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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 50399 matches for " DA Odeny "
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New microsatellite markers for pigeonpea (cajanus cajan (L.) millsp.)
DA Odeny, Jayashree B, C Gebhardt, J Crouch
BMC Research Notes , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-2-35
Abstract: Primers were designed for 113 pigeonpea genomic SSRs, 73 of which amplified interpretable bands. Thirty-five of the primers revealed polymorphism among 24 pigeonpea breeding lines. The number of alleles detected ranged from 2 to 6 with a total of 110 alleles and an average of 3.1 alleles per locus. GT/CA and GAA class of repeats were the most abundant di-nucleotide and tri-nucleotide repeats respectively. Additionally, 220 soybean primers were tested in pigeonpea, 39 of which amplified interpretable bands.Despite the observed morphological diversity, there is little genetic diversity within cultivated pigeonpea as revealed by the developed microsatellites. Although some of the tested soybean microsatellites may be transferable to pigeonpea, lack of useful polymorphism may hinder their full use. A robust set of markers will still have to be developed for pigeonpea genome if molecular breeding is to be achieved.The increasing concern of the effect of global climate change and its likely impact on agriculture has stimulated scientists to search for crops that can withstand extreme environmental conditions. Among legumes, pigeonpea {Cajanus cajan (L.) Millspaugh} (2n = 22) has attracted attention as being both drought-tolerant [1] and highly nutritious [2]. Extensive morphological variation within the genus Cajanus as a whole and in cultivated species in particular has always led to the assumption that there exists abundant genetic diversity within the cultivated species. To the contrary, molecular studies have reported extremely low levels of polymorphism within the cultivated species compared to its wild relatives [3,4]. Such findings suggest that efforts towards the development of a linkage map of pigeonpea should focus on the use of an interspecific cross, and the development of a substantially high number of markers. We report the development of new 36 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers that will be an asset in characterising and understanding the nat
Comparison and Prediction of the above Ground Carbon Storage in Croplands on the Inhabited Slopes on Mount Kilimanjaro (Tanzania) and the Taita Hills (Kenya)  [PDF]
Odeny Dickens, Karanja Faith, Mwachala Geoffrey, Pellikka Petri, Marchant Rob
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2018.104022
Abstract: Mount Kilimanjaro and the Taita Hills are adjacent montane areas that experience similar climate and agricultural activity, but which differ in their geologic history, nature of elevation gradients and cultures. We assessed differences in cropland above ground carbon (AGC) between the two sites and against environmental variables. One hectare sampling plots were randomly distributed along elevational gradients stratified by cropland type; AGC was derived from all trees with diameter ≥ 10 cm at breast height in each plot. Predictor variables were physical and edaphic variables and human population. A generalized linear model was used for predicting AGC with AIC used for ranking models. AGC was spatially upscaled in 2 km buffer and visually compared. Kilimanjaro has higher AGC in cropped and agroforestry areas than the Taita Hills, but only significant difference in AGC variation in agroforestry areas (F = 9.36, p = 0.03). AGC in cropped land and agroforestry in Kilimanjaro has significant difference on mean (t = 4.62, p = 0.001) and variation (F = 17.41, p = 0.007). In the Taita Hills, significant difference is observed only on the mean AGC (t = 4.86, p = 0.001). Common tree species that contribute the most to AGC in Kilimanjaro are Albizia gummifera and Persea americana, and in the Taita Hills Grevillea robusta and Mangifera indica. Significant and univariate predictors of AGC in Mount Kilimanjaro are pH (R2 = 0.80, p = 0.00) and EVI (R2 = 0.68, p = 0.00). On Mount Kilimanjaro, the top multivariate model contained SOC, CEC, pH and BLD (R2 = 0.90, p = 0.00), whereas in the Taita Hills, the top multivariate model contained elevation, slope and population (R2 = 0.89, p = 0.00). Despite of the difference in land management history of Mount Kilimanjaro and the Taita Hills, mean of AGC in croplands does not differ significantly. Difference occurs on variation of AGC, type of trees contributing AGC, and environmental variables that explain AGC distribution. The research results provide reference for management of carbon sequestration on inhabited montane areas.
