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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 189 matches for " Cyrus Ayieko "
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Changes in B Cell Populations and Merozoite Surface Protein-1-Specific Memory B Cell Responses after Prolonged Absence of Detectable P. falciparum Infection
Cyrus Ayieko, Alexander C. Maue, Walter G. Z. O. Jura, Gregory S. Noland, George Ayodo, Rosemary Rochford, Chandy C. John
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067230
Abstract: Clinical immunity to malaria declines in the absence of repeated parasite exposure. However, little is known about how B cell populations and antigen-specific memory B cells change in the absence of P. falciparum infection. A successful indoor residual insecticide spraying campaign in a highland area of western Kenya, led to an absence of blood-stage P. falciparum infection between March 2007 and April 2008. We assessed memory B cell responses in 45 adults at the beginning (April 2008) and end (April 2009) of a subsequent 12-month period during which none of the adults had evidence of asymptomatic parasitemia or clinical disease. Antibodies and memory B cells to the 42-kDa portion of the merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-142) were measured using ELISA and ELISPOT assays, respectively. B cell populations were characterized by flow cytometry. From 2008 to 2009, the prevalence of MSP-142-specific memory B cells (45% vs. 55%, respectively, P = 0.32) or antibodies (91% vs. 82%, respectively, P = 0.32) did not differ significantly, although specific individuals did change from positive to negative and vice versa, particularly for memory B cells, suggesting possible low-level undetected parasitemia may have occurred in some individuals. The magnitude of MSP-142-specific memory B cells and levels of antibodies to MSP-142 also did not differ from 2008 to 2009 (P>0.10 for both). However, from 2008 to 2009 the proportions of both class-switched atypical (CD19+IgD-CD27-CD21-IgM-) and class-switched activated (CD19+IgD-CD27+CD21-IgM-) memory B cells decreased (both P<0.001). In contrast, class-switched resting classical memory B cells (CD19+IgD-CD27+CD21+IgM-) increased (P<0.001). In this area of seasonal malaria transmission, a one- year absence of detectable P. falciparum infection was not associated with changes in the prevalence or level of MSP-142 specific memory B cells, but was associated with major changes in overall memory B cell subsets.
Method of solution of cam mechanism of counter-rotating cutter bar (a short communication)
Cyrus P.
International Agrophysics , 1998,
Abstract: The author describes the principle of a cutting device with counter rotating cutter bars including cam mechanism. The course of contact force, between the cam surface and roller of the bar is investigated by means of an analogous computer to set up a dynamic model of the drive mechanism and chosen shape of cam. The results of the course of the contact force at the angle of cam rotation = 0-180 ° and for the revolutions of the cam shaft n = 400 r.p.m.. In conclusion cam mechanism a design is introduced and the results of testing of a functional model of a counter-rotating cutter bar are demonstrated.
Curvature generation in nematic surfaces
Cyrus Mostajeran
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: In recent years there has been a growing interest in the study of shape formation using modern responsive materials that can be preprogrammed to undergo spatially inhomogeneous local deformations. In particular, nematic liquid crystalline solids offer exciting possibilities in this context. Considerable recent progress has been made in achieving a variety of shape transitions in thin sheets of nematic solids by engineering isolated points of concentrated Gaussian curvature using topological defects in the nematic director field across textured surfaces. In this paper, we consider ways of achieving shape transitions in thin sheets of nematic glass by generation of non-localised Gaussian curvature in the absence of topological defects in the director field. We show how one can blueprint any desired Gaussian curvature in a thin nematic sheet by controlling the nematic alignment angle across the surface and highlight specific patterns which present feasible initial targets for experimental verification of the theory.
