Abstract:
Directionally convex ($dcx$) ordering is a tool for comparison of dependence structure of random vectors that also takes into account the variability of the marginal distributions. When extended to random fields it concerns comparison of all finite dimensional distributions. Viewing locally finite measures as non-negative fields of measure-values indexed by the bounded Borel subsets of the space, in this paper we formulate and study the $dcx$ ordering of random measures on locally compact spaces. We show that the $dcx$ order is preserved under some of the natural operations considered on random measures and point processes, such as deterministic displacement of points, independent superposition and thinning as well as independent, identically distributed marking. Further operations such as position dependent marking and displacement of points though do not preserve the $dcx$ order on all point processes, are shown to preserve the order on Cox point processes. We also examine the impact of $dcx$ order on the second moment properties, in particular on clustering and on Palm distributions. Comparisons of Ripley's functions, pair correlation functions as well as examples seem to indicate that point processes higher in $dcx$ order cluster more. As the main result, we show that non-negative integral shot-noise fields with respect to $dcx$ ordered random measures inherit this ordering from the measures. Numerous applications of this result are shown, in particular to comparison of various Cox processes and some performance measures of wireless networks, in both of which shot-noise fields appear as key ingredients. We also mention a few pertinent open questions.

Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a new comparison tool for spatial homogeneity of point processes, based on the joint examination of void probabilities and factorial moment measures. We prove that determinantal and permanental processes, as well as, more generally, negatively and positively associated point processes are comparable in this sense to the Poisson point process of the same mean measure. We provide some motivating results and preview further ones, showing that the new tool is relevant in the study of macroscopic, percolative properties of point processes. This new comparison is also implied by the directionally convex ($dcx$ ordering of point processes, which has already been shown to be relevant to comparison of spatial homogeneity of point processes. For this latter ordering, using a notion of lattice perturbation, we provide a large monotone spectrum of comparable point processes, ranging from periodic grids to Cox processes, and encompassing Poisson point process as well. They are intended to serve as a platform for further theoretical and numerical studies of clustering, as well as simple models of random point patterns to be used in applications where neither complete regularity northe total independence property are not realistic assumptions.

Abstract:
We are interested in phase transitions in certain percolation models on point processes and their dependence on clustering properties of the point processes. We show that point processes with smaller void probabilities and factorial moment measures than the stationary Poisson point process exhibit non-trivial phase transition in the percolation of some coverage models based on level-sets of additive functionals of the point process. Examples of such point processes are determinantal point processes, some perturbed lattices, and more generally, negatively associated point processes. Examples of such coverage models are $k$-coverage in the Boolean model (coverage by at least $k$ grains) and SINR-coverage (coverage if the signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio is large). In particular, we answer in affirmative the hypothesis of existence of phase transition in the percolation of $k$-faces in the \v{C}ech simplicial complex (called also clique percolation) on point processes which cluster less than the Poisson process. We also construct a Cox point process, which is "more clustered" than the Poisson point process and whose Boolean model percolates for arbitrarily small radius. This shows that clustering (at least, as detected by our specific tools) does not always "worsen" percolation, as well as that upper-bounding this clustering by a Poisson process is a consequential assumption for the phase transition to hold.

Abstract:
Heuristics indicate that point processes exhibiting clustering of points have larger critical radius $r_c$ for the percolation of their continuum percolation models than spatially homogeneous point processes. It has already been shown, and we reaffirm it in this paper, that the $dcx$ ordering of point processes is suitable to compare their clustering tendencies. Hence, it was tempting to conjecture that $r_c$ is increasing in $dcx$ order. Some numerical evidences support this conjecture for a special class of point processes, called perturbed lattices, which are "toy models" for determinantal and permanental point processes. However, the conjecture is not true in full generality, since one can construct a Cox point process with degenerate critical radius $r_c=0$, that is $dcx$ larger than a given homogeneous Poisson point process. Nevertheless, we are able to compare some nonstandard critical radii related, respectively, to the finiteness of the expected number of void circuits around the origin and asymptotic of the expected number of long occupied paths from the origin in suitable discrete approximations of the continuum model. These new critical radii sandwich the "true" one. Surprisingly, the inequalities for them go in opposite directions, which gives uniform lower and upper bounds on $r_c$ for all processes $dcx$ smaller than some given process. In fact, the above results hold under weaker assumptions on the ordering of void probabilities or factorial moment measures only. Examples of point processes comparable to Poisson processes in this weaker sense include determinantal and permanental processes. More generally, we show that point processes $dcx$ smaller than homogeneous Poisson processes exhibit phase transitions in certain percolation models based on the level-sets of additive shot-noise fields, as e.g. $k$-percolation and SINR-percolation.

