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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 379942 matches for " D. -L. Fang "
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Air pollution and associated human mortality: the role of air pollutant emissions, climate change and methane concentration increases from the preindustrial period to present
Y. Fang, V. Naik, L. W. Horowitz,D. L. Mauzerall
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2013,
Abstract: Increases in surface ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (≤2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter, PM2.5) are associated with excess premature human mortalities. We estimate changes in surface O3 and PM2.5 from pre-industrial (1860) to present (2000) and the global present-day (2000) premature human mortalities associated with these changes. We extend previous work to differentiate the contribution of changes in three factors: emissions of short-lived air pollutants, climate change, and increased methane (CH4) concentrations, to air pollution levels and associated premature mortalities. We use a coupled chemistry-climate model in conjunction with global population distributions in 2000 to estimate exposure attributable to concentration changes since 1860 from each factor. Attributable mortalities are estimated using health impact functions of long-term relative risk estimates for O3 and PM2.5 from the epidemiology literature. We find global mean surface PM2.5 and health-relevant O3 (defined as the maximum 6-month mean of 1-h daily maximum O3 in a year) have increased by 8 ± 0.16 μg m 3 and 30 ± 0.16 ppbv (results reported as annual average ±standard deviation of 10-yr model simulations), respectively, over this industrial period as a result of combined changes in emissions of air pollutants (EMIS), climate (CLIM) and CH4 concentrations (TCH4). EMIS, CLIM and TCH4 cause global population-weighted average PM2.5 (O3) to change by +7.5 ± 0.19 μg m 3 (+25 ± 0.30 ppbv), +0.4 ± 0.17 μg m 3 (+0.5 ± 0.28 ppbv), and 0.04 ± 0.24 μg m 3 (+4.3 ± 0.33 ppbv), respectively. Total global changes in PM2.5 are associated with 1.5 (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.2–1.8) million cardiopulmonary mortalities and 95 (95% CI, 44–144) thousand lung cancer mortalities annually and changes in O3 are associated with 375 (95% CI, 129–592) thousand respiratory mortalities annually. Most air pollution mortality is driven by changes in emissions of short-lived air pollutants and their precursors (95% and 85% of mortalities from PM2.5 and O3 respectively). However, changing climate and increasing CH4 concentrations also contribute to premature mortality associated with air pollution globally (by up to 5% and 15%, respectively). In some regions, the contribution of climate change and increased CH4 together are responsible for more than 20% of the respiratory mortality associated with O3 exposure. We find the interaction between climate change and atmospheric chemistry has influenced atmospheric composition and human mortality associated with industrial air pollution. Our study highlights the benefits to air quality and human health of CH4 mitigation as a component of future air pollution control policy.
Air pollution and associated human mortality: the role of air pollutant emissions, climate change and methane concentration increases during the industrial period
Y. Fang,V. Naik,L. W. Horowitz,D. L. Mauzerall
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/acpd-12-22713-2012
Abstract: Increases in surface ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (≤2.5 μm} aerodynamic diameter, PM2.5) are associated with excess premature human mortalities. Here we estimate changes in surface O3 and PM2.5 since preindustrial (1860) times and the global present-day (2000) premature human mortalities associated with these changes. We go beyond previous work to analyze and differentiate the contribution of three factors: changes in emissions of short-lived air pollutants, climate change, and increased methane (CH4) concentrations, to air pollution levels and the associated premature mortalities. We use a coupled chemistry-climate model in conjunction with global population distributions in 2000 to estimate exposure attributable to concentration changes since 1860 from each factor. Attributable mortalities are estimated using health impact functions of long-term relative risk estimates for O3 and PM2.5 from the epidemiology literature. We find global mean surface PM2.5 and health-relevant O3 (defined as the maximum 6-month mean of 1-h daily maximum O3 in a year) have increased by 8 ± 0.16 μg m 3 and 30 ± 0.16 ppbv, respectively, over this industrial period as a result of combined changes in emissions of air pollutants (EMIS), climate (CLIM) and CH4 concentrations (TCH4). EMIS, CLIM and TCH4 cause global average PM2.5(O3) to change by +7.5 ± 0.19 μg m 3 (+25 ± 0.30 ppbv), +0.4 ± 0.17 μg m 3 (+0.5 ± 0.28 ppbv), and 0.02 ± 0.01 μg m 3 (+4.3 ± 0.33 ppbv), respectively. Total changes in PM2.5 are associated with 1.5 (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.0–2.5) million all-cause mortalities annually and in O3 are associated with 375 (95% CI, 129–592) thousand respiratory mortalities annually. Most air pollution mortality is driven by changes in emissions of short-lived air pollutants and their precursors (95% and 85% of mortalities from PM2.5 and O3, respectively). However, changing climate and increasing CH4 concentrations also increased premature mortality associated with air pollution globally up to 5% and 15%, respectively. In some regions, the contribution of climate change and increased CH4 together are responsible for more than 20% of the respiratory mortality associated with O3 exposure. We find the interaction between climate change and atmospheric chemistry has influenced atmospheric composition and human mortality associated with industrial air pollution. In addition to driving 13% of the total historical changes in surface O3 and 15% of the associated mortalities, CH4 is the dominant factor driving changes in atmospheric OH and H2O2 since preindustrial time
CARBIDE PRECIPITATION AND BAINITE TRANSFORMATION IN Fe-C-Si ALLOY
RL Zuo,L Fang,P D Ding,
R.L. Zuo
,L. Fang and P. D. Ding

金属学报(英文版) , 1996,
Abstract: CARBIDEPRECIPITATIONANDBAINITETRANSFORMATIONINFe-C-SiALLOY¥R.L.Zuo;L.FangandP.D.Ding(DepartmentofMetallurgyandMaterialsEngine...
