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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 582748 matches for " D. A. Supanitsky "
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Gamma rays and neutrinos from a cosmic ray source in the Galactic Center region
A. D. Supanitsky
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.89.023501
Abstract: The center of the our Galaxy is a region where very energetic phenomena take place. In particular powerful cosmic ray sources can be located in that region. The cosmic rays accelerated in these sources may interact with ambient protons and/or low energy photons producing gamma rays and neutrinos. The observation of these two types of secondary particles can be very useful for the identification of the cosmic ray sources and for the understanding of the physical processes occurring during acceleration. Motivated by the excess in the neutrino spectrum recently reported by the IceCube Collaboration, we study in detail the shape of the gamma ray and neutrino spectra originated from the interaction of cosmic ray protons with ambient protons for sources located in the Galactic Center region. We consider different models for proton acceleration and study the impact on the gamma ray and neutrino spectra. We also discuss the possibility to constrain and even identify a particular neutrino source by using the information given by the gamma ray spectrum taking advantage of the modification of the spectral shape, caused by the interaction of the gamma rays with the photons of the radiation field present in the interstellar medium, which strongly depends on the source distance.
A new method for reconstructing the muon lateral distribution with an array of segmented counters
D. Ravignani,A. D. Supanitsky
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2014.11.007
Abstract: Although the origin of ultra high energy cosmic rays is still unknown, significant progress has been achieved in last decades with the construction of large arrays that are currently taking data. One of the most important pieces of information comes from the chemical composition of primary particles. It is well known that the muon content of air showers generated by the interaction of cosmic rays with the atmosphere is rather sensitive to primary mass. Therefore, the measurement of the number of muons at ground level is an essential ingredient to infer the cosmic ray mass composition. In this work we present a new method for reconstructing the muon lateral distribution function with an array of segmented counters. The energy range from .4 to 2.5 EeV is considered. For a triangular array spaced at 750 m we found that 450 m is the optimal distance to evaluate the number of muons. The corresponding statistical and systematic uncertainties of the new and of a previous reconstruction methods are compared. Since the statistical uncertainty of the new reconstruction is less than in the original one, the power to discriminate between heavy and light cosmic ray primaries is enhanced. The detector dynamic range is also extended in the new reconstruction, so events falling closer to a detector can be included in composition studies.
Earth magnetic field effects on the cosmic electron flux as background for Cherenkov Telescopes at low energies
A. D. Supanitsky,A. C. Rovero
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2012.04.016
Abstract: Cosmic ray electrons and positrons constitute an important component of the background for imaging atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope Systems with very low energy thresholds. As the primary energy of electrons and positrons decreases, their contribution to the background trigger rate dominates over protons, at least in terms of differential rates against actual energies. After event reconstruction, this contribution might become comparable to the proton background at energies of the order of few GeV. It is well known that the flux of low energy charged particles is suppressed by the Earth's magnetic field. This effect strongly depends on the geographical location, the direction of incidence of the charged particle and its mass. Therefore, the geomagnetic field can contribute to diminish the rate of the electrons and positrons detected by a given array of Cherenkov Telescopes. In this work we study the propagation of low energy primary electrons in the Earth's magnetic field by using the backtracking technique. We use a more realistic geomagnetic field model than the one used in previous calculations. We consider some sites relevant for new generations of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes. We also study in detail the case of 5@5, a proposed low energy Cherenkov Telescope array.
Extreme high energy proton-gamma discrimination from space observations
A. D. Supanitsky,G. Medina-Tanco
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2011.02.003
Abstract: The origin of the highest energy cosmic rays is still unknown. At present, the major uncertainties are located at energies above $\sim 10^{19.5}$ eV, the expected beginning of the GZK suppression. This is mainly due to the low statistics available, a problem that will be addressed in unprecedented way by the upcoming orbital detectors like JEM-EUSO. The detection of very high energy photons is of great relevance for the understanding of the origin of this extreme energy cosmic rays (EECR), due to the astrophysical information content. However, their discrimination is an experimental challenge for current and future cosmic ray detectors. In this work we study the statistical separation between hadron and photon showers from space observations at energies where both, the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal (LPM) effect and magnetospheric interactions are important for the development of the cascades. We base our analysis on the $X_{max}$ parameter, which is already a well known composition discrimination parameter for ground based fluorescence observatories. Our analysis applies to orbiting detectors in general. Nevertheless, we exemplify the practical utilization of our technique by estimating a general upper limit to the photon fraction in the integral flux, attainable by an ideal orbital detector with characteristics similar to JEM-EUSO. In the process we describe the resultant asymmetry in the photon-hadron discrimination efficiency in galactic coordinates.
Ensemble fluctuations of the cosmic ray energy spectrum and the intergalactic magnetic field
A. D. Supanitsky,G. Medina-Tanco
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.91.123006
Abstract: The origin of the most energetic cosmic ray particles is one of the most important open problems in astrophysics. Despite a big experimental effort done in the past years, the sources of these very energetic particles remain unidentified. Therefore, their distribution on the Universe and even their space density are still unknown. It has been shown that different spatial configurations of the sources lead to different energy spectra and composition profiles (in the case of sources injecting heavy nuclei) at Earth. These ensemble fluctuations are more important at the highest energies because only nearby sources, which are necessarily few, can contribute to the flux observed at Earth. This is due to the interaction of the cosmic rays with the low energy photons of the radiation field, present in the intergalactic medium, during propagation. It is believed that the intergalactic medium is permeated by a turbulent magnetic field. Although at present it is still unknown, there are several constraints for its intensity and coherence length obtained from different observational techniques. Charged cosmic rays are affected by the intergalactic magnetic field because of the bending of their trajectories during propagation through the intergalactic medium. In this work, the influence of the intergalactic magnetic field on the ensemble fluctuations is studied. Sources injecting only protons and only iron nuclei are considered. The ensemble fluctuations are studied for different values of the density of sources compatible with the constraints recently obtained from cosmic ray data. Also, the possible detection of the ensemble fluctuations in the context of the future JEM-EUSO mission is discussed.