Impact of Climate Change on Species Distribution and Carbon Storage of Agroforestry Trees on Isolated East African Mountains  [PDF]
Dickens Odeny, Faith Karanja, Geoffrey Mwachala, Petri Pellikka, Rob Marchant
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2019.83020
Abstract: Changes in climate will affect conditions for species growth and distribution, particularly along elevation gradients, where environmental conditions change abruptly. Agroforestry tree (AGT) species on the densely inhabited slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro and Taita Hills will change their elevation distribution, and associated carbon storage. This study assesses the potential impacts of climate change by modelling species distribution using maximum entropy. We focus on important agroforestry tree species (Albiziagummifera, Mangiferaindica and Perseaamericana) and projected climate variables under IPCC-AR5 RCP 4.5 and 8.5 for the mid-century (2055) and late century (2085). Results show differential response: downward migration for M. indica on the slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro is contrasted with Avocado that will shift upslope on the Taita Hills under RCP 8.5. Perseaamericana will lose suitable habitat on Kilimanjaro whereas M. indica will expand habitat suitability. Potential increase in suitable areas for agroforestry species in Taita Hills will occur except for Albizia and Mango which will potentially decrease in suitable areas under RCP 4.5 for period 2055. Shift in minimum elevation range will affect species suitable areas ultimately influencing AGC on the slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro and Taita Hills. The AGC for agroforestry species will decrease on the slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro but AGC for Mango will increase under RCP 8.5 for period 2055 and 2085. In Taita Hills, AGC will remain relatively stable for A. gummifera and P. americana under RCP 8.5 for period 2055 and 2085 but decrease in AGC will occur for M. indica under projected climate change. Climate change will affect AGT species and the amount of carbon stored differently between the sites. Such insight can inform AGT species choice, and conservation and support development by improving carbon sequestration on sites and reliable food production.
Text Messaging to Improve Attendance at Post-Operative Clinic Visits after Adult Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Thomas A. Odeny, Robert C. Bailey, Elizabeth A. Bukusi, Jane M. Simoni, Kenneth A. Tapia, Krista Yuhas, King K. Holmes, R. Scott McClelland
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043832
Abstract: Background Following male circumcision for HIV prevention, a high proportion of men fail to return for their scheduled seven-day post-operative visit. We evaluated the effect of short message service (SMS) text messages on attendance at this important visit. Methodology We enrolled 1200 participants >18 years old in a two-arm, parallel, randomized controlled trial at 12 sites in Nyanza province, Kenya. Participants received daily SMS text messages for seven days (n = 600) or usual care (n = 600). The primary outcome was attendance at the scheduled seven-day post-operative visit. The primary analysis was by intention-to-treat. Principal Findings Of participants receiving SMS, 387/592 (65.4%) returned, compared to 356/596 (59.7%) in the control group (relative risk [RR] = 1.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00–1.20; p = 0.04). Men who paid more than US$1.25 to travel to clinic were at higher risk for failure to return compared to those who spent ≤US$1.25 (adjusted relative risk [aRR] 1.35, 95% CI 1.15–1.58; p<0.001). Men with secondary or higher education had a lower risk of failure to return compared to those with primary or less education (aRR 0.87, 95% CI 0.74–1.01; p = 0.07). Conclusions Text messaging resulted in a modest improvement in attendance at the 7-day post-operative clinic visit following adult male circumcision. Factors associated with failure to return were mainly structural, and included transportation costs and low educational level. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01186575
Risk Factors for Inadequate TB Case Finding in Rural Western Kenya: A Comparison of Actively and Passively Identified TB Patients
Anna H. van’t Hoog, Barbara J. Marston, John G. Ayisi, Janet A. Agaya, Odylia Muhenje, Lazarus O. Odeny, John Hongo, Kayla F. Laserson, Martien W. Borgdorff
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061162
Abstract: Background The findings of a prevalence survey conducted in western Kenya, in a population with 14.9% HIV prevalence suggested inadequate case finding. We found a high burden of infectious and largely undiagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), that a quarter of the prevalent cases had not yet sought care, and a low case detection rate. Objective and methods We aimed to identify factors associated with inadequate case finding among adults with PTB in this population by comparing characteristics of 194 PTB patients diagnosed in a health facility after self-report, i.e., through passive case detection, with 88 patients identified through active case detection during the prevalence survey. We examined associations between method of case detection and patient characteristics, including HIV-status, socio-demographic variables and disease severity in univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Findings HIV-infection was associated with faster passive case detection in univariable analysis (crude OR 3.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0–5.9), but in multivariable logistic regression this was largely explained by the presence of cough, illness and clinically diagnosed smear-negative TB (adjusted OR (aOR) HIV 1.8, 95% CI 0.85–3.7). Among the HIV-uninfected passive case detection was less successful in older patients aOR 0.76, 95%CI 0.60–0.97 per 10 years increase), and women (aOR 0.27, 95%CI 0.10–0.73). Reported current or past alcohol use reduced passive case detection in both groups (0.42, 95% CI 0.23–0.79). Among smear-positive patients median durations of cough were 4.0 and 6.9 months in HIV-infected and uninfected patients, respectively. Conclusion HIV-uninfected patients with infectious TB who were older, female, relatively less ill, or had a cough of a shorter duration were less likely found through passive case detection. In addition to intensified case finding in HIV-infected persons, increasing the suspicion of TB among HIV-uninfected women and the elderly are needed to improve TB case detection in Kenya.
