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FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF TERBUTALINE SULPHATE MUCOADHESIVE BUCCAL TABLETS
Gururaj S.Kulkarni,N.G RaghavendraRao,D.Narasimhareddy
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2013, DOI: 10.7897/2230-8407.04340
Abstract: The main objective of developing any new dosage form is reduce the side effects and increase the therapeutic effect of drug in existing dose of dosage form. Mucoadhesive drug delivery system is oral dosage form, where the tablet, gel or patch is attached to the buccal region for direct absorption of drug into blood circulation. This route can prevent the metabolism of drug in G.I tract or liver and side effects of metabolites avoided. In this study, the attempt was made to prepare mucoadhesive buccal tablets of Terbutaline sulphate with natural polymer sodium alginate with one side absorption by backing layer with ethyl cellulose. The buccal tablets of Terbutaline sulphate studied in detail. I R Spectroscopy did the compatible study between polymers and Terbutaline sulphate and No interaction was found between drug and polymers. Different formulations of oral Mucoadhesive buccal tablets of Terbutaline Sulphate (TS) were prepared using polymer sodium alginate, in different concentrations by direct compression. Post compressed evaluation studies, hardness, thickness, friability; weight variation and drug content, mucoadhesive strength of tablets were studied. The in-vitro release of TS was studied in buffer pH 6.8 at 370C. All parameters of TS buccal tablets are passed the standard of mucoadhesive buccal tablets. It was found that mucoadhesive natural polymers exhibited better adhesiveness and mucoadhesiveness. The in vitro study of TS exhibited greater drug release profile with release of in the range of 79.25 to 99.85%.
Electrical Conductivity of Collapsed Multilayer Graphene Tubes  [PDF]
D. Mendoza
World Journal of Nano Science and Engineering (WJNSE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wjnse.2012.22009
Abstract: Synthesis of multilayer graphene on copper wires by a chemical vapor deposition method is reported. After copper etching, the multilayer tube collapses forming stripes of graphitic films, their electrical conductance as a function of temperature indicate a semiconductor-like behavior. Using the multilayer graphene stripes, a cross junction is built and owing to its electrical behavior we propose that a tunneling process exists in the device.
Porous Carbon Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition on Copper Substrates  [PDF]
D. Mendoza
Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering (MSCE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/msce.2015.38003
Abstract: Amorphous porous carbon was synthesized by chemical vapor deposition on copper substrates. The average size of the pores is around 1.2 microns with some small pores decorating the big ones. Lamellar samples of this carbonaceous material can be separated from the copper support and may be useful as electrode due to its low electrical resistivity of the order of 0.4 Ωcm.
Application of Enzyme Extracted from Aloe vera Plant in Chemical Pretreatment of Cotton Knitted Textile to Reduce Pollution Load  [PDF]
D. Jothi
World Journal of Engineering and Technology (WJET) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2015.33B007
Abstract:

Nowadays, highly alkaline chemicals like caustic soda, soda ash, silicate, acetic acid and soaping agents are used for scouring to remove the non-cellulosic impurities from the cotton. Using 30 - 40 gm/Kg on weight of the fabric results in destruction of cotton structure. Intensive rinsing and more acid is needed for reutilization of cotton, which enlarges the volume of effluent. Furthermore, these hazards chemicals result in increase in COD, BOD and TDS in waste water. These chemicals also attack the cellulose leading to heavy strength loss and weight loss in the fabric. The net result is low quality control and polluted environment with high usage of energy, time, chemical and water. Aloe vera presents the finest commercial opportunity in various industrial sectors among the various plants. Also, most of the countries are gifted with the unique geographical features that are essential for cultivation of Aloe vera. Yet, none of the country has realized and reaped the full potential of such plants in various industrial applications. The reason is simple: lack of the requisite expertise in extraction of various enzymes present in aloe plant. Fortunately, the technology is now accessible to make use of enzyme in textile application. In this research an attempt has been made to make use of lipase enzyme extracted from aloe plant in textile chemical pre- treatment process. In the present research work, an attempt was made to develop bio scouring of 100% cotton knitted fabric with lipase enzyme extracted from Aloe deberena plant at various concentration (1%, 2% and 3%) at various temperature (40?C, 60?C and 70?C) for a period of 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 90 minutes. The properties of bio scoured fabrics are compared with these of conventional scoured one. Encouraging results in terms of dye uptake, dye levelness, wash fastness, light fastness and rubbing fastness are obtained in case of bio scouring fabric dyed with dark reactive colors. Further, it reduces volume of effluent as well as COD, TDS and pH. It saves a substantial thermal energy 50% and electrical energy 40%. Bio scouring waste water has 40% - 50% less COD and 60% less TDS as compared to conventional scouring waste water.

