Abstract:
The key formula for computing the orbital magnetization of a crystalline system has been recently found [D. Ceresoli, T. Thonhauser, D. Vanderbilt, R. Resta, Phys. Rev. B {\bf 74}, 024408 (2006)]: it is given in terms of a Brillouin-zone integral, which is discretized on a reciprocal-space mesh for numerical implementation. We find here the single ${\bf k}$-point limit, useful for large enough supercells, and particularly in the framework of Car-Parrinello simulations for noncrystalline systems. We validate our formula on the test case of a crystalline system, where the supercell is chosen as a large multiple of the elementary cell. We also show that--somewhat counterintuitively--even the Chern number (in 2d) can be evaluated using a single Hamiltonian diagonalization.

Abstract:
We present first-principles, density-functional theory calculations of the NMR chemical shifts for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, starting with benzene and increasing sizes up to the one- and two-dimensional infinite limits of graphene ribbons and sheets. Our calculations are performed using a combination of the recently developed theory of orbital magnetization in solids, and a novel approach to NMR calculations where chemical shifts are obtained from the derivative of the orbital magnetization with respect to a microscopic, localized magnetic dipole. Using these methods we study on equal footing the $^1$H and $^{13}$C shifts in benzene, pyrene, coronene, in naphthalene, anthracene, naphthacene, and pentacene, and finally in graphene, graphite, and an infinite graphene ribbon. Our results show very good agreement with experiments and allow us to characterize the trends for the chemical shifts as a function of system size.

Abstract:
We describe the effective Lorentz forces on the ions of a generic insulating system in an magnetic field, in the context of Born-Oppenheimer ab-initio molecular dynamics. The force on each ion includes an important contribution of electronic origin, which depends explicitly on the velocity of all other ions. It is formulated in terms of a Berry curvature, in a form directly suitable for future first principles classical dynamics simulations based {\it e.g.,} on density functional methods. As a preliminary analytical demonstration we present the dynamics of an H$_2$ molecule in a field of intermediate strength, approximately describing the electrons through Slater's variational wavefunction.

Abstract:
This paper presents a broad theoretical and simulation study of the high temperature behavior of crystalline alkali halide surfaces typified by NaCl(100), of the liquid NaCl surface near freezing, and of the very unusual partial wetting of the solid surface by the melt. Simulations are conducted using two-body rigid ion BMHFT potentials, with full treatment of long-range Coulomb forces. After a preliminary check of the description of bulk NaCl provided by these potentials, which seems generally good even at the melting point, we carry out a new investigation of solid and liquid surfaces. Solid NaCl(100) is found in this model to be very anharmonic and yet exceptionally stable when hot. It is predicted by a thermodynamic integration calculation of the surface free energy that NaCl(100) should be a well ordered, non-melting surface, metastable even well above the melting point. By contrast, the simulated liquid NaCl surface is found to exhibit large thermal fluctuations and no layering order. In spite of that, it is shown to possess a relatively large surface free energy. The latter is traced to a surface entropy deficit, reflecting some kind of surface short range order. Finally, the solid-liquid interface free energy is derived through Young's equation from direct simulation of partial wetting of NaCl(100) by a liquid droplet. It is concluded that three elements, namely the exceptional anharmonic stability of the solid (100) surface, the molecular short range order at the liquid surface, and the costly solid liquid interface, all conspire to cause the anomalously poor wetting of the (100) surface by its own melt in the BMHFT model of NaCl -- and most likely also in real alkali halide surfaces.

Abstract:
We extend the recently developed converse NMR approach [T. Thonhauser, D. Ceresoli, A. Mostofi, N. Marzari, R. Resta, and D. Vanderbilt, J. Chem. Phys. \textbf{131}, 101101 (2009)] such that it can be used in conjunction with norm-conserving, non-local pseudopotentials. This extension permits the efficient ab-initio calculation of NMR chemical shifts for elements other than hydrogen within the convenience of a plane-wave pseudopotential approach. We have tested our approach on several finite and periodic systems, finding very good agreement with established methods and experimental results.

Abstract:
Alkali halide (100) crystal surfaces are anomalous, being very poorly wetted by their own melt at the triple point. We present extensive simulations for NaCl, followed by calculations of the solid-vapor, solid-liquid, and liquid-vapor free energies showing that solid NaCl(100) is a nonmelting surface, and that its full behavior can quantitatively be accounted for within a simple Born-Meyer-Huggins-Fumi-Tosi model potential. The incomplete wetting is traced to the conspiracy of three factors: surface anharmonicities stabilizing the solid surface; a large density jump causing bad liquid-solid adhesion; incipient NaCl molecular correlations destabilizing the liquid surface. The latter is pursued in detail, and it is shown that surface short-range charge order acts to raise the surface tension because incipient NaCl molecular formation anomalously reduces the surface entropy of liquid NaCl much below that of solid NaCl(100).

Abstract:
Alkali halide (100) surfaces are anomalously poorly wetted by their own melt at the triple point. We carried out simulations for NaCl(100) within a simple (BMHFT) model potential. Calculations of the solid-vapor, solid-liquid and liquid-vapor free energies showed that solid NaCl(100) is a nonmelting surface, and that the incomplete wetting can be traced to the conspiracy of three factors: surface anharmonicities stabilizing the solid surface; a large density jump causing bad liquid-solid adhesion; incipient NaCl molecular correlations destabilizing the liquid surface, reducing in particular its entropy much below that of solid NaCl(100). Presently, we are making use of the nonmelting properties of this surface to conduct case study simulations of hard tips sliding on a hot stable crystal surface. Preliminary results reveal novel phenomena whose applicability is likely of greater generality.

Abstract:
We performed first principles density functional calculations and simulations of magic-size neutral NaCl nanocubes, and computed the the extraction of a Na neutral corner atom after donating an electron. The atomic structure of the resulting Na corner vacancy is presented.

Abstract:
The physics of sliding nanofriction at high temperature near the substrate melting point $\Tmelt$ is so far unexplored. We conducted simulations of hard tips sliding on a prototype non-melting surface, NaCl(100), revealing in this regime two distinct and opposite phenomena for plowing and for grazing friction. We found a frictional drop close to $\Tmelt$ for deep plowing and wear, but on the contrary a frictional rise for grazing, wearless sliding. For both phenomena we obtain a fresh microscopic understanding, relating the former to ``skating'' through a local liquid cloud, the latter to linear response properties of the free substrate surface. It is argued that both phenomena should be pursued experimentally, and much more general than the specific NaCl surface case. Most metals in particular possessing one or more close packed non-melting surface, such as Pb, Al or Au(111), that should behave quite similarly.

Abstract:
The high temperature surface properties of alkali halide crystals are very unusual. Through molecular dynamics simulations based on Tosi-Fumi potentials, we predict that crystalline NaCl(100) should remain stable without any precursor signals of melting up to and even above the bulk melting point $T_m$. In a metastable state, it should even be possible to overheat NaCl (100) by at least 50 K. The reasons leading to this lack of surface self-wetting are investigated. We will briefly discuss the results of calculations of the solid-vapor and liquid-vapor interface free energies, showing that the former is unusually low and the latter unusually high, and explaining why. Due to that the mutual interaction among solid-liquid and liquid-vapor interfaces, otherwise unknown, must be strongly attractive at short distance, leading to the collapse of any liquid film attempting to nucleate at the solid surface. This scenario naturally explains the large incomplete wetting angle of a drop of melt on NaCl(100).