Abstract:
We present a self-consistent mean field model of the extraction of atoms from a Bose-Einstein condensate to form a CW atom laser. The model is based upon the Hartree-Fock Bogoliubov equations within the Popov approximation, modified by the inclusion of spatially dependent source and sink terms, which lead to current flow within the condensate. The effects of this current flow are investigated for traps containing Rubidium (repulsive effective interaction) and Lithium (attractive interaction) atoms. The extra kinetic energy associated with this flow is shown to be able to stabilise the condensate in the attractive case against mechanical instability.

Abstract:
We reproduce the sub-exponential decoherence of one-dimensional quasicondensates observed in recent experiments. Counter-intuitively, the quasicondensates may decohere even when stongly coupled, if the temperature is large enough or the peak density is low enough to allow significant density fluctuations. We also propose an experiment to investigate the growth of coherence between two initially incoherent quasicondensates. We predict that the coherence will rise on a much slower timescale, and the final coherence again depends strongly on the density fluctuations.

Abstract:
We investigate the zero-temperature collective excitations of a Bose-condensed atomic gas in anisotropic parabolic traps. The condensate density is determined by solving the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation using a spherical harmonic expansion. The GP eigenfunctions are then used to solve the Bogoliubov equations to obtain the collective excitation frequencies and mode densities. The frequencies of the various modes, classified by their parity and the axial angular momentum quantum number, m, are mapped out as a function of the axial anisotropy. Specific emphasis is placed upon the evolution of these modes from the modes in the limit of an isotropic trap.

Abstract:
We calculate the effect of quantum noise in supersonic transport of Bose-Einstein condensates. When an obstacle obstructs the flow of atoms, quantum fluctuations cause atoms to be scattered incoherently into random directions. This suppresses the propagation of Cherenkov radiation, creating quantum turbulence and a crescent of incoherent atoms around the obstacle. We observe similar dynamics if the BEC is stirred by a laser beam: crescents of incoherent atoms are emitted from the laser's turning-points. Finally, we investigate supersonic flow through a disordered potential, and find that the quantum fluctuations generate an accumulation of incoherent atoms as the condensate enters the disorder.

Abstract:
We briefly review the theory of Bose-Einstein condensation in the two-dimensional trapped Bose gas and, in particular the relationship to the theory of the homogeneous two-dimensional gas and the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless phase. We obtain a phase diagram for the trapped two-dimensional gas, finding a critical temperature above which the free energy of a state with a pair of vortices of opposite circulation is lower than that for a vortex-free Bose-Einstein condensed ground state. We identify three distinct phases which are, in order of increasing temperature, a phase coherent Bose-Einstein condensate, a vortex pair plasma with fluctuating condensate phase and a thermal Bose gas. The thermal activation of vortex-antivortex pair formation is confirmed using finite-temperature classical field simulations.

Abstract:
We present a detailed finite-temperature Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) treatment of the two-dimensional trapped Bose gas. We highlight the numerical methods required to obtain solutions to the HFB equations within the Popov approximation, the derivation of which we outline. This method has previously been applied successfully to the three-dimensional case and we focus on the unique features of the system which are due to its reduced dimensionality. These can be found in the spectrum of low-lying excitations and in the coherence properties. We calculate the Bragg response and the coherence length within the condensate in analogy with experiments performed in the quasi-one-dimensional regime [Richard et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 010405 (2003)] and compare to results calculated for the one-dimensional case. We then make predictions for the experimental observation of the quasicondensate phase via Bragg spectroscopy in the quasi-two-dimensional regime.

Abstract:
We demonstrate that the precessional frequencies of vortices in Bose Einstein condensates (BECs) are determined by a conservation law, and not by the lowest lying excitation energy mode. We determine the precessional frequency for a single off-axis vortex and vortex lattices in BECs using the continuity equation, and solve this self-consistently with the time-independent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) equations in the rotating frame. We find agreement with zero temperature calculations (Bogoliubov approximation), and a smooth variation in the precession frequency as the temperature is increased. Time-dependent solutions confirm the validity of these predictions.

Abstract:
We present a method utilizing the continuity equation for the condensate density to make predictions of the precessional frequency of single off-axis vortices and of vortex arrays in Bose-Einstein condensates at finite temperature. We also present an orthogonalized Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) formalism. We solve the continuity equation for the condensate density self-consistently with the orthogonalized HFB equations, and find stationary solutions in the frame rotating at this frequency. As an example of the utility of this formalism we obtain time-independent solutions for quasi-two-dimensional rotating systems in the co-rotating frame. We compare these results with time-dependent predictions where we simulate stirring of the condensate.

Abstract:
We develop finite temperature theory for a trapped dipolar Bose gas including thermal exchange interactions. Previous treatments neglected these, difficult to compute, terms. We present a methodology for numerically evaluating the thermal exchange contributions, making use of cylindrical symmetry. We then investigate properties of the dipolar gas, including calculating the excitation spectrum over the full range of trap anisotropy. We evaluate the contributions due to thermal exchange noting that, under some regimes, these effects can be at least as significant as the direct interaction. We therefore provide guidance as to when these cumbersome terms can be neglected and when care should be exercised regarding their omission.

Abstract:
The study of the non-equilibrium dynamics in Bose-Einstein condensed gases has been dominated by the zero-temperature, mean field Gross-Pitaevskii formalism. Motivated by recent experiments on the reflection of condensates from silicon surfaces, we revisit the so-called {\em classical field} description of condensate dynamics, which incorporates the effects of quantum noise and can also be generalized to include thermal effects. The noise is included in a stochastic manner through the initial conditions. We show that the inclusion of such noise is important in the quantitative description of the recent reflection experiments.