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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 14018 matches for " DIANA ELIZABETH WATURANGI "
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Distribution of Ice Nucleation-Active (INA) Bacteria from Rain-water and Air
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences , 2011,
Abstract: Certain bacteria that induce biological ice nucleation are suspected to play an important role in condensation and ice nuclei formation in clouds. Those bacteria can produce biological ice nucleator1, which is a protein and usually found on leaf surface and air. Most studies on INA bacteria were conducted in subtropical areas. In this study, INA bacteria were isolated from rain-water and air between March to May 2008 from Jakarta, Bogor, Bekasi, Tangerang, and Depok. The percentage of INA bacteria from rainfall for those area are 19.4, 18.7, 5.3, 2.2, and 6.4% respectively, while percentage for air are 9.5, 6.5, 0, 2.7, and 1.8%. The highest incidence of INA bacteria were from rain-water and air found in sample from Jakarta and then followed by the samples from Bogor. It was shown that the percentage of INA bacteria from rain-water was higher than air for all of the samples from different areas. The isolate from Jakarta (isolate A32) which had the highest activity for ice nucleation, with the temperature classification at -2.7 oC, revealed 100% similarity with Pantoea sp. The presence of INA bacteria in rain-water and air might play an important role in nucleation process which is required for rainfall induction.
Isolation, Characterization, and Genetic Diversity of Ice Nucleation Active Bacteria on Various Plants
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences , 2009,
Abstract: Ice nucleation active (INA) bacteria is a group of bacteria with the ability to catalyze the ice formation at temperature above -10 oC and causing frost injury in plants. Since, most of the literature on INA bacteria were from subtropical area, studies of INA bacteria from tropical area are needed. We sampled eight fruits and 36 leaves of 21 plant species, and then identified through biochemical and genetic analysis. INA bacteria were characterized for INA protein classification, pH stability, and optimization of heat endurance. We discovered 15 INA bacteria from seven plants species. Most of bacteria are oxidase and H2S negative, catalase and citrate positive, gram negative, and cocoid formed. These INA bacteria were classified in to three classes based on their freezing temperature. Most of the isolates were active in heat and pH stability assay. Some isolates were analysed for 16S rRNA gene. We observed that isolates from Morinda citrifolia shared 97% similiarity with Pseudomonas sp. Isolate from Piper betle shared 93% similarity with P. pseudoalcaligenes. Isolate from Carica papaya shared 94% similarity with Pseudomonas sp. While isolate from Fragaria vesca shared 90% similarity with Sphingomonas sp.
Analysis of Pink Pigmented Facultative Methylotroph Bacteria from Human Environments
Microbiology Indonesia , 2008,
Abstract: The formation of pink biofilm in wet places are usually correlated with chlorine-resistant pink pigmented facultative methylotrophs (PPFM). In this study we investigated the presence of PPFM bacteria through bacterial isolation and detection of mxaF gene from wet places of human-made environments. A total of eighteen PPFM bacterial isolates were recovered from the formation of biofilm bacterial of four test places such as washstands, bathrooms, and potable water supplies. Confirmation of the isolates through biochemical analysis were done using catalase, oxidase and urease tests. Chlorine-resistance-activity was assayed for all of the isolates. Antibiotic resistance were examined for ampicillin (25 μg), tetracycline (30 μg), kanamycin (30 μg), trimethoprim (1.25 μg), and streptomycin (10 μg) using the agar diffusion method. Genomic DNA was subjected to PCR analysis with primers corresponding to the 5’- and 3’- end conserved segments of the mxaF gene. PCR amplification followed by DNA sequencing of 16S rRNA gene were done for some isolates. We recovered 18 isolates of PPFM bacteria. Biochemical analysis indicated that the isolates were positive for catalase, oxidase, and urease activities. Chlorine-resistance-analysis showed the majority of the isolates were resistant to chlorine. Antibiotic resistance assays showed all of the isolates exhibited resistance to trimethoprim but were sensitive to streptomycin, kanamycin, and tetracycline but were variably resistant to ampicilin. PCR detection using specific primers for the mxaF gene gave a positive result for all of the isolates. DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of two isolates showed that isolate WD10 had a 98% similarity with the mxaF gene from Methylobacterium lusitanum strain MP2 and isolate WK2 had a 98% similarity to the mxaF gene from Afipia felis strain RD1. The formation of pink biofilm of four wet areas in this study were correlated with the presence of chlorine-resistant PPFM bacteria and we confirmed with the presence of the mxaF gene in all of the isolates. This finding needs to be widely publicized since some PPFM bacteria were known as opportunistic pathogens.