Abstract:
We consider a class of point processes (pp), which we call {\em sub-Poisson}; these are pp that can be directionally-convexly ($dcx$) dominated by some Poisson pp. The $dcx$ order has already been shown useful in comparing various point process characteristics, including Ripley's and correlation functions as well as shot-noise fields generated by pp, indicating in particular that smaller in the $dcx$ order processes exhibit more regularity (less clustering, less voids) in the repartition of their points. Using these results, in this paper we study the impact of the $dcx$ ordering of pp on the properties of two continuum percolation models, which have been proposed in the literature to address macroscopic connectivity properties of large wireless networks. As the first main result of this paper, we extend the classical result on the existence of phase transition in the percolation of the Gilbert's graph (called also the Boolean model), generated by a homogeneous Poisson pp, to the class of homogeneous sub-Poisson pp. We also extend a recent result of the same nature for the SINR graph, to sub-Poisson pp. Finally, as examples we show that the so-called perturbed lattices are sub-Poisson. More generally, perturbed lattices provide some spectrum of models that ranges from periodic grids, usually considered in cellular network context, to Poisson ad-hoc networks, and to various more clustered pp including some doubly stochastic Poisson ones.

Abstract:
There has been considerable recent interest, primarily motivated by problems in applied algebraic topology, in the homology of random simplicial complexes. We consider the scenario in which the vertices of the simplices are the points of a random point process in $\mathbb {R}^d$, and the edges and faces are determined according to some deterministic rule, typically leading to \v{C}ech and Vietoris-Rips complexes. In particular, we obtain results about homology, as measured via the growth of Betti numbers, when the vertices are the points of a general stationary point process. This significantly extends earlier results in which the points were either i.i.d. observations or the points of a Poisson process. In dealing with general point processes, in which the points exhibit dependence such as attraction or repulsion, we find phenomena quantitatively different from those observed in the i.i.d. and Poisson cases. From the point of view of topological data analysis, our results seriously impact considerations of model (non)robustness for statistical inference. Our proofs rely on analysis of subgraph and component counts of stationary point processes, which are of independent interest in stochastic geometry.

Abstract:
Given two independent Poisson point processes $\Phi^{(1)},\Phi^{(2)}$ in $R^d$, the continuum AB percolation model is the graph with points of $\Phi^{(1)}$ as vertices and with edges between any pair of points for which the intersection of balls of radius $2r$ centred at these points contains at least one point of $\Phi^{(2)}$. This is a generalization of the $AB$ percolation model on discrete lattices. We show the existence of percolation for all $d > 1$ and derive bounds for a critical intensity. We also provide a characterization for this critical intensity when $d = 2$. To study the connectivity problem, we consider independent Poisson point processes of intensities $n$ and $cn$ in the unit cube. The $AB$ random geometric graph is defined as above but with balls of radius $r$. We derive a weak law result for the largest nearest neighbour distance and almost sure asymptotic bounds for the connectivity threshold.

Abstract:
Let P := {X_i,i >= 1} be a stationary Poisson point process in R^d, {C_i,i >= 1} be a sequence of i.i.d. random sets in R^d, and {Y_i^t; t \geq 0, i >= 1} be i.i.d. {0,1}-valued continuous time stationary Markov chains. We define the Markov-Poisson-Boolean model C_t := {Y_i^t(X_i + C_i), i >= 1}. C_t represents the coverage process at time t. We first obtain limit laws for k-coverage of an area at an arbitrary instant. We then obtain the limit laws for the k-coverage seen by a particle as it moves along a one-dimensional path.

Abstract:
In this chapter we review some examples, methods, and recent results involving comparison of clustering properties of point processes. Our approach is founded on some basic observations allowing us to consider void probabilities and moment measures as two complementary tools for capturing clustering phenomena in point processes. As might be expected, smaller values of these characteristics indicate less clustering. Also, various global and local functionals of random geometric models driven by point processes admit more or less explicit bounds involving void probabilities and moment measures, thus aiding the study of impact of clustering of the underlying point process. When stronger tools are needed, directional convex ordering of point processes happens to be an appropriate choice, as well as the notion of (positive or negative) association, when comparison to the Poisson point process is considered. We explain the relations between these tools and provide examples of point processes admitting them. Furthermore, we sketch some recent results obtained using the aforementioned comparison tools, regarding percolation and coverage properties of the Boolean model, the SINR model, subgraph counts in random geometric graphs, and more generally, U-statistics of point processes. We also mention some results on Betti numbers for \v{C}ech and Vietoris-Rips random complexes generated by stationary point processes. A general observation is that many of the results derived previously for the Poisson point process generalise to some "sub-Poisson" processes, defined as those clustering less than the Poisson process in the sense of void probabilities and moment measures, negative association or dcx-ordering.

Abstract:
We consider the topology of simplicial complexes with vertices the points of a random point process and faces determined by distance relationships between the vertices. In particular, we study the Betti numbers of these complexes as the number of vertices becomes large, obtaining limit theorems for means, strong laws, concentration inequalities and central limit theorems. As opposed to most prior papers treating random complexes, the limit with which we work is in the so-called `thermodynamic' regime (which includes the percolation threshold) in which the complexes become very large and complicated, with complex homology characterised by diverging Betti numbers. The proofs combine probabilistic arguments from the theory of stabilizing functionals of point processes and topological arguments exploiting the properties of Mayer-Vietoris exact sequences. The Mayer-Vietoris arguments are crucial, since homology in general, and Betti numbers in particular, are global rather than local phenomena, and most standard probabilistic arguments are based on the additivity of functionals arising as a consequence of locality.