Abstract:
The in-plane $\rho_{ab}(H,T)$ and the out-of-plane $\rho_c(H,T)$ magneto-transport in magnetic fields up to 28 T has been investigated in high quality non-superconducting (down to 20 mK) La-free Bi$_{2+x}$Sr$_{2-x}$CuO$_{6+\delta}$ single crystal. By measuring the angular dependence of the in-plane and out-of-plane magnetoresistivities at temperatures from 1 K down to 30 mK, we present evidence for the presence of vortex-like excitations in a non-superconducting cuprate in the insulating state. Such excitations have previously been observed by the detection of a Nernst signal in superconducting cuprates at $T>T_c$ in magnetic fields.

Abstract:
Break-junction tunneling spectroscopy at temperatures 30-50 mK in high magnetic field is used to directly probe the quasiparticle density of states within the energy gap in a single crystal Bi2212 high-$T_c$ superconductor. The measured tunneling conductances $dI/dV(V)$ in the subgap region have a zero flat region with no evidence for a linear increase of the density of states with voltage. A number of tunnel break-junctions exhibited $dI/dV(V)$ curves with a second energy gap structure at the average magnitude 2$\Delta _{p-p}/e=13$ mV. Our data cannot be explained by either a pure $s$ pairing or a pure $d_{x^2-y^2}$ pairing.

Abstract:
We have investigated the in-plane $I(V)$ characteristics and the Josephson vortex flow resistance in high-quality La-free Bi$_{2+x}$Sr$_{2-x}$CuO$_{6+\delta}$ (Bi2201) single crystals in parallel and tilted magnetic fields at temperatures down to 40 mK. For parallel magnetic fields below the resistive upper critical field $H^{*}_{c2}$, the $I(V)$ characteristic obey a power-law with a smooth change with increasing magnetic-field of the exponent from above 5 down to 1. In contrast to the double-layer cuprate Bi2212, the observed smooth change suggests that there is no change in the mechanism of dissipation (no Kosterlitz-Thouless transition) over the range of temperatures investigated. At small angles between the applied field and the $ab$-plane, prominent current steps in the $I(V)$ characteristics and periodic oscillations of Josephson-vortex flow resistance are observed. While the current steps are periodic in the voltage at constant fields, the voltage position of the steps, together with the flux-flow voltage, increases nonlinearly with magnetic field. The $ab$-flow resistance oscillates as a function of field with a constant period over a wide range of magnetic fields and temperatures. The current steps in the $I(V)$ characteristics and the flow resistance oscillations can be linked to the motion of Josephson vortices across layers.

Abstract:
The in-plane $\rho_{ab}(H)$ and the out-of-plane $\rho_c(H)$ magneto-transport in magnetic fields up to 28 T has been investigated in a series of high quality, single crystal, hole-doped La-free Bi2201 cuprates for a wide doping range and over a wide range of temperatures down to 40 mK. With decreasing hole concentration going from the overdoped (p=0.2) to the underdoped (p=0.12) regimes, a crossover from a metallic to and insulating behavior of $\rho_{ab}(T)$ is observed in the low temperature normal state, resulting in a disorder induced metal insulator transition. In the zero temperature limit, the normal state ratio $\rho_c(H)/\rho_{ab}(H)$ of the heavily underdoped samples in pure Bi2201 shows an anisotropic 3D behavior, in striking contrast with that observed in La-doped Bi2201 and LSCO systems. Our data strongly support that that the negative out-of-plane magnetoresistance is largely governed by interlayer conduction of quasiparticles in the superconducting state, accompanied by a small contribution of normal state transport associated with the field dependent pseudogap. Both in the optimal and overdoped regimes, the semiconducting behavior of $\rho_c(H)$ persists even for magnetic fields above the pseudogap closing field $H_{pg}$. The method suggested by Shibauchi \textit{et al.} (Phys. Rev. Lett. \textbf{86}, 5763, (2001)) for evaluating $H_{pg}$ is unsuccessful for both under- and overdoped Bi2201 samples. Our findings suggest that the normal state pseudogap is not always a precursor of superconductivity.