Antibiotic Resistance and Integron of Vibrio cholerae Detection from School Street Foods in Jakarta
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences , 2007,
Abstract: Street foods represent foods and beverages prepared by vendors in streets or other public places, i.e. schools. Food safety issues perceive street foods as a potential major public risk. Street foods contaminated with toxigenic Vibrio cholerae may lead to serious poisoning to school-age children. In this study, 17 isolates of V. cholerae were obtained from nine (45%) of total 20 street foods samples collected in Jakarta. Five (29%) were confirmed to be V. cholerae O1, serotype Ogawa using biochemical tests and serological identification. Of the 17 V. cholerae isolates 47% proved to be resistant to ampicillin, 35% to trimethoprim, 17.6% to tetracycline, and 17.6% to streptomycin. A class 1 integrons bearing streptomycin/spectinomycin resistant gene cassette of aadA1c were discovered on isolate Vc25n. This may leads to horizontal transfer of the antibiotic resistant genes to other bacteria.
Identification of Class 1 Integron of Escherichia coli from Street Foods in Jakarta
Microbiology Indonesia , 2007,
Abstract: A total of 43 Escherichia coli isolates were identified from school street foods located in Northern and SouthernJakarta. The isolates were examined for antibiotic resistance using five antibiotics discs (ampicillin, kanamycin,streptomycin, trimethoprim, tetracycline) and screened for the class 1 integron with specific conserved regionprimer using PCR amplification. The antibiotic diffusion test revealed three isolates (7%) with resistance tomultiple antibiotics. PCR detection of integron regions showed one isolate possessed a class 1 integron bearingone gene cassette with ~700bp amplicon size. DNA sequencing showed that the gene cassette was resistant totrimethoprim determinant type V (dhfrV). The integron bearing E. coli strain could become a threat for thewidespread distribution of an antibiotic resistance gene especially for pathogenic bacteria.
Isolation and Identification of Ice-Nucleating-Active Bacteria from Indonesian Edible Leafy Plant Poh-Pohan (Pilea glaberina)
Microbiology Indonesia , 2008,
Abstract: Two ice-nucleating-active (INA) bacteria (isolates C and 6) were isolated from poh-pohan (Pilea glaberina), an Indonesian edible leafy plant (lalaban). The maximum nucleation temperature of aqueous suspensions of the two isolates is -5 °C. They were classified as a type II ice nucleator. Microscopic and morphological determination showed that these isolates had yellow pigmentation, rod shape, and were Gram negative. Biochemical analysis indicated that the isolates were exhibited catalase activity, but negative in oxidase and indole assays. DNA sequencing of 16SrRNA gene of isolate A3 showed a 94% similarity to Pseudomonas sp. while isolate A4 showed a 97% similarity to Xanthomonas campestris. To our knowledge, this is the first report of INA bacteria isolated from a tropical edible leafy plant.
Genetic Diversity of Methylotrophic Bacteria from Human Mouth Based on Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA)
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences , 2011,
Abstract: Methylotrophs inhabit the human mouth. In this study, methylotrophic bacteria were isolated from the human mouth microflora of 63 subjects, especially from the tongue, gingival, and subgingival area using minimal agar supplemented with 1% methanol. The obtained isolates were subjected to biochemical assays, continued with antibiotics susceptibility testing using ampicillin (10 g), tetracycline (20 g), kanamycin (30 g), trimethoprim (5 g), and streptomycin (10 g). Genetic diversity was analyzed using ARDRA method. Isolates varying in morphology characteristics were amplified for 16S rRNA gene and continued with DNA sequencing. As many as 21 methylotrophic bacterial isolates were purified and divided into seven groups with different phenotypic profiles. A majority of the isolates were resistant to trimethoprim but sensitive to kanamycin, streptomycin, and tetracycline. Resistance to ampicillin was variable in each isolate. ARDRA showed nine different digestion profiles. DNA sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene showed that six isolates with different phenotypic and digestion profiles were closely related to Methylobacterium radiotoleran (94%), Microbacterium esteraromaticum (99%), Pseudomonas sp. (100%), and three of them were exhibited 99, 99, and 98% sequence similarity with Gordonia sp., respectively. The results of this study revealed diversity among methylotrophic bacteria particularly in human mouth.