Shear viscosity of hot nuclear matter by the mean free path method
D. Q. Fang,Y. G. Ma,C. L. Zhou
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevC.89.047601
Abstract: The shear viscosity of hot nuclear matter is investigated by using the mean free path method within the framework of IQMD model. Finite size nuclear sources at different density and temperature are initialized based on the Fermi-Dirac distribution. The results show that shear viscosity to entropy density ratio decreases with the increase of temperature and tends toward a constant value for $\rho\sim\rho_0$, which is consistent with the previous studies on nuclear matter formed during heavy-ion collisions. At $\rho\sim\frac{1}{2}\rho_0$, a minimum of $\eta/s$ is seen at around $T=10$ MeV and a maximum of the multiplicity of intermediate mass fragment ($M_{\text{IMF}}$) is also observed at the same temperature which is an indication of the liquid-gas phase transition.
Three Mode Interactions as a Precision Monitoring Tool for Advanced Laser Interferometers
L Ju,C Zhao,D G Blair,S Susmithan,Q Fang,C D Blair
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0264-9381/31/18/185003
Abstract: Three-mode opto-acoustic interactions in advanced laser interferometer gravitational wave detectors have high sensitivity to thermally excited ultrasonic modes in their test masses. Three mode interaction signal gain can change by 100% for thermally induced radius of curvature variations ~ 10-5, allowing the monitoring of thermal distortions corresponding to wavefront changes ~2 x 10-13m. We show that the three-mode gain for single cavity interactions can be monitored by observing beat signals in the transmitted or reflected light due to the thermal excitation of the many hundreds of detectable acoustic modes. We show that three mode interaction signals can be used at low optical power to predict parametric instabilities that could occur at higher power. In addition, at any power, the observed mode amplitudes can be used to control the interferometer operating point against slow environmental perturbations. We summarize data on an 80m cavity that demonstrates these effects and propose testing on full scale interferometer cavities to evaluate whether the technique has practical benefits that can be extended from single cavities to dual recycling interferometers.
GRAPPA: Grid Access Portal for Physics Applications
D. Engh,S. Smallen,J. Gieraltowski,L. Fang,R. Gardner,D. Gannon,R. Bramley
Computer Science , 2003,
Abstract: Grappa is a Grid portal effort designed to provide physicists convenient access to Grid tools and services. The ATLAS analysis and control framework, Athena, was used as the target application. Grappa provides basic Grid functionality such as resource configuration, credential testing, job submission, job monitoring, results monitoring, and preliminary integration with the ATLAS replica catalog system, MAGDA. Grappa uses Jython to combine the ease of scripting with the power of java-based toolkits. This provides a powerful framework for accessing diverse Grid resources with uniform interfaces. The initial prototype system was based on the XCAT Science Portal developed at the Indiana University Extreme Computing Lab and was demonstrated by running Monte Carlo production on the U.S. ATLAS test-bed. The portal also communicated with a European resource broker on WorldGrid as part of the joint iVDGL-DataTAG interoperability project for the IST2002 and SC2002 demonstrations. The current prototype replaces the XCAT Science Portal with an xbooks jetspeed portlet for managing user scripts.
