Abstract:
Suggested holographic duals of QCD, based on AdS/CFT duality, predict that one should be able to vary the scales of colour confinement and chiral-symmetry breaking independently. Furthermore they suggest that such independent variation of scales can be achieved by the inclusion of extra 4-fermion interactions in QCD. We simulate lattice QCD with such extra 4-fermion terms at finite temperatures and show that for strong enough 4-fermion couplings the deconfinement transition occurs at a lower temperature than the chiral-symmetry restoration transition. Moreover the separation of these transitions depends on the size of the 4-fermion coupling, confirming the predictions from the proposed holographic dual of QCD.

Abstract:
Lattice QCD allows us to simulate QCD at non-zero temperature and/or densities. Such equilibrium thermodynamics calculations are relevant to the physics of relativistic heavy-ion collisions. I give a brief review of the field with emphasis on our work.

Abstract:
We use lattice QCD simulations to test some of the predictions of proposed AdS/QCD (holographic) duals for QCD. In particular, these duals predict that the scale of chiral symmetry breaking ($\chi$SB) can be varied independently from that of confinement, with the proviso that the scale of $\chi$SB cannot be longer than that of confinement. We simulate lattice QCD with 2 quarks in the fundamental representation of colour and with additional 4-fermion interactions (suggested by AdS/QCD), at finite temperatures. For sufficiently strong 4-fermion interactions, the deconfinement and $\chi$SB transitions occur at different temperatures, the separation depending on the 4-fermion coupling. This confirms that the scales of confinement and $\chi$SB are, in general, different.

Abstract:
We present the first direct evidence that quenched QCD differs from full QCD in the chiral ($m_q \rightarrow 0$) limit, as predicted by chiral perturbation theory, from our quenched lattice QCD simulations at $\beta = 6/g^2 = 6.0$. We measured the spectrum of light hadrons on $16^3 \times 64$, $24^3 \times 64$ and $32^3 \times 64$, using staggered quarks of masses $m_q=0.01$, $m_q=0.005$ and $m_q=0.0025$. The pion masses showed clear evidence for logarithmic violations of the PCAC relation $m_{\pi}^2 \propto m_q$, as predicted by quenched chiral perturbation theory. The dependence on spatial lattice volume precludes this being a finite size effect. No evidence was seen for such chiral logarithms in the behaviour of the chiral condensate $\langle\bar{\psi}\psi\rangle$.

Abstract:
QCD with two flavours of massless colour-sextet quarks is considered as a model for conformal/walking Technicolor. If this theory possess an infrared fixed point, as indicated by 2-loop perturbation theory, it is a conformal(unparticle) field theory. If, on the other hand, a chiral condensate forms on the weak-coupling side of this would-be fixed point, the theory remains confining. The only difference between such a theory and regular QCD is that there is a range of momentum scales over which the coupling constant runs very slowly (walks). In this first analysis, we simulate the lattice version of QCD with two flavours of staggered quarks at finite temperatures on lattices of temporal extent $N_t=4$ and 6. The deconfinement and chiral-symmetry restoration couplings give us a measure of the scales associated with confinement and chiral-symmetry breaking. We find that, in contrast to what is seen with fundamental quarks, these transition couplings are very different. $\beta=6/g^2$ for each of these transitions increases significantly from $N_t=4$ and $N_t=6$ as expected for the finite temperature transitions of an asymptotically-free theory. This suggests a walking rather than a conformal behaviour, in contrast to what is observed with Wilson quarks. In contrast to what is found for fundamental quarks, the deconfined phase exhibits states in which the Polyakov loop is oriented in the directions of all three cube roots of unity. At very weak coupling the states with complex Polyakov loops undergo a transition to a state with a real, negative Polyakov loop.

Abstract:
We investigate a class of actions for lattice QCD with staggered quarks aimed at reducing the flavour symmetry violations associated with using staggered fermions. These actions replace the gauge field link fields in the quark action with covariantly smeared fields. As such they are an extension of actions considered by the MILC collaboration. We show that such actions systematically reduce flavour symmetry violations in the weak coupling limit. Using the mass splitting between Goldstone and non-Goldstone pions as a measure of flavour symmetry violations we find that these actions have considerably less flavour symmetry violations than the standard staggered action, and represent an improvement on what can be achieved with the MILC action, on quenched configurations with $\beta=5.7$.

Abstract:
QCD at a finite quark-number chemical potential $\mu$ has a complex fermion determinant, which precludes its study by standard lattice QCD simulations. We therefore simulate lattice QCD at finite $\mu$ in the phase-quenched approximation, replacing the fermion determinant with its magnitude. These simulations are used to study the finite temperature transition for small $\mu$,where the position and nature of this transition are expected to be unchanged by this approximation. We look for the expected critical endpoint for 3-flavour QCD. Here, it had been argued that the critical point at zero $\mu$ would become the critical endpoint at small $\mu$, for quark masses just above the critical mass. Our simulations indicate that this does not happen, and there is no such critical endpoint for small $\mu$. We discuss how we might adapt techniques used for imaginary $\mu$ to improve the signal/noise ratio and strengthen our conclusions, using results from relatively low statistics studies.

Abstract:
Lattice QCD with staggered quarks is augmented by the addition of a chiral 4-fermion interaction. The Dirac operator is now non-singular at $m_q=0$, decreasing the computing requirements for light quark simulations by at least an order of magnitude. We present preliminary results from simulations at finite and zero temperatures for $m_q=0$, with and without gauge fields.

Abstract:
QCD with 2 flavours of massless colour-sextet quarks is studied as a theory which might exhibit a range of scales over which the running coupling constant evolves very slowly (walks). We simulate lattice QCD with 2 flavours of sextet staggered quarks to determine whether walks, or if it has an infrared fixed point, making it a conformal field theory. Our initial simulations are performed at finite temperatures $T=1/N_ta$ ($N_t=4$ and $N_t=6$), which allows us to identify the scales of confinement and chiral-symmetry breaking from the deconfinement and chiral-symmetry restoring transitions. Unlike QCD with fundamental quarks, these two transitions appear to be well-separated. The change in coupling constants at these transitions between the two different temporal extents $N_t$, is consistent with these being finite temperature transitions for an asymptotically free theory, which favours walking behaviour. In the deconfined phase, the Wilson Line shows a 3-state signal. Between the confinement and chiral transitions, there is an additional transition where the states with Wilson Lines oriented in the directions of the complex cube roots of unity disorder into a state with a negative Wilson Line.