Abstract:
In a recent paper [Phys.Rev.B.\textbf{84}, 161307 (2011)], experimental data on spin splitting in the integer quantum Hall effect has been reported in a high mobility dilute 2D electron gas with electron density as low as 0.2 $\times$ 10$^{11}$ cm $^{-2}$. In this work, we show that an excellent \emph{quantitative} description of these data can be obtained within the model of the magnetic-field-induced Stoner transition in the quantum Hall regime. This provides a powerful tool to probe the non-trivial density dependance of electron-electron interactions in the dilute regime of the 2D electron gas.

Abstract:
Magnetotransport of natural graphite and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) has been measured at mK temperatures. Quantum oscillations for both electron and hole carriers are observed with orbital angular momentum quantum number up to $N\approx90$. A remarkable agreement is obtained when comparing the data and the predictions of the Slonczewski--Weiss--McClure tight binding model for massive fermions. No evidence for Dirac fermions is observed in the transport data which is dominated by the crossing of the Landau bands at the Fermi level, corresponding to $dE/dk_z=0$, which occurs away from the $H$ point where Dirac fermions are expected.

Abstract:
Reply to comment (arXiv:0907.2026v2) on "Consistent Interpretation of the Low-Temperature Magnetotransport in Graphite Using the Slonczewski-Weiss-McClure 3D Band-Structure Calculations" (arXiv:0902.1925)

Abstract:
The magnetic field and temperature dependence of the in-plane tunneling conductance $dI/dV(V)$ in high-quality nonsuperconducting (down to 10 mK) layered oxycarbonate Bi$_{2+x}$Sr$_{4-x}$Cu$_2$CO$_3$O$_{8+\delta}$ single crystals has been investigated using break junctions. Combining measurements of the in-plane magnetoresistivity $\rho_{ab}(T,H)$ and the magnetotunneling, we present evidence for the existence of a small "pseudogap" in a nonsuperconducting cuprate, without local incoherent pairs or any correlation phenomena associated with superconductivity. We are unable to distinguish if such a "pseudogap" is totally unrelated to superconductivity or if its existence is a necessary condition for the subsequent occurrence of superconductivity with increasing carrier density in the sample.

Abstract:
The quantum Hall effect is investigated in a high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas on the surface of a cylinder. The novel topology leads to a spatially varying filling factor along the current path. The resulting inhomogeneous current-density distribution gives rise to additional features in the magneto-transport, such as resistance asymmetry and modified longitudinal resistances. We experimentally demonstrate that the asymmetry relations satisfied in the integer filling factor regime are valid also in the transition regime to non-integer filling factors, thereby suggesting a more general form of these asymmetry relations. A model is developed based on the screening theory of the integer quantum Hall effect that allows the self-consistent calculation of the local electron density and thereby the local current density including the current along incompressible stripes. The model, which also includes the so-called `static skin effect' to account for the current density distribution in the compressible regions, is capable of explaining the main experimental observations. Due to the existence of an incompressible-compressible transition in the bulk, the system behaves always metal-like in contrast to the conventional Landauer-Buettiker description, in which the bulk remains completely insulating throughout the quantized Hall plateau regime.

Abstract:
The magnetoresistance of a low carrier density, disordered GaAs based two-dimensional (2D) electron gas has been measured in parallel magnetic fields up to 32 T. The feature in the resistance associated with the complete spin polarization of the carriers shifts down by more than 20 T as the electron density is reduced, consistent with recent theories taking into account the enhancement of the electron-electron interactions at low densities. Nevertheless, the magnetic field for complete polarization, Bp, remains 2-3 times smaller than predicted for a disorder free system. We show, in particular by studying the temperature dependance of Bp to probe the effective size of the Fermi sea, that localization plays an important role in determining the spin polarization of a 2D electron gas.