Cambios histológicos en muestras de agrandamientos gingivales obtenidas a través de biopsias con electrobisturí y bisturí convencional Histological changes in samples of gingival overgrowth biopsies obtained through conventional scalpel and electro surgical scalpel
A. Herrera Herrera,A. Díaz Caballero,L. Barrios García,L.C. Fang Mercado
Avances en Odontoestomatología , 2012,
Abstract: Antecedentes: Es poco lo que se dice en la literatura sobre cambios histológicos observados en la encía y aun menos comparándolo en caso de agrandamiento gingival obtenido de tejidos humanos. Al realizar estos recortes surge la pregunta si existe alguna diferencia histológica al comparar las muestras obtenidas con electrobisturí y bisturí convencional. Métodos: Se implementó un estudio descriptivo comparativo, sobre 21 pacientes obteniendo 90 muestras. La asignación de los sitios quirúrgicos para cada uno de los tratamientos se hizo con la estrategia de control cruzado, evaluando ambos tratamientos en el mismo sujeto (electrobisturí y bisturí convencional), en forma aleatoria en ambas hemiarcadas. Los datos se incluyeron en una base de datos en Excel, se analizaron en un software estadístico STATA 9.1. Se utilizó el test exacto de Fischer, con significancia p=0,05. Resultados: Se observó carbonización y coagulación del colágeno en el 72,7% siendo superior en las muestras obtenidas con electrobisturí en el tejido conectivo, el 79,5% de diferencia de carbonización siendo superior con el electrobisturí en el tejido epitelial. Con respecto al bisturí convencional en el tejido conectivo en un 95,6% esta inflamación estaba mediada por linfocitos y células plasmáticas y solo en un 17,8% se encontró presencia de neutrófilos y con respecto al electrobisturí en el tejido conectivo el 100% de las muestras presentaron inflamación, el cual estaba constituido por un 97,8% de linfocitos y células plasmáticas, solo un 37,8% de neutrófilos. Conclusiones: Se observaron diversos fenómenos histológicos en las biopsias de encía obtenidas tanto con bisturí convencional como con electrobisturí que ayudan a la comprensión de las ciencias básicas para futuras investigaciones y así poder llegar a la práctica clínica. Se observaron da os en las biopsias tanto en los cortes de bisturí convencional como con los cortes de bisturí eléctrico, que en oportunidades hicieron invalorables las muestra. Background. Literature Reports are scarce regarding histological changes observed on gingival tissues, but they are scarcer when gingival overgrowth from human tissues are considered. When histological slides are compared, the question arises if there are histological differences between samples obtained with electrosurgical versus conventional scalpel. Methods. A comparative study was performed in 21 patients, 90 samples. Cross control strategy was used to allocate the surgical site for each treatment, facilitating to evaluate both treatments in the same subject (electrosurgical versus conve
Self-modulation instability of ultra-relativistic particle bunches with finite rise times
J. Vieira,L. D. Amorim,Y. Fang,W. B. Mori,P. Muggli,L. O. Silva
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0741-3335/56/8/084014
Abstract: We study the evolution of the self-modulation instability using bunches with finite rise times. Using particle-in-cell simulations we show that unlike long bunches with sharp rise times, there are large variations of the wake amplitudes and wake phase velocity when bunches with finite rise times are used. These results show that use of bunches with sharp rise times is important to seed the self-modulation instability and to ensure stable acceleration regimes.
Tourette Syndrome and Klippel-Feil Anomaly in a Child with Chromosome 22q11 Duplication
Raymond A. Clarke,Zhi Ming Fang,Ashish D. Diwan,Donald L. Gilbert
Case Reports in Medicine , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/361518
Abstract: This is the first case description of the association of Klippel-Feil Syndrome (KFS), Tourette Syndrome (TS), Motor Stereotypies, and Obsessive Compulsive Behavior, with chromosome 22q11.2 Duplication Syndrome (22q11DupS). Neuropsychiatric symptoms in persons with 22q11.2 deletion, including obsessive compulsiveness, anxiety, hyperactivity, and one prior case report of TS, have been attributed to low copy number effects on Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT). However, the present unique case of 22q11DupS and TS suggests a more complex relationship involving another gene(s) at or near this locus.
Molecular Characterization of the Ghrelin and Ghrelin Receptor Genes and Effects on Fat Deposition in Chicken and Duck
Q. Nie,M. Fang,L. Xie,X. Peng,H. Xu,C. Luo,D. Zhang,X. Zhang
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/567120
Abstract: Ghrelin (GHRL) and its receptor (GHSR) are involved in various bioactivities. In this study, the complete cDNA and 5 flanking region of the duck GHRL (dGHRL) gene and a 3717 bp fragment of the duck GHSR (dGHSR) gene were obtained. A total of 19, 8, 43, and 48 SNPs identified in 2751, 1358, 3671, and 3567 bp of the chicken GHRL (cGHRL), chicken GHSR (cGHSR), dGHRL, and dGHSR genes, respectively. Both cGHRL and dGHRL were expressed predominantly in the proventriculus, whereas the highest mRNA levels of cGHSR and dGHSR were detected in the breast muscle and pituitary. Association analysis showed that C-2047G, A-2355C, and A-2220C of the cGHRL gene were significantly associated with abdominal fat weight (AFW; =.01), crude protein content of leg muscle (CPCLM; =.02), and CPCLM (=.0009), respectively. C-1459T of the cGHSR gene was also significantly associated with CPCLM (=.0004). C-729T of dGHRL and A3427T of dGHSR were both significantly associated with subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT; =.04). It was indicated by this study that the GHRL and GHSR genes were related to fat deposition in both chicken and duck.
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