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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1970 matches for " Cynthia Woodsong "
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Microbicide clinical trial adherence: insights for introduction
Cynthia Woodsong,Kathleen MacQueen,K Rivet Amico,Barbara Friedland
Journal of the International AIDS Society , 2013, DOI: 10.7448/ias.16.1.18505
Abstract: After two decades of microbicide clinical trials it remains uncertain if vaginally- delivered products will be clearly shown to reduce the risk of HIV infection in women and girls. Furthermore, a microbicide product with demonstrated clinical efficacy must be used correctly and consistently if it is to prevent infection. Information on adherence that can be gleaned from microbicide trials is relevant for future microbicide safety and efficacy trials, pre-licensure implementation trials, Phase IV post-marketing research, and microbicide introduction and delivery. Drawing primarily from data and experience that has emerged from the large-scale microbicide efficacy trials completed to-date, the paper identifies six broad areas of adherence lessons learned: (1) Adherence measurement in clinical trials, (2) Comprehension of use instructions/Instructions for use, (3) Unknown efficacy and its effect on adherence/Messages regarding effectiveness, (4) Partner influence on use, (5) Retention and continuation and (6) Generalizability of trial participants' adherence behavior. Each is discussed, with examples provided from microbicide trials. For each of these adherence topics, recommendations are provided for using trial findings to prepare for future microbicide safety and efficacy trials, Phase IV post-marketing research, and microbicide introduction and delivery programs.
An acceptability and safety study of the Duet cervical barrier and gel delivery system in Zimbabwe
Montgomery Elizabeth T,Woodsong Cynthia,Musara Petina,Cheng Helen
Journal of the International AIDS Society , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1758-2652-13-30
Abstract: Background Adherence problems with coitally dependent, female-initiated HIV prevention methods have contributed to several trials' failure to establish efficacy. Continuous use of a cervical barrier with once-daily cleaning and immediate reinsertion may simplify use for women and improve adherence. We assessed the acceptability and safety of precoital and continuous use of the Duet , a cervical barrier and gel delivery system, in Zimbabwean women. Methods Using a two-arm crossover design with a parallel observation group, we randomized 103 women in a 2:2:1 ratio: (1) to use the Duet continuously for 14 days, followed by a minimum of seven days of washout and then 14 days of precoital use; (2) to use the same Duet regimens in reverse order; or (3) for observation only. Women were aged 18 to 40 years; half were recruited from a pool of previous diaphragm study participants and the other half from the general community. Acceptability and adherence were assessed through an interviewer-administered questionnaire at each of two follow-up visits. Safety was monitored through pelvic speculum exams and report of adverse events. Results The proportion of women who reported consistent Duet use during sex was virtually identical during continuous and precoital regimens (88.6% vs. 88.9%). Partner refusal was the most common reason cited for non-use during sex in both use regimens. Not having the device handy was the most common reason cited for non-daily use (in the continuous regimen). Most women were "very comfortable" using it continuously (86.3%) and inserting it precoitally (92.8%). The most favoured Duet attribute was that it did not interfere with "natural" sex (55%). The least favoured Duet attribute was the concern that it might come out during sex (71.3%). No serious adverse events were reported during the study; 57 participants reported 90 adverse events classified as mild or moderate. There were no statistically significant differences in: (1) the proportion of women reporting adverse events; (2) the severity of events among those using the Duet and observational controls; or (3) event severity reported during each regimen use period. Conclusions In this study, the Duet was found to be acceptable and safe when inserted precoitally or used continuously for 14 days. Assignment to use of the Duet continuously did not increase adherence to the Duet during sex. Future HIV prevention trials should evaluate use of the Duet (precoitally and continuously) with promising microbicide candidates.
“It’s a Wild Ride”: A Phenomenological Exploration of High Maternal, Gestational Weight Gain  [PDF]
Cynthia L. Murray
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.618293
Abstract: High maternal, gestational weight gain is associated with high birthweight, large-for-gestational-age birthweights, cesarean delivery, child overweight, and short- and long-term postpartum weight retention. In this phenomenological study, the meaning and experiences of weight gain for pregnant women with high gestational weight gain were investigated. Data were collected through interviews with pregnant women from Atlantic Canada. van Manen’s method of phenomenology was utilized. The data analysis revealed four patterns or major themes: being caught off guard; losing your bearings; hanging on for dear life; and hoping for health. The participants experienced their gestational weight gain as an unexpected “wild ride” that they could not control. The findings highlight the need for health care professionals to provide pregnant women with more support concerning gestational weight gain.
An Analysis of the Effectiveness of Sanctions as a Law Enforcement Tool in International Law: A Case Study of Zimbabwe from 2001 to 2013  [PDF]
Cynthia Chipanga, Torque Mude
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2015.55031
Abstract: The focus of this research is analysing the effectiveness of sanctions as a law enforcement tool in international law, a case study of Zimbabwe from 2001 to 2013, to analyse the extent to which sanctions are effective in compelling the behaviour of the targeted ZANU PF elite. The conclusion drawn from this research was that sanctions were not effective in compelling the behaviour of the targets as they strengthened their undemocratic practises and human rights violations. Moreover, the lack of a comprehensive nature of sanctions led the targeted circumventing the restrictions, as there was room for other alternative options. In addition, sanctions ended up hurting the innocent civilians, thereby violating international law.