On (Gorenstein) injective and (Gorenstein) flat dimensions of right derived section functor of complexes
Cyrus Jalali
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: Let $(R,\mathfrak{m})$ be a commutative Noetherian local ring, $\mathfrak{a}$ be a proper ideal of $R$ and $M$ be an $R$-complex in $\mathrm{D}(R)$. We prove that if $M\in\mathrm{D}^f_\sqsubset(R)$ (respectively, $M\in\mathrm{D}^f_\sqsupset(R)$), then $\mathrm{id}_R\mathbf{R}\Gamma_{\mathfrak{a}}(M)=\mathrm{id}_R M$ (respectively, $\mathrm{fd}_R\mathbf{R}\Gamma_{\mathfrak{a}}(M)=\mathrm{fd}_R M$). Next, it is proved that the right derived section functor of a complex $M\in\mathrm{D}_\sqsubset(R)$ ($R$ is not necessarily local) can be computed via a genuine left-bounded complex $G\simeq M$ of Gorenstein injective modules. We show that if $R$ has a dualizing complex and $M$ is an $R$-complex in $\mathrm{D}^f_\square(R)$, then $\mathrm{Gfd}_R\mathbf{R}\Gamma_{\mathfrak{a}}(M)=\mathrm{Gfd}_R M$ and $\mathrm{Gid}_R\mathbf{R}\Gamma_{\mathfrak{a}}(M)=\mathrm{Gid}_R M$. Also, we show that if $M$ is a relative Cohen-Macaulay $R$-module with respect to $\mathfrak{a}$ (respectively, Cohen-Macaulay $R$-module of dimension $n$), then $\mathrm{Gfd}_R\mathbf{H}^{\mathrm{ht_M\mathfrak{a}}}_{\mathfrak{a}}(M)=\mathrm{Gfd}_RM+n$ (respectively, $\mathrm{Gid}_R\mathbf{H}^n_{\mathfrak{m}}(M)=\mathrm{Gid}_RM-n$). The above results generalize some known results and provide characterizations of Gorenstein rings.
Building a resource for studying translation shifts
Lea Cyrus
Computer Science , 2006,
Abstract: This paper describes an interdisciplinary approach which brings together the fields of corpus linguistics and translation studies. It presents ongoing work on the creation of a corpus resource in which translation shifts are explicitly annotated. Translation shifts denote departures from formal correspondence between source and target text, i.e. deviations that have occurred during the translation process. A resource in which such shifts are annotated in a systematic way will make it possible to study those phenomena that need to be addressed if machine translation output is to resemble human translation. The resource described in this paper contains English source texts (parliamentary proceedings) and their German translations. The shift annotation is based on predicate-argument structures and proceeds in two steps: first, predicates and their arguments are annotated monolingually in a straightforward manner. Then, the corresponding English and German predicates and arguments are aligned with each other. Whenever a shift - mainly grammatical or semantic -has occurred, the alignment is tagged accordingly.
Design and Control of a Novel Hydraulically/Pneumatically Actuated Robotic System for MRI-Guided Neurosurgery  [PDF]
Cyrus Raoufi, Andrew A. Goldenberg, Walter Kucharczyk
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2008, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2008.11011
Abstract: In this paper the design of a novel modular hydraulic/pneumatic actuated tele-robotic system and a new infrastructure for MRI-guided intervention for closed-bore MRI-guided neurosurgery are presented. Candidate neurosurgical procedures enabled by this system would include thermal ablation, radiofrequency ablation, deep brain stimulators, and targeted drug delivery. The major focus is the application of the designed MR-compatible robotic system to MRI-guided brain biopsy. Navigation and operating modules were designed to undertake the alignment and advancement of the surgical needle respectively. The mechanical design and control paradigm are reported.
Monitoring of Net Primary Production in California Rangelands Using Landsat and MODIS Satellite Remote Sensing  [PDF]
Shuang Li, Christopher Potter, Cyrus Hiatt
Natural Resources (NR) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2012.32009
Abstract: In this study, we present results from the CASA (Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach) model to estimate net primary production (NPP) in grasslands under different management (ranching versus unmanaged) on the Central Coast of California. The latest model version called CASA Express has been designed to estimate monthly patterns in carbon fixation and plant biomass production using moderate spatial resolution (30 m to 250 m) satellite image data of surface vegetation characteristics. Landsat imagery with 30 m resolution was adjusted by contemporaneous Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to calibrate the model based on previous CASA research. Results showed annual NPP predictions of between 300 - 450 grams C per square meter for coastal rangeland sites. Irrigation increased the predicted NPP carbon flux of grazed lands by 59 grams C per square meter annually compared to unmanaged grasslands. Low intensity grazing activity appeared to promote higher grass regrowth until June, compared to the ungrazed grassland sites. These modeling methods were shown to be successful in capturing the differing seasonal growing cycles of rangeland forage production across the area of individual ranch properties.