Providers’ Perspectives on Provision of Family Planning to HIV-Positive Individuals in HIV Care in Nyanza Province, Kenya
Sara J. Newmann,Kavita Mishra,Maricianah Onono,Elizabeth A. Bukusi,Craig R. Cohen,Olivia Gage,Rose Odeny,Katie D. Schwartz,Daniel Grossman
AIDS Research and Treatment , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/915923
Abstract: Objective. To inform an intervention integrating family planning into HIV care, family planning (FP) knowledge, attitudes and practices, and perspectives on integrating FP into HIV care were assessed among healthcare providers in Nyanza Province, Kenya. Methods. Thirty-one mixed-method, structured interviews were conducted among a purposive sample of healthcare workers (HCWs) from 13 government HIV care facilities in Nyanza Province. Structured questions and case scenarios assessed contraceptive knowledge, training, and FP provision experience. Open-ended questions explored perspectives on integration. Data were analyzed descriptively and qualitatively. Results. Of the 31 HCWs interviewed, 45% reported previous FP training. Few providers thought long-acting methods were safe for HIV-positive women (19% viewed depot medroxyprogesterone acetate as safe and 36% viewed implants and intrauterine contraceptives as safe); fewer felt comfortable recommending them to HIV-positive women. Overall, providers supported HIV and family planning integration, yet several potential barriers were identified including misunderstandings about contraceptive safety, gendered power differentials relating to fertility decisions, staff shortages, lack of FP training, and contraceptive shortages. Conclusions. These findings suggest the importance of considering issues such as patient flow, provider burden, commodity supply, gender and cultural issues affecting FP use, and provider training in FP/HIV when designing integrated FP/HIV services in high HIV prevalence areas. 1. Introduction Unmet need for contraception and unintended pregnancy are prevalent among the estimated 13 million HIV-positive women in sub-Saharan Africa [1–3]. Unintended pregnancies account for 14–58% of all births in countries where the burden of HIV is the greatest [4]. In South Africa, a recent cohort study of women attending antiretroviral (ART) clinics found that 62% of pregnancies were unintended [5], while a cross-sectional study of pregnant women obtaining services for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) reported that 84% of pregnancies were unintended [6]. In a cohort of Ugandan women starting ART, 17% became pregnant over the two-year follow-up period, despite 93% not wanting or planning pregnancy [1]. Prevention of unintended pregnancy among HIV-positive women is one of the World Health Organization’s four cornerstones of preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) [7]. In many settings in sub-Saharan Africa, contraceptive services are provided in family planning (FP)
Integration of HIV Care with Primary Health Care Services: Effect on Patient Satisfaction and Stigma in Rural Kenya
Thomas A. Odeny,Jeremy Penner,Jayne Lewis-Kulzer,Hannah H. Leslie,Starley B. Shade,Walter Adero,Jackson Kioko,Craig R. Cohen,Elizabeth A. Bukusi
AIDS Research and Treatment , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/485715
Abstract: HIV departments within Kenyan health facilities are usually better staffed and equipped than departments offering non-HIV services. Integration of HIV services into primary care may address this issue of skewed resource allocation. Between 2008 and 2010, we piloted a system of integrating HIV services into primary care in rural Kenya. Before integration, we conducted a survey among returning adults ≥18-year old attending the HIV clinic. We then integrated HIV and primary care services. Three and twelve months after integration, we administered the same questionnaires to a sample of returning adults attending the integrated clinic. Changes in patient responses were assessed using truncated linear regression and logistic regression. At 12 months after integration, respondents were more likely to be satisfied with reception services (adjusted odds ratio, aOR 2.71, 95% CI 1.32–5.56), HIV education (aOR 3.28, 95% CI 1.92–6.83), and wait time (aOR 1.97 95% CI 1.03–3.76). Men's comfort with receiving care at an integrated clinic did not change (aOR = 0.46 95% CI 0.06–3.86). Women were more likely to express discomfort after integration (aOR 3.37 95% CI 1.33–8.52). Integration of HIV services into primary care services was associated with significant increases in patient satisfaction in certain domains, with no negative effect on satisfaction. 