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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 191408 matches for " D Annandale "
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Raltegravir-based post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP): a safe, well-tolerated alternative regimen
D Annandale,C Richardson,M Fisher,D Richardson
Journal of the International AIDS Society , 2012, DOI: 10.7448/ias.15.6.18165
Abstract: Three-drug regimens are routinely recommended in the UK for PEP after possible high-risk exposure to HIV. The current Department of Health and British Association for Sexual Health and HIV first-line regimen is lopinavir/ritonavir, tenofovir and emtricitabine (Truvada). Raltegravir-based regimens may be used as an alternative. This is a review of the use of raltegravir-containing PEP to identify why and when this is initiated and its tolerability and safety compared to first-line PEP. From February 2010 to April 2012, 509 courses of PEP were prescribed; 33 (6.5%) raltegravir-containing PEP. Pharmacy records identified eligible patients; these were compared to 33 courses of first-line PEP in the same time period. 18/33 (54%) of raltegravir-containing PEP were initiated due to potential drug-drug interactions with ritonavir, 3/33 (10%) due to the resistance profile of the contact and 12/33 (36%) due to intolerance of first-line regimen. All switches to raltegravir-based PEP occurred by day 3 of the course with 83% identified on day 1. All switches to raltegravir-containing PEP due to the resistance profile of the contact took place by day 3 of the course. Patients switching due to drug intolerance was largely due to gastrointestinal side effects between days 1 to 16; 2 cases were due to ALT changes. 19 courses of raltegravir-containing PEP were commenced on day one. Reported side effects in the raltegravir-containing PEP were lower than courses of first-line PEP: 10/19 (53%) patients reported no side effects by day 28 treatment compared to 5/33 (15%) patients on first-line PEP. 12/14 (79%) patients on first-line PEP who were switched to raltegravir-containing PEP reported improvement in their side effects. There were no significant liver or renal toxicities in the raltegravir group; 3 patients on first-line PEP had a significant ALT rise. One patient who started first-line PEP was found to be HIV-positive at baseline. An MSM who received raltegravir-containing PEP seroconverted 4.5 months after the course of PEP. He reported 3 episodes of unsafe sexual behaviour since PEP. Raltegravir-based regimens are safe and as well tolerated when compared to first-line regimen. Switching to raltegravir-based regimen is associated with a decrease in reported side effects. Self-reported adherence is better if patients are started on raltegravir. This study suggests that raltegravir-based PEP may be a preferred first-choice regimen.
The use of electrochemically activated saline as a uterine instillation in pony mares : article
C.H. Annandale,M.L. Schulman,R.D. Kirkpatrick
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v79i1.238
Abstract: Twelve pony mares were randomly assigned to either a control or a treatment group and inseminated with fresh, raw semen from a single stallion of known fertility in a cross-over trial design. Pregnancy was diagnosed by transrectal ultrasound 12-14 days post-ovulation and then terminated by administration of a luteolytic dose of cloprostenol. Treatment mares received a uterine instillation of 100 m of electrochemically activated (ECA) saline 4-12 hours post-insemination. Control mares received no treatment post-insemination. Per cycle pregnancy rate was 58.3 % in the control group and 50 % in the treatment group. There was no statistical difference (P = 1.000) in pregnancy rate between the 2 groups. The principles of ECA and applications of ECA saline are discussed.
Phenology and Reproductive Biology of Acacia karroo Hayne (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae)  [PDF]
Petrus Johannes Robbertse, Elsie Sophea du Toit, John George Annandale
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.513223

The architectural development of Acacia karroo conforms to Troll’s model. Growth of the branches is modular and sympodial with heteroblastic leaves on all long shoots of the tree, including the seedling. Axillary buds tend to proliferate especially on flowering shoots where they form fascicles consisting of up to 10 inflorescences arranged in two parallel serial rows per leaf axil. Most axillary buds are sylleptic and basal buds which give rise to short shoots, each producing two to five cataphylls each season, but no flowers. Inflorescences are only produced on long shoots (modules) of the current season. After flowering the terminal part of the module aborts, trees are usually andromonoecious with capitate inflorescences containing 40 to 100 flowers each, with some male and some hermaphrodite. Some trees produce only male flowers. Anthesis in the same inflorescence, the same tree as well as amongst trees of the same community are synchronised and occur at intermittent intervals, each lasting three or more days at a time. Flowers are protogynous and pollen is produced in polyads, each consisting of 16 pollen grains. Ovaries contain 10 to 14 ovules each. The concave stigma has space for only one polyad which can fertilise all ovules in the ovary after a single pollination event. Fruit set is low with 0 to 10 fruits (pods) per inflorescence.

