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Os direitos da mulher à terra e os movimentos sociais rurais na reforma agrária brasileira
Deere, Carmen Diana;
Revista Estudos Feministas , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-026X2004000100010
Abstract: this article examines the evolution of the demand for women's land rights in the brazilian agrarian reform through the prism of the three main rural social movements: the landless movement, the rural unions and the autonomous rural women's movement. most of the credit for raising the issue of women's land rights rests with women within the rural unions. that women's formal land rights were attained in the constitucional reform of 1988 was largely a by-product of the effort to end discrimination against women in all it dimensions. the achievement of formal equality in land rights, nonetheless, did not lead to increases in the share of female beneficiaries of the reform, which remained low in the mid-1990s. this was largely because securing women's land rights in practice was not a top priority of any of the rural social movements. moreover, the main social movement determining the pace of the agrarian reform, the land-less movement, considered class and gender issues to be incompatible. by the late 1990s, nonetheless, there was growing awareness that failure to recognize women's land rights was prejudicial to the development and consolidation of the agrarian reform settlements and thus the movement.the growing consensus among all the rural social movements of the importance of securing women's land rights, coupled with effective lobbying, encouraged the state in 2001 to adopt specific mechanisms for the inclusion of women in the agrarian reform.
Diferen?as de gênero em rela??o a bens: a propriedade fundiária na América Latina
Deere, Carmem Diana;Léon, Magdalena;
Sociologias , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-45222003000200005
Abstract: gender difference regarding land property in latin america is significant. there are few countries in which women make up even a fourth of the owners. gender inequality in land property is related to male preference at the moment of inheritance, to male privilege in marriage, to male bias in community and state land distribution programs as well as gender bias in the land market, women having less probability than men of being successful buyers. but there are also important gender differences in the way land is acquired. inheritance is the main way by which women become owners, while men have much more probability to acquire land through their communities and the state as well as in the market. the article underlines the factors contributing to the tendency towards higher gender equality in land inheritance and recent state programs.
Diferen as de gênero em rela o a bens: a propriedade fundiária na América Latina
Deere Carmem Diana,Léon Magdalena
Sociologias , 2003,
Abstract: A diferen a de gênero em rela o à propriedade fundiária, na América Latina, é significativa. S o poucos os países nos quais as mulheres constituem sequer um quarto dos proprietários. A desigualdade de gênero na posse de terras é relacionada à preferência masculina no momento da heran a, ao privilégio masculino no casamento, ao viés masculino em programas comunitários e estatais de distribui o de terras, bem como ao viés de gênero no mercado fundiário, sendo que as mulheres têm menor probabilidade do que os homens de serem compradoras bem sucedidas. Mas também existem diferen as importantes por gênero na forma pela qual s o adquiridas terras. A heran a é o principal meio pelo qual a maioria das mulheres se torna proprietária, enquanto que os homens têm muito maior probabilidade do que as mulheres de adquirirem terras através da sua distribui o por comunidades ou pelo Estado, e por meio do mercado. S o destacados os fatores que contribuem para uma tendência no sentido de maior igualdade de gênero na heran a de terras e em programas públicos recentes.
Derechos de propiedad, herencia de las esposas e igualdad de género: aspectos comparativos entre Brasil e Hispanoamérica
Revista Estudos Feministas , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-026X2001000200007
Abstract: considerable gains were made in latin america over the course of the twentieth century in strengthening the property rights of married women. insufficient attention, nonetheless, has been given to the inheritance rights of wives. reviewing the legal norms for twelve countries, it is argued that widows are often in a disadvantaged position compared to the children of a couple. inheritance norms were not designed to give widows the possibility for economic autonomy, such as through control of the family farm or business. moreover, given the gender gap favoring women in the lengthening of life spans and the low coverage of social security (particularly in rural areas) in most countries, they are particularly vulnerable when they are widowed. the women's movement is urged to take on the issue of inheritance rights since strengthening these are necessary to achieve a redistribution of property and real gender equality.
