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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 191278 matches for " D Mekonnen "
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Indigenous legal tradition as a supplement to African transitional justice initiatives
D Mekonnen
African Journal on Conflict Resolution , 2010,
Abstract: This article interrogates the role of indigenous legal tradition (ILT) in contemporary African transitional justice initiatives. It departs from the assumption that most African cultures put emphasis on communality and the interdependence of the members of a community. Indigenous legal traditions, which include mechanisms for acknowledgement, truth telling, accountability, healing and reparations, continue to assume a prominent role in the lives of African societies and individuals. However, little attention has been given to the role of African indigenous legal tradition in terms of its contribution to postconflict transformation. Several African societies have deeply rooted social and communal values of conflict resolution which can serve as a reservoir of wisdom in future transitional justice initiatives. In furtherance of the main theme, the article discusses an example of ILT from Eritrea, and calls for a continued engagement and critical assessment of these values in promoting peace and justice in Africa.
Leech infestation: The unusual cause of upper airway obstruction
D Mekonnen
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences , 2013,
Abstract: This paper presents a case of a 7 year-old child who presented with a 14-days history of blood stained saliva and shortness of breath of 3 days with signs of upper airway obstruction. Laryngoscopy revealed a blackish living foreign body in the proximal trachea. Under general anesthesia the leech was removed by applying forceps. I conclude that a high index of suspicion of leech infestation is required when faced with a child presenting with unexplained bleeding per mouth and signs of upper airway obstruction. KEY WORDS: Leech, Foreign body, Trachea, upper airway obstruction.
MHD flow of micropolar fluid in a rectangular duct with hall and ion slip effects
Srnivasacharya, D.;Shiferaw, Mekonnen;
Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-58782008000400007
Abstract: the steady flow of incompressible and electrically conducting micropolar fluid flow through a rectangular channel is considered taking hall and ionic effects into consideration. an external uniform magnetic field is applied which is directed arbitrary in a plane perpendicular to the flow direction. the governing partial differential equations are solved numerically using finite difference method, and the effects of micropolar parameters, magnetic parameter, hall parameter and ion slip parameter on the velocity and microrotation are discussed.
The prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempts among individuals attending an adult psychiatry out-patient clinic in Gondar, Ethiopia
D Mekonnen, Y Kebede
African Health Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Background:Suicide is a common problem worldwide and the magnitude is high especially in countries where mental illnesses are prevalent and psychiatric services are poor. Objective: To determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempts among patients who attended the Psychiatry clinic of Gondar University Hospital. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted from March-December 2006 involving a total of 474 patients. Data was collected using a pre tested structured questionnaire containing basic socio-demographic variables, psychiatric diagnosis, suicidal ideation, suicidal attempt, the methods of suicide attempt and ways of survival from the attempted suicide. It was administered by psychiatry nurses working in the clinic. The data was analyzed anonymously using SPSS software. Results: The commonest mental illness was Major Depressive Disorder (51.3%) followed by Psychosis (38%). Ninety one (19.2 %) patients attempted suicide at least once after the onset of the current mental illness and 307(64.8%) have suicidal ideation. The common method of suicidal attempt was hanging (45.1%) and 69.2% were at home. An association was found between suicidal ideation and attempt (OR=33.7; CI=8.2-138.8, p-value <0.01). Conclusion: Suicidal ideation was common in psychiatric patients. It was also associated with suicidal attempt.
Clinical Effects of Yoga on Asthmatic Patients: A Preliminary Clinical Trial, Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia
D Mekonnen, M Andualem
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Asthma is one of the commonest respiratory diseases in Jimma area as well as a significant disease burden worldwide costing billions of dollars. Anti-asthmatic drugs that are available in the market are expensive and have adverse effects. Thus, it is wise to look for an adjunct therapy to alleviate these problems. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to see the effect of yoga on patterns of clinical features, peak expiratory flow rates and use of drugs in asthmatic patients. METHODS: A preliminary controlled clinical trial study was conducted on 24 volunteer asthmatic patients who were getting support at the missionary of charity. They were grouped in yoga and control groups. An Indian yoga expert through a translator conducted the training on yogic practice, yogic posture, breath slowing technique and discussion at the end. Then, the yoga groups were supervised for four weeks taking yoga exercise daily for 50 minutes. Peak expiratory flow rate was taken using the mini Wright peak flow meter and vital signs were measured in both groups. Data were analyzed using web based Graph pad quick calcs statistical software. RESULTS: The male to female ratio was 1:1 in both cases and control groups, 8(66.7%) were Christian and 9 (75.0%) were farmers. The yoga group showed 66.7% reduction in the use of salbutamole puff and 58.3% salbutamole tablets. There was a 10% increment in the PEFR in the yoga group while only 2% in the control group. There was statistically significant reduction in day and night asthma attacks in the yoga group. CONCLUSION: Yoga exercise among asthmatic patients resulted in a decreased number of day and night attacks and use of drugs. It also shows significant improvement in the peak expiratory flow rate. Further large scale study is recommended.
Flow of Micropolar Fluid through a Porous Tube of Varying Cross-Section in the Presence of Magnetic Field
D. Srinivasacharya,Mekonnen Shiferaw
Sel?uk Journal of Applied Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: The steady flow of incompressible and electrically conducting micropolar fluid through a tube with permeable wall of slowly varying cross-section is studied. The fluid motion is subjected to an external uniform magnetic field directed transverse to the flow direction. Assuming small aspect ratio and neglecting the inertia terms, a closed form solutions are obtained for velocity and microrotation components. The profiles of velocity and microrotation components presented for different micropolar fluid parameters, magnetic parameter and wall absorption parameter. The variation of wall skin friction is presented graphically for different flow geometries.
Problems Challenging the Academic Performance of Physics Students in Higher Governmental Institutions in the Case of Arbaminch, Wolayita Sodo, Hawassa and Dilla Universities  [PDF]
Sintayehu Mekonnen
Natural Science (NS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2014.65037