A Conceptual Muddle: An Empirical Analysis of the Use of ‘Sex’ and ‘Gender’ in ‘Gender-Specific Medicine’ Journals
Anne Hammarstr?m, Ellen Annandale
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0034193
Abstract: Background At the same time as there is increasing awareness in medicine of the risks of exaggerating differences between men and women, there is a growing professional movement of ‘gender-specific medicine’ which is directed towards analysing ‘sex’ and ‘gender’ differences. The aim of this article is to empirically explore how the concepts of ‘sex’ and ‘gender’ are used in the new field of ‘gender-specific medicine’, as reflected in two medical journals which are foundational to this relatively new field. Method and Principal Findings The data consist of all articles from the first issue of each journal in 2004 and an issue published three years later (n = 43). In addition, all editorials over this period were included (n = 61). Quantitative and qualitative content analyses were undertaken by the authors. Less than half of the 104 papers used the concepts of ‘sex’ and ‘gender’. Less than 1 in 10 papers attempted any definition of the concepts. Overall, the given definitions were simple, unspecific and created dualisms between men and women. Almost all papers which used the two concepts did so interchangeably, with any possible interplay between ‘sex’ and gender’ referred to only in six of the papers. Conclusion The use of the concepts of ‘sex’ and gender’ in ‘gender-specific medicine’ is conceptually muddled. The simple, dualistic and individualised use of these concepts increases the risk of essentialism and reductivist thinking. It therefore highlights the need to clarify the use of the terms ‘sex’ and ‘gender’ in medical research and to develop more effective ways of conceptualising the interplay between ‘sex’ and ‘gender’ in relation to different diseases.
Comparison of methods for determining unsaturated hydraulic conductivity in the wet range to evaluate the sensitivity of wetting front detectors
GT Adhanom, RJ Stirzaker, SA Lorentz, JG Annandale, JM Steyn
Water SA , 2012,
Abstract: The design of passive lysimeters or wetting front detectors determines the tensions at which they collect a water sample from an unsaturated soil. When deployed in the field to help manage irrigation, it is necessary to know the minimum flux of water that can be sampled by a passive lysimeter and how this relates to the drainage flux at field capacity. This requires a good estimate of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity characteristic, K(h), in the wet range (< 10 kPa). We compared various field, laboratory and theoretical approaches for obtaining the K(h) function and compared these to a reference K(h) function derived by applying inverse modelling approaches to field drainage experimental data. The Van Genuchten model and three of the pedotransfer models produced K(h) functions with a root mean square error of less than 5% compared to the reference, and appear to be simple methods of obtaining a reasonable estimate of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. However, despite the goodness of fit, there can be a 10-fold difference in conductivity at a given tension < 10 kPa estimated from the different methods. Moreover, water content at field capacity depends entirely on whether field capacity is defined as time elapsed after saturation, a set tension or a minimum flux.
Non-invasive assessment of the reproductive cycle in free-ranging female African elephants (Loxodonta africana) treated with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) vaccine for inducing anoestrus
Benavides Valades Gabriela,Ganswindt Andre,Annandale Henry,Schulman Martin L
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7827-10-63
Abstract: Background In southern Africa, various options to manage elephant populations are being considered. Immunocontraception is considered to be the most ethically acceptable and logistically feasible method for control of smaller and confined populations. In this regard, the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) vaccine has not been investigated in female elephants, although it has been reported to be safe and effective in several domestic and wildlife species. The aims of this study were to monitor the oestrous cycles of free-ranging African elephant cows using faecal progestagen metabolites and to evaluate the efficacy of a GnRH vaccine to induce anoestrus in treated cows. Methods Between May 2009 - June 2010, luteal activity of 12 elephant cows was monitored non-invasively using an enzyme immunoassay detecting faecal 5alpha-reduced pregnanes (faecal progestagen metabolites, FPM) on a private game reserve in South Africa. No bulls of breeding age were present on the reserve prior to and for the duration of the study. After a 3-month control period, 8 randomly-selected females were treated twice with 600 micrograms of GnRH vaccine (Improvac , Pfizer Animal Health, Sandton, South Africa) 5-7 weeks apart. Four of these females had been treated previously with the porcine zona pellucida (pZP) vaccine for four years (2004-2007). Results All 12 monitored females (8 treated and 4 controls) showed signs of luteal activity as evidenced by FPM concentrations exceeding individual baseline values more than once. A total of 16 oestrous cycles could be identified in 8 cows with four of these within the 13 to 17 weeks range previously reported for captive African elephants. According to the FPM concentrations the GnRH vaccine was unable to induce anoestrus in the treated cows. Overall FPM levels in samples collected during the wet season (mean 4.03 micrograms/gram dry faeces) were significantly higher (P<0.002) than the dry season (mean 2.59 micrograms/gram dry faeces). Conclusions The GnRH vaccination protocol failed to induce anoestrus in the treated female elephants. These results indicate that irregular oestrous cycles occur amongst free-ranging elephants and are not restricted to elephants in captivity. The relationship between ecological conditions and endocrine activity were confirmed. Free-ranging female elephants were observed to not cycle continuously throughout the year in the absence of adult bulls.