Hyporheic Zone Hydrochemistry of the Mine-Polluted River  [PDF]
D. Ciszewski
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2015.310008
Abstract:

Intensity of stream waters mixing with groundwaters and lateral extent of these processes in the hyporheic zone were investigated in a near-bank sandbar and an adjacent floodplain through the comparison of groundwaters and stream water chemistry of the Bia?a Przemsza River in southern Poland. The stream waters were polluted by the discharge of mine waters from “Boles?aw” lead and zinc mine. The investigated waters were several times more mineralized than the natural spring waters of the river valley. The concentration of: potassium, sodium, and the pH, as well as cadmium, lead, and zinc decreased in the hyporheic zone towards the stream bank, whereas conductance, calcium, magnesium, sulphates, as well as silica contents were the highest on the floodplain, diminishing towards the stream. The changes observed in the chemical composition of groundwaters were apparent in mixing stream waters below the depth of 2 m with shallow groundwaters draining the valley slope. Hyporheic mixing also takes place in the 10-meter-wide, marginal zone of the sandbar, whereas in the 5-meter-wide stream-side zone of the sandbar groundwaters represent weakly transformed stream water.

Fractional Topological Insulators—A Bosonization Approach  [PDF]
D. Schmeltzer
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2016.71012
Abstract: A metallic disk with strong spin orbit interaction is investigated. The finite disk geometry introduces a confining potential. Due to the strong spin-orbit interaction and confining potential the metal disk is described by an effective one-dimensional model with a harmonic potential. The harmonic potential gives rise to classical turning points. As a result, open boundary conditions must be used. We bosonize the model and obtain chiral Bosons for each spin on the edge of the disk. When the filling fraction is reduced to \"\" the electron-electron interactions are studied by using the Jordan Wigner phase for composite fermions which give rise to a Luttinger liquid. When the metallic disk is in the proximity with a superconductor, a Fractional Topological Insulator is obtained. An experimental realization is proposed. We show that by tunning the chemical potential we control the classical turning points for which a Fractional Topological Insulator is realized.
Utilizing Dimensional Analysis with Observed Data to Determine the Significance of Hydrodynamic Solutions in Coastal Hydrology  [PDF]
Eric D. Swain, Jeremy D. Decker, Joseph D. Hughes
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering (CWEEE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/cweee.2014.32008
Abstract:

In this paper, the authors present an analysis of the magnitude of the temporal and spatial acceleration (inertial) terms in the surface-water flow equations and determine the conditions under which these inertial terms have sufficient magnitude to be required in the computations. Data from two South Florida field sites are examined and the relative magnitudes of temporal acceleration, spatial acceleration, and the gravity and friction terms are compared. Parameters are derived by using dimensionless numbers and applied to quantify the significance of the hydrodynamic effects. The time series of the ratio of the inertial and gravity terms from field sites are presented and compared with both a simplified indicator parameter and a more complex parameter called the Hydrodynamic Significance Number (HSN). Two test-case models were developed by using the SWIFT2D hydrodynamic simulator to examine flow behavior with and without the inertial terms and compute the HSN. The first model represented one of the previously-mentioned field sites during gate operations of a structure-managed coastal canal. The second model was a synthetic test case illustrating the drainage of water down a sloped surface from an initial stage while under constant flow. The analyses indicate that the times of substantial hydrodynamic effects are sporadic but significant. The simplified indicator parameter correlates much better with the hydrodynamic effect magnitude for a constant width channel such as Miami Canal than at the non-uniform North River. Higher HSN values indicate flow situations where the inertial terms are large and need to be taken into account.