Derechos de propiedad, herencia de las esposas e igualdad de género: aspectos comparativos entre Brasil e Hispanoamérica
Revista Estudos Feministas , 2001,
Abstract: En América Latina durante el curso del siglo XX se lograron considerables avances para fortalecer los derechos de propiedad de la mujer casada. Sin embargo, se ha prestado atención limitada a los derechos de herencia de las esposas. La revisión de las normas legales en doce países permite argumentar que las viudas están a menudo en una posición de desventaja en comparación con las hijas/os de la pareja. Las normas sobre herencia no fueron dise adas para dar a las viudas la posibilidad de autonomía económica, por medio del control de la finca familiar o los negocios. Si se tiene en cuenta la diferencia de género a favor de la mujer en la expectativa de vida y la cobertura limitada de las mujeres en la seguridad social (especialmente las rurales) en la mayoría de los países, las mujeres son particularmente vulnerables cuando enviudan. Es urgente que el movimiento de mujeres tenga en cuenta en su agenda el tema de los derechos de herencia, en razón de que su fortalecimiento es necesario para el logro de la redistribución de la propiedad y de una al igualdad de género
Epidemiology of generalised joint laxity in 14 year old children from the UK: a population-based evaluation
Clinch Jacqui,Deere Kevin,John Tobias,Clarke Emma
Pediatric Rheumatology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1546-0096-10-s1-a107
Breast cancer metastasis to the stomach may mimic primary gastric cancer: report of two cases and review of literature
Gregory E Jones, Dirk C Strauss, Matthew J Forshaw, Harriet Deere, Ula Mahedeva, Robert C Mason
World Journal of Surgical Oncology , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7819-5-75
Abstract: The first patient, a 51 year old woman, developed an apparently localised signet-ring gastric adenocarcinoma 3 years after treatment for lobular breast cancer with no clinical evidence of recurrence. Initial gastric biopsies were negative for both oestrogen and progesterone receptors. Histopathology after a D2 total gastrectomy was reported as T4 N3 Mx. Immunohistochemistry for Gross Cystic Disease Fluid Protein was positive, suggesting metastatic breast cancer. The second patient, a 61 year old woman, developed a proximal gastric signet-ring adenocarcinoma 14 years after initial treatment for breast cancer which had subsequently recurred with bony and pleural metastases. In this case, initial gastric biopsies were positive for both oestrogen and progesterone receptors; subsequent investigations revealed widespread metastases and surgery was avoided.In patients with a history of breast cancer, a high index of suspicion for potential breast cancer metastasis to the stomach should be maintained when new gastrointestinal symptoms develop or an apparent primary gastric cancer is diagnosed. Complete histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of the gastric biopsies and comparison with the original breast cancer pathology is important.Metastatic spread to the upper gastrointestinal tract is infrequently reported with cancers of the breast, lung, kidney and malignant melanoma [1]. The most common sites of breast cancer metastasis are the skeleton, lungs and the liver; the stomach, peritoneum, colon, retroperitoneum and the small bowel have all been reported as potential sites of metastatic involvement [2]. Metastatic spread to the stomach may occur many years after the initial treatment for breast cancer. It may prove very difficult to distinguish from a primary gastric cancer on clinical, endoscopic, radiological and histopathological features [3-5]. However, it is important to make this distinction as the basis of treatment for breast cancer metastasis to the sto
Viral Decay Kinetics in the Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy-Treated Rhesus Macaque Model of AIDS
Jesse D. Deere,Joanne Higgins,Elda Cannavo,Andradi Villalobos,Lourdes Adamson,Emilie Fromentin,Raymond F. Schinazi,Paul A. Luciw,Thomas W. North
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0011640
Abstract: To prevent progression to AIDS, persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) must remain on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) indefinitely since this modality does not eradicate the virus. The mechanisms involved in viral persistence during HAART are poorly understood, but an animal model of HAART could help elucidate these mechanisms and enable studies of HIV-1 eradication strategies. Due to the specificity of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (NNRTIs) for HIV-1, we have used RT-SHIV, a chimeric virus of simian immunodeficiency virus with RT from HIV-1. This virus is susceptible to NNRTIs and causes an AIDS-like disease in rhesus macaques. In this study, two groups of HAART-treated, RT-SHIV-infected macaques were analyzed to determine viral decay kinetics. In the first group, viral loads were monitored with a standard TaqMan RT-PCR assay with a limit of detection of 50 viral RNA copies per mL. Upon initiation of HAART, viremia decayed in a bi-phasic manner with half-lives of 1.7 and 8.5 days, respectively. A third phase was observed with little further decay. In the second group, the macaques were followed longitudinally with a more sensitive assay utilizing ultracentrifugation to concentrate virus from plasma. Bi-phasic decay of viral RNA was also observed in these animals with half-lives of 1.8 and 5.8 days. Viral loads in these animals during a third phase ranged from 2–58 RNA copies/mL, with little decay over time. The viral decay kinetics observed in these macaques are similar to those reported for HIV-1 infected humans. These results demonstrate that low-level viremia persists in RT-SHIV-infected macaques despite a HAART regimen commonly used in humans.
