Abstract:
Utilising the symbolic interactionist study of deviance, this article compares the treatment of Law-observant Christ-followers in Romans 14–15 and Justin Martyr’s Dialogue with Trypho 47, in order to understand better the declining status of Law-observant Christ-followers in the early Christ-movement. The ‘strong’ in Romans 14:1–15:13 are likely Christ-followers who do not observe the Law, whilst the ‘weak’ are likely Christ-followers who do. Although Paul accepts Law-observant Christ-followers, his preference for non-observance decreases the status of those who observe the Law, thereby undermining Paul’s vision of a unified, ethnically mixed Church. In Dialogue 47, Justin intensifies the marginalisation of Law-observant Christfollowers by placing them at the very limits of orthodoxy. Dialogue 47 suggests that the campaign for the legitimacy of Law-observant Christ-following was already failing by the middle of the 2nd century, largely because of Paul’s own preference for non-observant Christfollowing. HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies 68(1), 2012

Abstract:
Utilising the symbolic interactionist study of deviance, this article compares the treatment of Law-observant Christ-followers in Romans 14–15 and Justin Martyr’s Dialogue with Trypho 47, in order to understand better the declining status of Law-observant Christ-followers in the early Christ-movement. The ‘strong’ in Romans 14:1–15:13 are likely Christ-followers who do not observe the Law, whilst the ‘weak’ are likely Christ-followers who do. Although Paul accepts Law-observant Christ-followers, his preference for non-observance decreases the status of those who observe the Law, thereby undermining Paul’s vision of a unified, ethnically mixed Church. In Dialogue 47, Justin intensifies the marginalisation of Law-observant Christfollowers by placing them at the very limits of orthodoxy. Dialogue 47 suggests that the campaign for the legitimacy of Law-observant Christ-following was already failing by the middle of the 2nd century, largely because of Paul’s own preference for non-observant Christfollowing. How to cite this article: Roberts, R.D., 2012, ‘Deviance or acceptable difference: Observance of the Law in Romans 14–15 and Dialogue with Trypho 47’, HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies 68(1), Art. #1015, 10 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v68i1.1015

Abstract:
In a certain sense riemannian geometry can be thought of as geometry built up from the finslerian properties of point particles. The generalization of this to where the geometry is built up from the finslerian properties of string and membranes is investigated. Solely classical arguments suggest a physical interpretation in which microscopic strings are directly related to macroscopic geometry; alternatively the resulting geometry can be interpretated as that describing microsopic spacetime.

Abstract:
I introduce and explore a range of topics of contemporary interest in hadronic physics: from what drives the formation of a nonzero quark condensate to the effect that mechanism has on light and heavy meson form factors, and the properties of the quark-gluon plasma. The trail leads naturally through a discussion of confinement, dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and bound state structure: phenomena that require nonperturbative methods for their explanation. In all of this, the necessary momentum-dependent modification of the quark and gluon propagators plays a significant role.

Abstract:
Solutions to gravity with quadratic Lagrangians are found for the simple case where the only nonconstant metric component is the lapse $N$ and the Riemann tensor takes the form $R^{t}_{.itj}=-k_{i}k_{j}, i,j=1,2,3$; thus these solutions depend on cross terms in the Riemann tensor and therefore complement the linearized theory where it is the derivatives of the Riemann tensor that matter. The relationship of this metric to the null gravitational radiation metric of Peres is given. Gravitaional energy Poynting vectors are construcetd for the solutions and one of these, based on the Lanczos tensor, supports the indication in the linearized theory that nonnull gravitational radiation can occur.

Abstract:
The Higgs model is generalized so that in addition to the radial Higgs field there are fields which correspond to the themasy and entropy. The model is further generalized to include state and sign parameters. A reduction to the standard Higgs model is given and how to break symmetry using a non-zero VEV (vacuum expectation value) is shown. A 'fluid rotation' can be performed on the standard Higgs model to give a model dependant on the entropy and themasy and with a constant mass.

Abstract:
A generalization of scalar electrodynamics called fluid electrodynamics is presented. In this theory a fluid replaces the Higgs scalar field. Fluid electrodynamics might have application to the theory of low temperature Helium superfluids, but here it is argued that it provides an alternative method of approaching symmetry breaking in particle physics. The method of constructing fluid electrodynamics is to start with the velocity decomposition of a perfect fluid as in general relativity. A unit vector tangent to the flow lines of an isentropic fluid can be written in terms of scalar potentials: $V_a=h^{-1}(\ph_a+\al\bt_a-\th S)$. A novel interacting charged fluid can be obtained by applying the covariant derivative: $D_a=\p_a+ieA_a$ to these scalar potentials. This fluid is no longer isentropic and there are choices for which it either obeys the second law of thermodynamics or not. A mass term of the correct sign occurs for the $A$ term in the stress, and this mass term depends on the potentials in the above vector. The charged fluid can be reduced to scalar electrodynamics and the standard approach to symmetry breaking applied; alternatively a mass can be induced by the fluid by using just the thermodynamic potentials and then fixing at a critical point, if this is taken to be the Bose condensation point then the induced mass is negligible.

Abstract:
The field equations of general relativity can be written as first order differential equations in the Weyl tensor, the Weyl tensor in turn can be written as a first order differential equation in a three index tensor called the Lanczos tensor. The Lanczos tensor plays a similar role in general relativity to that of the vector potential in electro-magnetic theory. The Aharonov-Bohm effect shows that when quantum mechanics is applied to electro-magnetic theory the vector potential is dynamically significant, even when the electro-magnetic field tensor $F_{ab}$ vanishes. Here it is assumed that in the quantum realm the Lanczos tensor is dynamically significant, and this leads to an attempt to quantize the gravitational field by pursuing the analogy between the vector field and the Lanczos tensor.

Abstract:
Dyson-Schwinger equations furnish a Poincare' covariant framework within which to study hadrons. A particular feature is the existence of a nonperturbative, symmetry preserving truncation that enables the proof of exact results. Key to the DSE's efficacious application is their expression of the materially important momentum-dependent dressing of parton propagators at infrared length-scales, which is responsible for the magnitude of constituent-quark masses and the length-scale characterising confinement in bound states. A unified quantitative description of light- and heavy-quark systems is achieved by capitalising on these features.

Abstract:
An overview of the theory and phenomenology of hadrons and QCD is provided from a Dyson-Schwinger equation viewpoint. Following a discussion of the definition and realisation of light-quark confinement, the nonperturbative nature of the running mass in QCD and inferences from the gap equation relating to the radius of convergence for expansions of observables in the current-quark mass are described. Some exact results for pseudoscalar mesons are also highlighted, with details relating to the U_A(1) problem, and calculated masses of the lightest J=0,1 states are discussed. Studies of nucleon properties are recapitulated upon and illustrated: through a comparison of the ln-weighted ratios of Pauli and Dirac form factors for the neutron and proton; and a perspective on the contribution of quark orbital angular momentum to the spin of a nucleon at rest. Comments on prospects for the future of the study of quarks in hadrons and nuclei round out the contribution.