Measurements of Fog Water Deposition on the California Central Coast  [PDF]
Cyrus Hiatt, Daniel Fernandez, Christopher Potter
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2012.24047
Abstract: Fog deposition is a notable component of the water budget of herbaceous-shrub ecosystems on the central and southern coastal regions of California. This paper presents an analysis of fog water deposition rates and meteorological controls in Big Sur, California. Mesh-screen fog collectors were installed the Brazil Ranch weather station sites to measure fog water during the summer seasons of 2010 and 2011. Fog deposition occurred during 73% of days recorded in 2010 and 87% of days recorded in 2011. The daily average deposition rate was 2.29 L/m2 in 2010 and 3.86 L/m2 in 2011. The meteorological variables which had the greatest influence on prediction of fog deposition were wind speed, wind direction, and the dew-point depression (difference between air temperature and dew point). Based on these results, we hypothesize that high rates of summer fog deposition help sustain the productivity of California coastal vegetation through periods of low rainfall.
Declining Vegetation Growth Rates in the Eastern United States from 2000 to 2010  [PDF]
Christopher Potter, Shuang Li, Cyrus Hiatt
Natural Resources (NR) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2012.34025
Abstract: Negative trends in the monthly MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) time-series were found to be widespread in natural (non-cropland) ecosystems of the eastern United Statesfrom 2000 to 2010. Four sub-regions were detected with significant declines in summed growing season (May-September) EVI, namely theUpper Great Lakes, the Southern Appalachian, the Mid-Atlantic, and the southeastern Coastal Plain forests ecosystems. More than 20% of the undeveloped ecosystem areas in the four sub-regions with significant negative EVI growing season trends were classified as forested land cover over the entire study period. We detected relationships between annual temperature and precipitation patterns and negative forest EVI trends across these regions. Change patterns in both the climate moisture index (CMI) and growing degree days (GDD) were associated with declining forest EVI growing season trends. We conclude that temperature warming-induced change and variability of precipitation at local and regional scales may have altered the growth trends of large forested areas of the easternUnited Statesover the past decade.
Seasonality of Food Supply, Coping Strategies and Child Nutritional Outcome in Sabatia-Kenya
Monica A. Ayieko,K.F. Midikila
Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: This study was conducted in Kenya. Samples of children and caregivers were selected using the EPI method. Food vendors and procurement strategy, demographic and socio-economic indicators of household were analyzed. A social economic index was derived. To understand the association between D ietary D iversity Score and mean anthropometric indices, confounding factors were identified on the basis of the UNICEF conceptual model of causes of malnutrition. A stepwise testing of confounders was done systematically resulting in a final m ultivariate model of regression on the mean nutritional indices. Only 32.8% were able to produce enough to last a year, most households did not meet their dietary needs. 48% of the households received food remittance as supplementary. Coping strategies within households were identified based on their frequency of occurrence. The observed poor breastfeeding beyond infancy underscores the need to stress on the contribution and benefits of breastfeeding to children, communities, and health system s. Dietary diversity positively correlated to household food availability. Increased consumption of common staples negatively correlated to food availability and dietary diversity. Stepw ise regression identified access to roots and tubers, legumes and pulses, and carbonated drinks as the main determinants of food procurement and availability. Study shows that food production in households cannot meet food needs of even an area w ith adequate rainfall patterns. Low levels of education, employment and income observed among female caregivers constrain household purchasing power and knowledge required to select nutritious foods. Thus, empowering the women has far reaching benefits for nutritional outcomes of children.
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