Third Order Current Mode Universal Filter Using Only Op.amp. and OTAs  [PDF]
G. N. Shinde, D. D. Mulajkar
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2010.12011
Abstract: A novel current mode active-only universal filter using four dual current output Operational Transconductance Amplifiers (OTAs) and three Operational Amplifiers (OAs) is presented. The circuit can realize low pass and high pass filter characteristics by choosing the suitable current output branches. The filter performance factors natural frequency (ω0), bandwidth , quality factor Q and transconductance gain gm are electronically tunable. The proposed circuit has very low sensitivities with respect to circuit active elements. From sensitivity analysis, it has been clearly shown that the proposed circuit has very low sensitivities with respect to the circuit active elements. The gain roll-off of high pass and low pass configuration is 18 dB/oc- tave. The proposed circuit facilitates integrability, programmability and ease of implementation.
Efficacy of Bacterial Adaptation on Copper Biodissolution from a Low Grade Chalcopyrite Ore by A. ferrooxidans  [PDF]
. Abhilash, K. D. Mehta, Bansi D. Pandey
International Journal of Nonferrous Metallurgy (IJNM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijnm.2012.11001
Abstract: A low-grade ore containing ~0.3% Cu, remains unutilized for want of a viable process at Malanjkhand Copper Project (MCP), India in which copper is present as chalcopyrite associated with pyrite in quartz veins and granitic rocks. In order to extract copper from this material, bioleaching has been attempted on bench scale using Acidithiobacillus fer-rooxidans (A. ferrooxidans) isolated from the native mine water. The enriched culture containing A. ferrooxidans when adapted to the ore and employed for the bioleaching at 5% (w/v) pulp density, pH 2.0 and 25°C with three particle sizes viz.150 -76 μm, 76 - 50 μm and <50 μm, resulted in recovery of 38.31%, 29.68% and 47.5% Cu respectively with a maximum rise in redox potential (ESCE) from 530 to 654 mV in 35 days. Under similar conditions, the unadapted strains gave a recovery of 44.0% for <50 μm size particles with a rise in ESCE from 525 to 650 mV. On using unadapted bacte-rial culture directly in shake flask at pH 2.0 and 35°C temperature and 5% (w/v) pulp density (PD) for <50 μm size par-ticles, 72% Cu bio-dissolution was achieved in 35 days. Copper biorecovery increased to 75.3% under similar condi-tions with a rise in bacterial count from 1 × 107 cells/mL to 1.13 × 109 cells/mL in 35 days. The higher bio-recovery of copper with the adapted bacterial culture may be attributed to the improved iron oxidation (Fe2+ to Fe3+) exhibiting higher ESCE as compared to that of unadapted strains.
Estimation of Weight and Lipid Composition in Preimplantation Embryos from Jersey and Beef Breeds of Cattle  [PDF]
Julie D. Weathers, Samuel D. Prien
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2014.411031
Abstract:

Cryopreservation is the main functional means for storage of excess embryos produced from artificial reproductive technologies; the process assumes embryos chemical nature is highly conserved across embryos of the same species. However, in practice there appears to be a high degree of variability in embryo tolerance to cryopreservation, suggesting potential differences in embryo chemistry. The objective of the current study was to develop reproducible means of estimating relative embryos weight and associating those weights to lipid content. Relative embryo weights of frozen/thawed in-vivo Jersey and Crossbred beef breed embryos were determined using a modified specific gravity chamber. Embryo weights were then correlated with lipid content. Results suggest that beef cattle embryos are 20% - 27% heavier than Jersey embryos (P < 0.001). Electron microscopy (EM) data suggest that these differences are due to divergent lipid content; Jersey embryos having approximately 36% lipid as compared to 8% in beef cattle embryos (P < 0.01); explaining the Jersey embryos lighter weight.

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