On the statistical effects of multiple reusing of simulated air showers in detector simulations
A. D. Supanitsky,G. Medina-Tanco
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: The simulations of extensive air showers as well as the detectors involved in their detection play a fundamental role in the study of the high energy cosmic rays. At the highest energies the detailed simulation of air showers is very costly in processing time and disk space due to the large number of secondary particles generated in interactions with the atmosphere, e.g. $\sim 10^{11}$ for $10^{20}$ eV proton shower. Therefore, in order to increase the statistics, it is quite common to recycle single showers many times to simulate the detector response. In this work we present a detailed study of the artificial effects introduced by the multiple use of single air showers for the detector simulations. In particular, we study the effects introduced by the repetitions in the kernel density estimators which are frequently used in composition studies.
Neutrino initiated cascades at mid and high altitudes in the atmosphere
A. D. Supanitsky,G. Medina-Tanco
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2011.03.007
Abstract: High energy neutrinos play a very important role for the understanding of the origin and propagation of ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECR). They can be produced as a consequence of the hadronic interactions suffered by the cosmic rays in the acceleration regions, as by products of the propagation of the UHECR in the radiation background and as a main product of the decay of super heavy relic particles. A new era of very large exposure space observatories, of which the JEM-EUSO mission is a prime example, is on the horizon which opens the possibility of neutrino detection in the highest energy region of the spectrum. In the present work we use a combination of the PYTHIA interaction code with the CONEX shower simulation package in order to produce fast one-dimensional simulations of neutrino initiated showers in air. We make a detail study of the structure of the corresponding longitudinal profiles, but focus our physical analysis mainly on the development of showers at mid and high altitudes, where they can be an interesting target for space fluorescence observatories.
On the influence of statistics on the determination of the mean value of the depth of shower maximum for ultra high energy cosmic ray showers
A. D. Supanitsky,G. Medina-Tanco
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0954-3899/39/9/095203
Abstract: The chemical composition of ultra high energy cosmic rays is still uncertain. The latest results obtained by the Pierre Auger Observatory and the HiRes Collaboration, concerning the measurement of the mean value and the fluctuations of the atmospheric depth at which the showers reach the maximum development, Xmax, are inconsistent. From comparison with air shower simulations it can be seen that, while the Auger data may be interpreted as a gradual transition to heavy nuclei for energies larger than ~ 2-3x10^18 eV, the HiRes data are consistent with a composition dominated by protons. In Ref. [1] it is suggested that a possible explanation of the observed deviation of the mean value of Xmax from the proton expectation, observed by Auger, could originate in a statistical bias arising from the approximated exponential shape of the Xmax distribution, combined with the decrease of the number of events as a function of primary energy. In this paper we consider a better description of the Xmax distribution and show that the possible bias in the Auger data is at least one order of magnitude smaller than the one obtained when assuming an exponential distribution. Therefore, we conclude that the deviation of the Auger data from the proton expectation is unlikely explained by such statistical effect.
An upper limit on the cosmic-ray luminosity of individual sources from gamma-ray observations
A. D. Supanitsky,V. de Souza
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2013/12/023
Abstract: Different types of extragalactic objects are known to produce TeV gamma-rays. Some of these objects are the most probable candidates to accelerate cosmic rays up to 10^20 eV. It is very well known that gamma-rays can be produced as a result of the cosmic ray propagation through the intergalactic medium. These gamma-rays contribute to the total flux observed in the direction of the source. In this paper we propose a new method to derive an upper limit on the cosmic-ray luminosity of an individual source based on the measured upper limit on the integral flux of GeV-TeV gamma-rays. We show how it is possible to calculate an upper limit on the cosmic-ray luminosity of a particular source and we explore the parameter space in which the current GeV-TeV gamma-ray measurements can offer a useful determination. We study in detail two particular sources, Pictor A and NGC 7469, and we calculate the upper limit on the proton luminosity of each source based on the upper limit on the integral gamma-ray flux measured by the H.E.S.S. telescopes.
On the possibility of neutrino flavor identification at the highest energies
A. D. Supanitsky,G. Medina-Tanco
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.86.093020
Abstract: High energy astrophysical neutrinos carry relevant information about the origin and propagation of cosmic rays. They can be created as a by-product of the interactions of cosmic rays in the sources and during propagation of these high energy particles through the intergalactic medium. The determination of flavor composition in this high energy flux is important because it presents a unique chance to probe our understanding of neutrino flavor oscillations at gamma factors >10^21. In this work we develop a new statistical technique to study the flavor composition of the incident neutrino flux, which is based on the multipeak structure of the longitudinal profiles of very deep electron and tau neutrino horizontal air showers. Although these longitudinal profiles can be observed by means of fluorescence telescopes placed over the Earth's surface, orbital detectors are more suitable for neutrino observations owing to their much larger aperture. Therefore, we focus on the high energy region of the neutrino spectrum relevant for observations with orbital detectors like the planned JEM-EUSO telescope.
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