F1; while cv. Bochra F1 gave the best results when grafted onto He-Man F1. This study demonstrated that grafting tomato cultivars onto Fusarium resistant rootstocks is one of the best alternatives for controlling Fusarium crown and root rot of tomato.
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