Commercial production of crops irrigated with gypsiferous mine water
NZ Jovanovic, JG Annandale, AS Claassens, SA Lorentz, PD Tanner, ME Aken, FDI Hodgson
Water SA , 2002,
Abstract: The use of gypsiferous mine water for irrigation of agricultural crops is a promising technology that could add value through agricultural production and utilise mine effluent. Crop response to irrigation with gypsiferous mine water, as well as the impact on soil and groundwater resources were investigated in a three-year field trial set up at Kleinkopje Colliery (Witbank, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa). Sugar-beans, maize and wheat were irrigated with four centre pivots on virgin and rehabilitated land, under three irrigation management regimes using two qualities of mine water. Good crop yields were obtained compared to dry-land cropping. Waterlogging in certain areas of the fields indicated that especially rehabilitated land should be properly prepared and, where necessary, waterways built to prevent yield reduction. Soil salinity increased over the duration of the trial due to high concentrations of Ca2+, SO42- and Mg2+ in the irrigation water, but this never reached levels critical to yields of most crops. Exchangeable Ca2+ and Mg2+ in the soil increased with time, whilst K+ decreased. Plant analyses indicated possible nutrient deficiencies, which should be easily managed through corrective fertilisation. The groundwater impact was limited based on borehole measurements, indicating the presence of a buffer zone between the cropped soil profile and groundwater, but this should be monitored over a longer period. Commercial production of crops under irrigation with gypsiferous mine water is feasible and the resulting environmental impact is limited, but further research is required to confirm these findings over a longer period. WaterSA Vol.28(4) 2002: 413-422
Irrigation scheduling research: South African experiences and future prospects
JG Annandale, RJ Stirzaker, A Singels, M van der Laan, MC Laker
Water SA , 2011,
Abstract: Many scheduling approaches have been developed with Water Research Commission funding over the past 4 decades and deployed with varying levels of success; 2 approaches have won prestigious international awards. Soil-based approaches which include measurement of matric potential (tensiometry), water content (neutron probes, capacitance sensors) and depth of wetting (wetting front detectors) have been relatively well accepted by farmers. Atmospheric-based approaches apply, through biophysical modelling of the soil-crop-atmosphere system, thermodynamic limits to the amount of water that can evaporate from a cropped surface under particular environmental conditions. Modelling approaches have been quite empirical or somewhat more mechanistic, generic or crop specific, with pre-programmed (e.g. irrigation calendars) or real-time output. Novel mechanisms have been developed to deliver recommendations to farmers, including resource-poor irrigators. Although general adoption of objective irrigation scheduling in South Africa is still low, the high cost of electricity and nitrogen, and scarcity of water is reviving the interest of consultants and irrigators in the application of these tools to use water more efficiently. Where adoption has been relatively high, intensive support and farmer-researcher-consultant interactions have been key contributing factors. We propose 4 avenues in the R&D domain to ensure responsible water utilisation. Firstly, there is a need to continue to advance existing soil-water measurement technology; and secondly, to further develop new and emerging technologies, like the use of remote sensing. Thirdly, the user-friendliness should be improved as should systems that support existing scheduling tools; and finally, we need to appreciate that farmers are intuitively adaptive managers, and we need to develop simple monitoring tools and conceptual frameworks that enable structured learning.
