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Health inequalities and the health of the poor: What do we know? What can we do?
Gwatkin,D.R;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862000000100002
Abstract: the contents of this theme section of the bulletin of the world health organization on "inequalities in health" have two objectives: to present the initial findings from a new generation of research that has been undertaken in response to renewed concern for health inequalities; and to stimulate movement for action in order to correct the problems identified by this research. the research findings are presented in the five articles which follow. this critical reflection proposes two initial steps for the action needed to alleviate the problem; other suggestions are given by the participants in a round table discussion which is published after these articles. the theme section concludes with extracts from the classic writings of the nineteenth-century public health pioneer, william farr, who is widely credited as one of the founders of the scientific study of health inequalities, together with a commentary. this critical reflection contributes to the discussion of the action needed by proposing two initial steps for action. ? that professionals who give very high priority to the distinct but related objectives of poverty alleviation, inequality reduction, and equity enhancement recognize that their shared concern for the distributional aspects of health policy is far more important than any differences that may divide them. ? that health policy goals, currently expressed as societal averages, be reformulated so that they point specifically to conditions among the poor and to poor-rich differences. for example, infant mortality rates among the poor or the differences in infant mortality between rich and poor sectors would be more useful indicators than the average infant mortality rates for the whole population.
Sleep Deprivation And Exam Anxiety
D.R. Dodia
Golden Research Thoughts , 2012, DOI: 10.9780/22315063
Abstract: The present study was undertaken to study the effect of exam anxiety on students' sleep deprivation and also correlation between exam anxiety and sleep deprivation. A sample of 260 students(174 males and 86 females) of 10th grade were drawn through the simple random technique from Gandhinagar district.
Dentition and age determination of the Warthog Phacochoems aethiopicus in Zululand, South Africa
D.R Mason
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science , 1984, DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v27i1.553
Abstract: Age-specific stages of tooth replacement, eruption and attrition are described for warthogs shot during population control in Zululand. Patterns of tooth replacement and eruption allowed reasonably accurate age determination up to 24 months, whereafter 2-3 year old warthogs could generally be distinguished from older individuals by the relative growth of their third molars. Although stages of wear and loss of the teeth, especially the three molars, were associated with broad age classes, age of adult warthogs may be determined more precisely by counting cementum annuli in sectioned incisor teeth. However, cementum annuli were insufficiently distinctive to permit age estimation in approximately 33 of sections, reflecting particularly variation in intensity and clarity of staining and splitting and merging of rest lines. The use of eye lens dry mass and tusk length: snout width ratios as indices of age was also evaluated. Eye lens dry mass became increasingly unreliable for predicting age beyond 24 months. Considering males and females separately, tusk length: snout width ratios for yearling, 2-3 year old and 3-4 year old warthogs were reasonably distinctive, but subsequent overlap was apparently unfavourable for reliable differentiation of year classes among older warthogs. Body size and tusk * development criteria for distinguishing between three age classes ofwarthogs in the field are presented.
Juvenile survival and population structure of blue wildebeest and warthogs in the Central Region of the Kruger National Park during the mid-summer drought of 1988/89
D.R. Mason
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science , 1990, DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v33i1.450
Abstract: The survey was undertaken to investigate juvenile survival and population structure of blue wildebeest and warthogs during a mid-summer drought, and to gain sup- plementary data for a longer-term population monitoring programme. The per- centage of adult wildebeest cows with juveniles was lower than normal for the time, but was not commensurate with a sharp decline in the population. Warthogs did not tolerate the drought as well as wildebeest and experienced a larger reduction in juvenile recruitment, albeit much less than the 80-90 losses of piglets recorded in the more severe drought of late 1982.
Monitoring of sex and age ratios in ungulate populations of the Kruger National Park by ground survey
D.R. Mason
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science , 1990, DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v33i1.449
Abstract: Objectives, techniques and problems of monitoring ungulate population structure and trends using standardised ground surveys as an adjunct to aerial counts are described and discussed in the light of experience gained over the past seven years. Because of ambiguities inherent in the interpretation of juvenile survival rates from data on age class distributions and until the accuracy and repeatability of the aerial counts in Kruger National Park have been assessed, a complementary approach to population monitoring using ground and aerial surveys is advocated.