This study was conducted to examine problems that challenged academic performance of physics students in higher governmental institutions in the case of Arbaminch, Wolayita Sodo, Hawassa and Dilla Universities. Questionnaires, interviews and video recordings were used to collect relevant data for the study. Data from questionnaires was compiled and analyzed using a computerized data analysis package known as Statistical Package for Social Science SPSS 17.0. The Pearson chi-square test was used to compute to test association between dependent variable and independent variables and T-test was used to find out how academic performance varied with interest to subject matter. On the other hand, ANOVA test was used to test variation of the academic performance in study sites. Besides, percentages were used for comparison of data analysis. The findings reveal the existence of a significant influence of teachers both in fostering positive or negative attitude to subject (physics) and for their poor academic performance in lower class as well as in higher institutions. On the basis of the findings, the least percentage of students (16%) indicated that their current department was the best choice for them during application for admission. Whereas the highest percentage (84%) of sample class students was enrolled in department of physics without their interest and the academic performance (ESELS result), the highest percentage (70) of students who were admitted to department of physics was below 50%. The p values 0.01 and 0.00, respectively for students who are enrolled in department of physics with best choice and without their interest, are less than alpha level of significance (0.05), which reveals that, there is statistical significance academic performance deference between students in both cases. However, the difference is more significant for those students who are enrolled without their interest. By analysis of Pearson chi-square test summary in respective study sites, the p values 0.01, 0.007, 0.021 and 0.022 respectively are less than the alpha (α) level of significance of 0.05, which reveals that there is strong association between those variables. In the other corner of the ANOVA test analysis indicates that p value 0.01 is less than alpha level of significance 0.05. This reveals variation of academic performance of students between four higher governmental institutions where the study is made.

Adult Mosquito Populations and Their Health Impact around and far from Dams in Tigray Region, Ethiopia
D Tadesse, Y Mekonnen, A Tsehaye
Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science , 2012,
Abstract: Malaria control program in Ethiopia has a history of more than 40 years, but still now, malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of dam construction in the distribution of mosquito in intervention (dam nearby villages) and controlled (villages far from dam). Indoor adult mosquitoes were collected using 144 CDC light traps from 12 villages (6 from the intervention and 6 from the control villages) Community- based malaria parasitology was also done. Sampling was done in November 2005, December 2005, May 2006 and September 2006). A total of 1713 adult indoor mosquitoes were collected, of these, 1182 (69%) were Anopheles and 531 (31%) Culex. The prevalence of Anopheles was 45.77% in the intervention villages and 23.23% in the controlled villages (F p = 0.012). The prevalence of Anopheles increased twice in the intervention compared to the controlled villages. A total of 1436 children, 888 from intervention and 548 from control villages were examined for malaria parasitology. Only 57 children were found infected by Plasmodium species. Malaria prevalence rate was 3.97% (4.17% and 3.65% in intervention and control village, respectively)(x2 = 0.11, p= 0.7399). Among the 57 malaria positive cases in 32 (56.14%) we found P. vivax and in the 25 (43.86%) P. falciparum. We can tentatively conclude that the dams situated at 2000m and above do resulted two fold adult indoor mosquito, but do not seem to have resulted in a markedly higher incidence of malaria in the region. The study concludes that concerned authorities should take appropriate measures to improve health-care facilities for local communities when planning new irrigation schemes wherever they occur.
Berry Approach to Intrinsic Anomalous Hall Conductivity in Dilute Magnetic Semiconductors (Ga1-xMnxAs)  [PDF]
Sintayehu Mekonnen, P. Singh
World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics (WJCMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjcmp.2015.53019
Abstract: We develop a model Hamiltonian to treat intrinsic anomalous Hall conductivity in dilute magnetic semiconductor (DMS) of type (III, Mn, V) and obtain the Berry potential and Berry curvature which are responsible for intrinsic anomalous Hall conductivity in Ga1-x MnxAs DMS. Based on Kubo formalism, we establish the relation between Berry curvature and intrinsic anomalous Hall conductivity. We find that for strong spin-orbit interaction intrinsic anomalous Hall conductivity is quantized which is in agreement with recent experimental observation. In addition, we show that the intrinsic anomalous Hall conductivity (AHC) can be controlled by changing concentration of magnetic impurities as well as exchange field. Since Berry curvature related contribution of anomalous Hall conductivity is believed to be dissipationless, our result is a significant step toward achieving dissipationless electron transport in technologically relevant conditions in emerging of spintronics.
Integrated Watershed Management and Sedimentation  [PDF]
Molla Mekonnen Alemu
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2016.74043

Environmental development and protection measures such as feasibility studies, land-use planning and soil and water conservation are some of the issues that need to be considered in watersheds management. Apparently, integrated watershed management is emerging as an approach for the sustained development and management of natural resources. The integral enactment of different environmental frameworks, strategies and policies could positively impact watershed- based developmental approaches. Sediment which is brought through water erosion can hamper the proper functioning of waterways as well as the quality of water in dams. Knowhow on soil erosion and the sedimentation process is among the requisites that need to be considered for the control of sedimentation. Other elements like climate, edaphic factors, land management, topography, and land cover, etc. will also determine the sedimentation process. Integrated Watershed Management approach is a worthy approach to manage the ecological, social and economic watershed development challenges in countries like Ethiopia. Thus, this article is intended to assess watershed characteristics that will help to explore the possibilities of reducing sedimentation and its related effects.

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