Abstract:
We present a demonstrative application of the nonholonomic control method to a real physical system composed of two cold Cesium atoms. In particular, we show how to implement a CNOT quantum gate in this system by means of a controlled Stark field.

Abstract:
Electrons in a spherical ultracold quasineutral plasma at temperature in the Kelvin range can be created by laser excitation of an ultra-cold laser cooled atomic cloud. The dynamical behavior of the electrons is similar to the one described by conventional models of stars clusters dynamics. The single mass component, the spherical symmetry and no stars evolution are here accurate assumptions. The analog of binary stars formations in the cluster case is three-body recombination in Rydberg atoms in the plasma case with the same Heggie's law: soft binaries get softer and hard binaries get harder. We demonstrate that the evolution of such an ultracold plasma is dominated by Fokker-Planck kinetics equations formally identical to the ones controlling the evolution of a stars cluster. The Virial theorem leads to a link between the plasma temperature and the ions and electrons numbers. The Fokker-Planck equation is approximate using gaseous and fluid models. We found that the electrons are in a Kramers-Michie-King's type quasi-equilibrium distribution as stars in clusters. Knowing the electron distribution and using forced fast electron extraction we are able to determine the plasma temperature knowing the trapping potential depth.

Abstract:
Adiabaticity occurs when, during its evolution, a physical system remains in the instantaneous eigenstate of the hamiltonian. Unfortunately, existing results, such as the quantum adiabatic theorem based on a slow down evolution (H(epsilon t), epsilon ? 0), are insufficient to describe an evolution driven by the hamiltonian H(t) itself. Here we derive general criteria and exact bounds, for the state and its phase, ensuring an adiabatic evolution for any hamiltonian H(t). As a corollary we demonstrate that the commonly used condition of a slow hamiltonian variation rate, compared to the spectral gap, is indeed sufficient to ensure adiabaticity but only when the hamiltonian is real and non oscillating (for instance containing exponential or polynomial but no sinusoidal functions).

Abstract:
The smallness of the variation rate of the hamiltonian matrix elements compared to the (square of the) energy spectrum gap is usually believed to be the key parameter for a quantum adiabatic evolution. However it is only perturbatively valid for scaled timed hamiltonian and resonance processes as well as off resonance possible constructive St\"{u}ckelberg interference effects violate this usual condition for general hamiltionian. More general adiabatic condition and exact bounds for adiabatic quantum evolution are derived and studied in the framework of a two-level system. The usual criterion is restored for real two level hamiltonian with small number of monotonicity changes of the hamiltonian matrix elements and its derivative.

Abstract:
NDE (Near-dissociation expansion) including LeRoy-Bernstein formulas are improved by taking into account the multipole expansion coefficients and the non asymptotic part of the potential curve. Applying these new simple analytical formulas to photoassociation spectra of cold alkali atoms, we improve the determination of the asymptotic coefficient, reaching a 1% accuracy, for long-range relativistic potential curve of diatomic molecules.

Abstract:
We present a study of Sisyphus cooling of molecules: the scattering of a single-photon remove a substantial amount of the molecular kinetic energy and an optical pumping step allow to repeat the process. A review of the produced cold molecules so far indicates that the method can be implemented for most of them, making it a promising method able to produce a large sample of molecules at sub-mK temperature. Considerations of the required experimental parameters, for instance the laser power and linewidth or the trap anisotropy and dimensionality, are given. Rate equations, as well as scattering and dipolar forces, are solved using Kinetic Monte Carlo methods for several lasers and several levels. For NH molecules, such detailed simulation predicts a 1000-fold temperature reduction and an increase of the phase space density by a factor of 10^7 . Even in the case of molecules with both low Franck-Condon coefficients and a non-closed pumping scheme, 60% of trapped molecules can be cooled from 100 mK to sub-mK temperature in few seconds. Additionally, these methods can be applied to continuously decelerate and cool a molecular beam

Abstract:
Antihydrogen production by charge exchange reaction between Positronium (Ps) atoms and antiprotons requires an efficient excitation of Ps atoms up to high-n levels (Rydberg levels). In this study it is assumed that a Ps cloud is produced within a relatively strong uniform magnetic field (1 Tesla) and with a relatively high temperature (100 K). Consequently, the structure of energy levels are deeply modified by Zeeman and motional Stark effects. A two-step laser light excitation, the first one from ground to n=3 and the second from this level to a Rydberg level, is proposed and the physics of the problem is discussed. We derive a simple formula giving the absorption probability with substantially incoherent laser pulses. A 30% population deposition in high-$n$ states can be reached with feasible lasers suitably tailored in power and spectral bandwidth.

Abstract:
We suggest different simple schemes to efficiently load and evaporate a ''dimple'' crossed dipolar trap. The collisional processes between atoms which are trapped in a reservoir load in a non adiabatic way the dimple. The reservoir trap can be provided either by a dark SPOT Magneto Optical Trap, the (aberrated) laser beam itself or by a quadrupolar or quadratic magnetic trap. Optimal parameters for the dimple are derived from thermodynamical equations and from loading time, including possible inelastic and Majorana losses. We suggest to load at relatively high temperature a tight optical trap. Simple evaporative cooling equations, taking into account gravity, the possible occurrence of hydrodynamical regime, Feshbach resonance processes and three body recombination events are given. To have an efficient evaporation the elastic collisional rate (in s$^{-1}$) is found to be on the order of the trapping frequency and lower than one hundred times the temperature in micro-Kelvin. Bose Einstein condensates with more than $10^7$ atoms should be obtained in much less than one second starting from an usual MOT setup.

Abstract:
We have recently demonstrated that optical pumping methods combined with photoassociation of ultra-cold atoms can produce ultra-cold and dense samples of molecules in their absolute rovibronic ground state. More generally, both the external and internal degrees of freedom can be cooled by addressing selected rovibrational levels on demand. Here, we recall the basic concepts and main steps of our experiments, including the excitation schemes and detection techniques we use to achieve the rovibrational cooling of Cs2 molecules. In addition, we present the determination of formation pathways and a theoretical analysis explaining the experimental observations. These simulations improves the spectroscopic knowledge required to transfer molecules to any desired rovibrational level.

Abstract:
We demonstrate rotational and vibrational cooling of cesium dimers by optical pumping techniques. We use two laser sources exciting all the populated rovibrational states, except a target state that thus behaves like a dark state where molecules pile up thanks to absorption-spontaneous emission cycles. We are able to accumulate photoassociated cold Cs2 molecules in their absolute ground state (v = 0, J = 0) with up to 40% efficiency. Given its simplicity, the method could be extended to other molecules and molecular beams. It also opens up general perspectives in laser cooling the external degrees of freedom of molecules.