CAVEATS FOR MAINTENANCE RESEARCHERS
D.R. Snaddon
South African Journal of Industrial Engineering , 2012,
Abstract: ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper defines maintenance and comments on information gathering for specific maintenance activities. It investigates some of the problems for those who want to research maintenance topics. Problems include slack definitions and not enough comparable information at a minimum standard of accuracy. AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie artikel verskaf 'n defmisie van onderhoud en lewer komentaar omtrent die insameling van inligting oor spesifieke onderhouds-aktiwiteite. Die artikel ondersoek sommige van die probleme van navorsers wat onderwerpe van onderhoud bestudeer. 'n Gebrek aan die dUidelike omskywing van sleutelbegrippe en 'n onvoldoende vergelykbare inligting van voldoende akkuraatheid is van hiedie probleme.
COMPARATIVE DEMOGRAPHICS OF THE WITWATERSRAND BRANCH OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN INSTITUTE OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERS
D.R. Snaddon
South African Journal of Industrial Engineering , 2012,
Abstract: ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper researches demographic characteristics of members of the Witwatersrand branch of the South African Institute of Industrial Engineers. It draws comparisons between members and other groups of graduates concerning age, highest educational qualification, geographical place of employment, sector and type of industry. Then the type of tasks that IEs undertake is discussed both within and outside "engineering". AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die demografiese eienskappe van lede van die Witwatersrandse tak van die suid-Afrikaanse Instituut van Bedryfsingenieurs word in die artikel ontleed. Verskille in ouderdom, hoogste akademiese prestasie, geografiese gebied waar in diens, asook sektor en tipe nywerheid, tussen lede en ander gegradueerders word bespreek. Daarna is die aktiwi teite, wat bedryfsingenieurs onderneem, beide binne en buite "ingenieurswerk" bespreek.
Improving the engineering systems reliability by formalizing the failure search
Absalyamov D.R.
Magazine of Civil Engineering , 2012,
Abstract: In the article a method of the failures search formalizing by efficiency indicators of energy resources in heating, ventilation and air conditioning of buildings and structures is proposed. The main feature of this method is the combination of the educational process and the procedure of selecting a minimal set of controlled parameters.In the framework of the method a way of training patterns grouping and groups ranking in order to accelerate the convergence of the learning process, as well as the modification of training procedures at low volume and lack of a priori information about the system is considered. The solution of the problem of choosing a minimal set of controlled parameters is based on the properties of orthogonal vector systems.
Article Review - Social Presence within the Community of Inquiry Framework
D.R. Garrison
International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning , 2012,
Abstract:
Here I Stand: Mediated Bodies in Dissent
D.R. Koukal
MediaTropes , 2010,
Abstract: Of all of the various forms of political dissent, the most dramatic as a form of expression is that which places lived bodies in tension with the prevailing social order. Bodies so presented—in marches, strikes, sit-ins, demonstrations and other mass assemblies—are just the opposite of Foucault’s docile bodies. They are a collective will concretized, an intersubjective mass animated by a common purpose that fills a public space and obstinately makes their shared demand. The presence of such dissenting bodies assembled in various public spaces have at times been essential in dramatizing grievances and re-constituting the meaning of a political landscape. Though such dissenting bodies have often been met with the full force of the state, the political efficacy of such bodies has been seriously undermined in recent years due to more subtle strategies to suppress such dissent, and counterstrategies meant to circumscribe these efforts at suppression. The goal of this essay is to explore these developments through phenomenological analysis. Preliminary considerations of (1) different forms of political potency and (2) the lived body and its movement through space, will be followed by (3) an investigation of what it means to be a dissenting body witnessed within a public place, and (4) what happens when dissenting bodies are consigned to circumscribed spaces or retreat to the “virtual.” This analysis will show how these developments have rendered dissenting bodies far less politically effective than they have been in the past, which dangerously weakens the democratic traditions of free speech and open dissent. This, in turn, supports a call (5) for a re-assertion of the embodied subject into the practice of political dissent.
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