Isolation and Identification of Methylotrophic Bacteria Producing Methanol Dehydrogenase from Human Feet and Mouth
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences , 2011,
Abstract: The human feet and mouth are known as sources of methylated sulfides, which are produced by other microflora. Methylated sulfides could be oxidized by methylotrophic bacteria, which may result in odor reduction in human feet and mouth. In this study, we collected a total of 21 isolates from human feet, and 37 isolates from human mouth. These isolates were identified with biochemical test such as oxidase and catalase test and Gram staining assay. The presence of mxaF gene of methanol dehydrogenase was detected by PCR using specific primers. However, the result showed that most of the isolates did not possess mxaF gene. Hence, the methanol dehydrogenase (MDH) activity was also determined. From the total 21 isolates obtained from the feet, only 15 of them showed MDH activity whereas 23 isolates from the total 37 isolates obtained from teeth and tongue region also showed MDH activity. Isolate K25-3 (74.444 U/ml), K33-6 (79.815 U/ml), and K43-5 (69.259 U/ml) from human feet and M41L3 (135.926 U/ml), M27G2 (85.556 U/ml), and M51G1 (103.333 U/ml) from human mouth showed the highest total enzyme activity. Isolates with the highest total activity could be used for further studies such as purification of the enzyme and isolates characterization.
Rapid Detection of Virulence Genes in Vibrio cholerae from Edible Ice in Jakarta
Microbiology Indonesia , 2009,
Abstract: Vibrio cholerae is a bacteria that lives naturally in an aquatic environment. It causes a waterborne disease which is called cholera. Infection of waterborne disease occurs via the fecal-oral route, mostly through drinking water. As we know, ice is made from city water sources and it is commonly used in beverages. Most of publications about V.cholerae come from clinical samples, while little is known about the presence of these bacteria in potable water, especially in ice. In this study, we isolated V. cholerae from ice in Jakarta and continued with detection of the virulence genes. We recovered V. cholerae from ice samples and then continued with detection of virulence genes including toxR, ctxA, ompU, tcpA, ace, zot using multiplex PCR. The results indicated that all of the samples were non-toxigenic strains, but were classified as pathogenic strains because they have at least one of the virulence genes present. The presence of pathogenic V. cholerae in edible ice needs to be emphasized since they have some of the virulence factors and also the class 1 integron.
Use of REP- and ERIC-PCR to reveal genetic heterogeneity of Vibrio cholerae from edible ice in Jakarta, Indonesia
Diana E Waturangi, Ignasius Joanito, Yogiara Yogi, Sabu Thomas
Gut Pathogens , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1757-4749-4-2
Abstract: Seventy-five isolates of V. cholerae were recovered from ice samples collected from different locations of Jakarta. Specifically, 19 of them were identified as O1 serotype, 16 were Ogawa, 3 isolates were Inaba and the remaining isolates were non-O1. The fingerprinting profiles of V.cholerae isolated from ice samples were very diverse.This result showed that the ERIC sequence is more informative and discriminative than REP sequence for analysis of V. cholerae diversity.Cholera is characterized by severe watery diarrhea caused by toxigenic Vibrio cholerae, which colonizes the small intestine and produces an enterotoxin, the cholera toxin (CT).V. cholerae is classified on the basis of somatic antigens (O) into serovars or serogroups, and there are at least 200 known serogroup. Two serogroups, O1 and O139, have been associated with epidemic disease [1]. Serogroup O1 thought to include all the strains responsible for epidemic and endemic cholera; it has two major serotypes, Ogawa and Inaba. Each of those serotypes can be further divided into two biotypes, classical and El Tor, based on biochemical properties and susceptibility to bacteriophages. Serogroup O139 appears to be a hybrid of O1 strains and non-O1 strains. However, this organism does not produce O1 LPS and lacks at least some of the genetic material necessary for production of O1 antigen [2].In Indonesia, a total of 17 episodes of epidemic diarrheal disease were investigated from 1993 to 1999 and were found to be caused by V. cholerae O1 [3]. According to WHO report [4], there was a sharp increase in the number of cholera cases. A total of 131943 cases, including 2272 deaths, reported from 52 countries. Overall, this represents a 30% increase compared with the number of cases reported in 2004.In Indonesia edible are often used in street food and are consumed almost every day. Although it is so commonly consumed, it may not be prepared properly. We suspect that it may be a major important concern and we conducte
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