Multigene phylogeny of the Mustelidae: Resolving relationships, tempo and biogeographic history of a mammalian adaptive radiation
Klaus-Peter Koepfli, Kerry A Deere, Graham J Slater, Colleen Begg, Keith Begg, Lon Grassman, Mauro Lucherini, Geraldine Veron, Robert K Wayne
BMC Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1741-7007-6-10
Abstract: We constructed a nearly complete generic-level phylogeny of the Mustelidae using a data matrix comprising 22 gene segments (~12,000 base pairs) analyzed with maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods. We show that mustelids are consistently resolved with high nodal support into four major clades and three monotypic lineages. Using Bayesian dating techniques, we provide evidence that mustelids underwent two bursts of diversification that coincide with major paleoenvironmental and biotic changes that occurred during the Neogene and correspond with similar bursts of cladogenesis in other vertebrate groups. Biogeographical analyses indicate that most of the extant diversity of mustelids originated in Eurasia and mustelids have colonized Africa, North America and South America on multiple occasions.Combined with information from the fossil record, our phylogenetic and dating analyses suggest that mustelid diversification may have been spurred by a combination of faunal turnover events and diversification at lower trophic levels, ultimately caused by climatically driven environmental changes. Our biogeographic analyses show Eurasia as the center of origin of mustelid diversity and that mustelids in Africa, North America and South America have been assembled over time largely via dispersal, which has important implications for understanding the ecology of mustelid communities."Wave after wave of immigration came in from Asia, recruiting the fauna at each successive stage, but leaving little opportunity for new types to arise here. Even those genera which seem to be of native origin, might prove to be immigrants, if all their history were known ([1], p 593)."The diversification of the Mustelidae (Carnivora, Mammalia) is a striking example of adaptive radiation, the evolution of ecological and phenotypic diversity from a common ancestor [2]. Mustelids exhibit both locomotor and dietary diversity, with taxa that are fossorial (badgers), semi-arborea
Analysis of Multiply Spliced Transcripts in Lymphoid Tissue Reservoirs of Rhesus Macaques Infected with RT-SHIV during HAART
Jesse D. Deere, Robert C. Kauffman, Elda Cannavo, Joanne Higgins, Andradi Villalobos, Lourdes Adamson, Raymond F. Schinazi, Paul A. Luciw, Thomas W. North
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0087914
Abstract: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can reduce levels of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) to undetectable levels in infected individuals, but the virus is not eradicated. The mechanisms of viral persistence during HAART are poorly defined, but some reservoirs have been identified, such as latently infected resting memory CD4+ T cells. During latency, in addition to blocks at the initiation and elongation steps of viral transcription, there is a block in the export of viral RNA (vRNA), leading to the accumulation of multiply-spliced transcripts in the nucleus. Two of the genes encoded by the multiply-spliced transcripts are Tat and Rev, which are essential early in the viral replication cycle and might indicate the state of infection in a given population of cells. Here, the levels of multiply-spliced transcripts were compared to the levels of gag-containing RNA in tissue samples from RT-SHIV-infected rhesus macaques treated with HAART. Splice site sequence variation was identified during development of a TaqMan PCR assay. Multiply-spliced transcripts were detected in gastrointestinal and lymphatic tissues, but not the thymus. Levels of multiply-spliced transcripts were lower than levels of gag RNA, and both correlated with plasma virus loads. The ratio of multiply-spliced to gag RNA was greatest in the gastrointestinal samples from macaques with plasma virus loads <50 vRNA copies per mL at necropsy. Levels of gag RNA and multiply-spliced mRNA in tissues from RT-SHIV-infected macaques correlate with plasma virus load.
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