1. Introduction Funding targeted for HIV care programs in sub-Saharan Africa has produced tremendous results over the past several years, most notably the delivery of antiretroviral therapy to almost 4 million people in sub-Saharan Africa by 2009 [1, 2]. In Kenya, the number of people receiving antiretroviral therapy has increased from about 11,000 in 2003 to more than 138,000 patients in 2007 largely as a result of receiving the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) funds [3, 4]. This kind of directed “vertical” funding (for specific disease areas instead of for general improvements in primary health care) has allowed for specialized staff training, more rapid and efficient program implementation, and better-equipped facilities—including free laboratory services and medications—as HIV programs have been scaled-up [5]. These results may not have been possible in such a short time using an integrated approach to health care delivery. Nevertheless, the HIV epidemic has increased pressure on the Kenyan health care system as a whole by increasing the workload for health personnel—whose numbers have not increased proportionally to the demand [6]—and straining infrastructure capacity and public expenditure.
Screening Strategies for Tuberculosis Prevalence Surveys: The Value of Chest Radiography and Symptoms
Anna H. van’t Hoog, Helen K. Meme, Kayla F. Laserson, Janet A. Agaya, Benson G. Muchiri, Willie A. Githui, Lazarus O. Odeny, Barbara J. Marston, Martien W. Borgdorff
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038691
Abstract: Background We conducted a tuberculosis (TB) prevalence survey and evaluated the screening methods used in our survey, to assess if screening in TB prevalence surveys could be simplified, and to assess the accuracy of screening algorithms that may be applicable for active case finding. Methods All participants with a positive screen on either a symptom questionnaire, chest radiography (CXR) and/or sputum smear microscopy submitted sputum for culture. HIV status was obtained from prevalent cases. We estimated the accuracy of modified screening strategies with bacteriologically confirmed TB as the gold standard, and compared these with other survey reports. We also assessed whether sequential rather than parallel application of symptom, CXR and HIV screening would substantially reduce the number of participants requiring CXR and/or sputum culture. Results Presence of any abnormality on CXR had 94% (95%CI 88–98) sensitivity (92% in HIV-infected and 100% in HIV-uninfected) and 73% (95%CI 68–77) specificity. Symptom screening combinations had significantly lower sensitivity than CXR except for ‘any TB symptom’ which had 90% (95%CI 84–95) sensitivity (96% in HIV-infected and 82% in HIV-uninfected) and 32% (95%CI 30–34) specificity. Smear microscopy did not yield additional suspects, thus the combined symptom/CXR screen applied in the survey had 100% (95%CI 97–100) sensitivity. Specificity was 65% (95%CI 61–68). Sequential application of first a symptom screen for ‘any symptom’, followed by CXR-evaluation and different suspect criteria depending on HIV status would result in the largest reduction of the need for CXR and sputum culture, approximately 36%, but would underestimate prevalence by 11%. Conclusion CXR screening alone had higher accuracy compared to symptom screening alone. Combined CXR and symptom screening had the highest sensitivity and remains important for suspect identification in TB prevalence surveys in settings where bacteriological sputum examination of all participants is not feasible.
Minimal Repair Redundancy for Coherent Systemin its Signatures Representation  [PDF]
Vanderlei da Costa Bueno
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2011.11002
Abstract: In this paper we discuss how to maintain the signature representation of a coherent system through a minimal repair redundancy. In a martingale framework we use compensator transforms to identify how the components minimal repairs affect the order statistics in the signature representation.
A Coherent System Component Importance under Its Signatures Representation  [PDF]
Vanderlei da Costa Bueno
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2011.13019
Abstract: In this paper we discuss how to measure the component importance for a system in its signature representation. The definition is given in terms of compensator transform and it can be considered as a new formalization of the ideas presented by Bergman [1] in the context of system signature.
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