Relationship between production characteristics and breeding potential of 25-month old extensively managed Bonsmara bulls
S.M Scheepers, C.H Annandale, E.C Webb
South African Journal of Animal Science , 2010,
Abstract: The aim of the study was to determine if the breeding potential of 25-month old Bonsmara beef bulls could be predicted from production characteristics. Forty-one Bonsmara bulls were included in an on-farm performance test (also known as the Phase D growth test) for a period of 180 days. At an average age of 24.7 months the bulls were subjected to a libido test and overall breeding soundness evaluation (OBE). The bulls were categorised into independent breeding potential categories according to the scores they obtained for the measured reproductive traits. The categories included sperm morphology and motility. One-way ANOVA revealed that none of the production traits measured had a significant effect on the different breeding potential categories. A positive correlation (r = 0.33) was recorded between pre-weaning growth rate and percentage morphologically normal sperm, while a negative correlation (r = -0.36) was recorded between total acrosomal- and flagellar sperm defects and pre-weaning growth. A positive correlation was demonstrated between sperm motility and pre-weaning growth (r = 0.36), and a consequent negative correlation (r = -0.38) between the percentage aberrant sperm movement and pre-weaning growth. The correlation between the percentage morphologically normal sperm and percentage progressively moving sperm was r = 0.50, while the correlation between percentage morphologically normal sperm and aberrant and immotile sperm was r = 0.48 for both variables. The number of total defects correlated highly significantly with flagellar and acrosomal defects (r = 0.72 and r = 0.93, respectively) and correlated poorly with the total number of nuclear defects (r = 0.32). These results suggest that total sperm defects were mainly due to acrosomal and flagellar defects, rather than nuclear defects and as the percentage morphologically normal sperm decreased, the motility also decreased. High growth rates before weaning may have a positive effect, while high growth rates after weaning may have a negative effect on the breeding potential of a bull. None of the measured reproductive and production traits had a significant effect on libido score and thus, cannot be used to predict the libido of young extensively maintained bulls.
Prediction of the environmental impact and sustainability of large-scale irrigation with gypsiferous mine-water on groundwater resources
JG Annandale, NZ Jovanovic, FDI Hodgson, BH Usher, ME Aken, AM van der Westhuizen, KL Bristow, JM Steyn
Water SA , 2005,
Abstract: Irrigation of agricultural crops is one of the most cost-effective options for the utilisation of gypsiferous mine wastewater. In addition, it creates the opportunity to produce crops during the dry season. Gypsum is a slightly soluble salt and concentrating the gypsiferous soil solution through crop evapotranspiration precipitates gypsum in the soil profile, removing it from the water system and reducing the potential for groundwater pollution. In previous research, it was found that crops can be commercially produced under irrigation with gypsiferous mine-water with no obvious impact on groundwater in the short term (3 years). It was, however, recommended that monitoring should continue to confirm findings over a longer period and for different conditions. A research project was therefore initiated in 2001 to determine the impact of irrigation with several gypsiferous water/soil combinations on crop performance, soil properties and groundwater quality. Field trials were carried out in South Africa on three mines: Kleinkopjé and New Vaal Collieries (Anglo Coal), and at Syferfontein (Sasol). Different crop and pasture species were grown on different soil types under centre-pivot irrigation with different mine-water qualities. Intensive monitoring systems were established in each irrigated field to determine the components of the soil-water and salt balance. Boreholes were also installed to monitor groundwater level and quality. Field water and salt balance data were used for calibration and validation of the mechanistic, generic crop, Soil-Water Balance (SWB) Model. The results of the field trials indicated that high crop and pasture yields can be obtained, provided site selection, land preparation, fertilisation and irrigation water management are appropriate. The results of the soil-water and salt balance studies indicated that considerable volumes of mine-water can be used and substantial amounts of salts can be removed from the water system through precipitation of gypsum in the soil profile. The groundwater impact was limited based on borehole measurements, indicating the presence of a zone of attenuation between the cropped soil profile and groundwater, but this should be monitored over a longer period. With appropriate management, water and salt runoff, and under specific conditions, drainage and salts leached can be intercepted, thereby minimising unwanted impacts on groundwater. Thirty-year scenario simulations were run with SWB and the generated salt loads from this model were used as input into a separate groundwater model in order to predict the likely long-term effects of irrigation with gypsiferous mine-water on groundwater. The results of these simulations showed that while salts reached the groundwater, there was a drop in concentration of the plume as it moved away from the irrigated area. This was due largely to dilution by infiltration from rainfall recharge and the dispersive characteristics of the aquifer. The simulations als
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