Abstract:
We investigate the dynamics following sudden quenches across quantum critical points belonging to different universality classes. Specifically, we use matrix product state methods to study the quantum Ising chain in the presence of two additional terms which break integrability. We find that in all models the rate function for the return probability to the initial state becomes a non-analytic function of time in the thermodynamic limit. This so-called `dynamical phase transition' was first observed in a recent work by Heyl, Polkovnikov, and Kehrein [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 135704 (2013)] for the exactly-solvable quantum Ising chain, which can be mapped to free fermions. Our results for `interacting theories' indicate that non-analytic dynamics is a generic feature of sudden quenches across quantum critical points. We discuss potential connections to the dynamics of the order parameter.

Abstract:
We study linear response and nonequilibrium steady-state thermoelectric transport through a single-level quantum dot tunnel coupled to two reservoirs held at different temperatures as well as chemical potentials. A fermion occupying the dot interacts with those in the reservoirs by a short-ranged two-particle interaction. For parameters for which particles flow against a bias voltage from the hot to the cold reservoir this setup acts as an energy-conversion device with which electrical energy is gained out of waste heat. We investigate how correlations affect its efficiency and output power. In linear response the changes in the thermoelectric properties can be traced back to the interaction induced renormalization of the resonance line shape. In particular, small to intermediate repulsive interactions reduce the maximum efficiency. In nonequilibrium the situation is more complex and we identify a parameter regime in which for a fixed lower bound of the output power the efficiency increases.

Abstract:
Motivated by recent scanning tunneling and photoemission spectroscopy measurements on self-organized gold chains on a germanium surface we reinvestigate the local single-particle spectral properties of Luttinger liquids. In the first part we use the bosonization approach to exactly compute the local spectral function of a simplified field theoretical low-energy model and take a closer look at scaling properties as a function of the ratio of energy and temperature. Translational invariant Luttinger liquids as well as those with an open boundary (cut chain geometry) are considered. We explicitly show that the scaling functions of both setups have the same analytic form. The scaling behavior suggests a variety of consistency checks which can be performed on measured data to experimentally verify Luttinger liquid behavior. In a second part we approximately compute the local spectral function of a microscopic lattice model---the extended Hubbard model---close to an open boundary using the functional renormalization group. We show that as a function of energy and temperature it follows the field theoretical prediction in the low-energy regime and point out the importance of nonuniversal energy scales inherent to any microscopic model. The spatial dependence of this spectral function is characterized by oscillatory behavior and an envelope function which follows a power law both in accordance with the field theoretical continuum model. Interestingly, for the lattice model we find a phase shift which is proportional to the two-particle interaction and not accounted for in the standard bosonization approach to Luttinger liquids with an open boundary. We briefly comment on the effects of several one-dimensional branches cutting the Fermi energy and Rashba spin-orbit interaction.

Abstract:
We study the relaxation dynamics of the one-dimensional Tomonaga-Luttinger model after an interaction quench paying particular attention to the momentum dependence of the two-particle interaction. Several potentials of different analytical form are investigated all leading to universal Luttinger liquid physics in equilibrium. The steady-state fermionic momentum distribution shows universal behavior in the sense of the Luttinger liquid phenomenology. For generic regular potentials the large time decay of the momentum distribution function towards the steady-state value is characterized by a power law with a universal exponent which only depends on the potential at zero momentum transfer. A commonly employed ad hoc procedure fails to give this exponent. Besides quenches from zero to positive interactions we also consider abrupt changes of the interaction between two arbitrary values. Additionally, we discuss the appearance of a factor of two between the steady-state momentum distribution function and the one obtained in equilibrium at equal two-particle interaction.

Abstract:
We provide strong evidence that the relaxation dynamics of one-dimensional, metallic Fermi systems resulting out of an abrupt amplitude change of the two-particle interaction has aspects which are universal in the Luttinger liquid sense: The leading long-time behavior of certain observables is described by universal functions of the equilibrium Luttinger liquid parameter and the renormalized velocity. We analytically derive those functions for the Tomonaga-Luttinger model and verify our hypothesis of universality by considering spinless lattice fermions within the framework of the density matrix renormalization group.

Abstract:
We study non-equilibrium current and occupation probabilities of a two-orbital quantum dot. The couplings to the leads are allowed to be asymmetric and orbital dependent as it is generically the case in transport experiments on molecules and nanowires. Starting from a two-orbital Anderson model, we perform a generalised Schrieffer-Wolff transformation to derive an effective Kondo model. This generates an orbital potential scattering contribution which is of the same order as the spin exchange interaction. In a first perturbative analysis we identify a regime of negative differential conductance and a cascade resonance in the presence of an external magnetic field, which both originate from the non-equilibrium occupation of the orbitals. We then study the logarithmic enhancement of these signatures by means of a renormalisation-group treatment. We find that the orbital potential scattering qualitatively changes the renormalisation of the spin exchange couplings and strongly affects the differential conductance for asymmetric couplings.

Abstract:
Using a real-time renormalization group method we study the minimal model of a quantum dot dominated by charge fluctuations, the two-lead interacting resonant level model, at finite bias voltage. We develop a set of RG equations to treat the case of weak and strong charge fluctuations, together with the determination of power-law exponents up to second order in the Coulomb interaction. We derive analytic expressions for the charge susceptibility, the steady-state current and the conductance in the situation of arbitrary system parameters, in particular away from the particle-hole symmetric point and for asymmetric Coulomb interactions. In the generic asymmetric situation we find that power laws can be observed for the current only as function of the level position (gate voltage) but not as function of the voltage. Furthermore, we study the quench dynamics after a sudden switch-on of the level-lead couplings. The time evolution of the dot occupation and current is governed by exponential relaxation accompanied by voltage-dependent oscillations and characteristic algebraic decay.

Abstract:
We present analytic results for the finite-frequency current noise and the nonequilibrium ac conductance for a Kondo quantum dot in presence of a magnetic field. Using the real-time renormalization group method, we determine the line shape close to resonances and show that while all resonances in the ac conductance are broadened by the transverse spin relaxation rate, the noise at finite field additionally involves the longitudinal rate as well as sharp kinks resulting in singular derivatives. Our results provide a consistent theoretical description of recent experimental data for the emission noise at zero magnetic field, and we propose the extension to finite field for which we present a detailed prediction.

Abstract:
We study the relation of Yangians and spinons in the SU(n) Haldane--Shastry model. The representation theory of the Yangian is shown to be intimately related to the fractional statistics of the spinons. We construct the spinon Hilbert space from tensor products of the fundamental representations of the Yangian.

Abstract:
We study the low-energy limit of a quarter-filled one-dimensional Mott insulator. We analytically determine the local density of states in the presence of a strong impurity potential, which is modeled by a boundary. To this end we calculate the Green function using field theoretical methods. The Fourier transform of the local density of states shows signatures of a pinning of the spin-density wave at the impurity as well as several dispersing features at frequencies above the charge gap. These features can be interpreted as propagating spin and charge degrees of freedom. Their relative strength can be attributed to the "quasi-fermionic" behavior of charge excitations with equal momenta. Furthermore, we discuss the effect of bound states localized at the impurity. Finally, we give an overview of the local density of states in various one-dimensional systems and discuss implications for scanning tunneling microscopy experiments.