Delay of Game: A Content Analysis of Coverage of Black Male Athletes by Magazines and News Websites 2002-2012  [PDF]
Cynthia M. Frisby
Advances in Journalism and Communication (AJC) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajc.2016.44009
Abstract: According to research on sports media, reporters have both gender and racial biases. Women are marginalized in the media (Billings, Halone, & Denham, 2002), and athletes are stereotyped based on race (Banet-Weiser, 1999). These depictions affect the public’s image of athletics and particular athletes. The purpose of this analysis is to determine if White male athletes are offered both more media attention and more salient coverage than Black male athletes (Billings, Halone, & Denham, 2002). Data obtained in the analysis show that, currently, coverage of athletes is not equal quantitatively or qualitatively. Disproportionate coverage involving black male athletes was found in news stories that involved instances of crime, domestic/sexual violence, moral failure, and/or the athlete’s “natural” skills and abilities.
A Content Analysis of Serena Williams and Angelique Kerber’s Racial and Sexist Microagressions  [PDF]
Cynthia M. Frisby
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.55019
Abstract: The primary purpose of this exploratory study was to determine if microaggressions regularly found in sport coverage were present in stories about two elite female tennis players. Microaggressions are subtle statements that unconsciously communicate denigrating messages to female athletes. In recent years, qualitative studies have introduced the types of microaggressions that female athletes experience. In the present study, a content analysis of 643 news stories was conducted in order to provide a quantitative measure of the frequency in which microaggressions appear in news stories about female athletes. Serena Williams, ranked number two in the list of top female tennis players, was selected because several qualitative studies show this female athlete of color is often the victim of racial slurs and epitaphs in news stories, as well as, news reports that feature insults to her physical appearance and body type. Angelique Kerber, the number one ranked female tennis player was selected in order to determine if an athlete of color receives more micro-aggresions than a top-ranked White female athlete. Data show that Serena Williams experienced more microaggresive themes related to gender roles and racial insults than Angelique Kerber (p < 0.0000). It is concluded that future research should explore in greater depth the microagression aimed at Black female athletes in all levels of sports and their participation.
Sacrificing Dignity for Publicity: Content Analysis of Female and Male Athletes on “Sports Illustrated” and “ESPN the Magazine” Covers from 2012-2016  [PDF]
Cynthia M. Frisby
Advances in Journalism and Communication (AJC) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajc.2017.52007
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to assess changes in how often female athletes were portrayed on the cover when compared to male athletes. A content analysis of the manner by which male and female athletes were depicted on sports magazine covers from 2012-2016 was performed. A total of 245 cover pages taken from two top sports magazines, Sports Illustrated and ESPN: The magazine were used to analyze depictions of individual male and female athletes. Despite females’ increased participation in sport since the enactment of Title IX and calls for greater media coverage of female athletes, women appeared on just 10 percent of the covers compared to male athletes. Data show that the percentage of female athletes on the sports magazines covers did not change significantly over the span of five years and were comparable to levels reported by other researchers. Beyond the limited appearance on sport magazine covers, female athletes were shown in sexually objectifying poses, seductive eye gazes, scantily clad clothing, and sexy/inviting body poses while male athletes are often seen in their team uniforms depicted in active, game playing athletic motions associated or related to his sport. It is concluded that male athletes are still portrayed in ways which support hegemonic ideas of masculinity.
Misrepresentations of Lone Shooters: The Disparate Treatment of Muslim, African American, Hispanic, Asian, and White Perpetrators in the US News Media  [PDF]
Cynthia M. Frisby
Advances in Journalism and Communication (AJC) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajc.2017.52010
Abstract: The purpose of the present study is to determine how news stories about mass shootings are framed when reporting on a lone shooter. Data obtained revealed specific biases in news stories about mass shootings and perpetrators of color. National print media included in the study were USA Today, the Washington Post, The New York Times, the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, and the Los Angeles Times. Data shows that of the N = 170 stories, 75% of the stories involving a white shooter included the word or references to hero while shootings that involved lone shooters of color using the hero was found in 25% of the stories (P < .001). Results from this research are discussed in terms of their implications and significance for future research.
Using Spatial Econometrics to Measure Ozone Pollution Externalities  [PDF]
C.-Y. Cynthia Lin
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.329130
Abstract: This paper summarizes my previous work in Lin (2010), in which I use spatial econometrics to analyze air pollution externalities. In Lin (2010), state-by-state source-receptor transfer coefficients that can be used as a basis for a location- differentiated permit system are estimated. Results affirm the importance of regional transport in determining local ozone air quality, although owing to non-monotonicities in ozone production the externality is not always negative. Because the origin of emissions matters, results also reject a non-spatially differentiated NOx cap and trade program as an appropriate mechanism for reducing ozone smog.
California’s Agriculture-Related Local Air Pollution Policy  [PDF]
C.-Y. Cynthia Lin
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.48A1004

Air pollution is a critical environmental issue for California, which has some of the nation’s most polluted air basins and also the nation’s most stringent set of state and local air quality standards. This paper reviews my previous work in Lin (2011), in which I examine the effects of agriculture-related local regulations in California on air quality, as measured by the number of exceedances of the CO and NO2 standards, by exploiting the natural variation in policy among the different air districts in California. Agricultural burning policies and penalty fees reduce the pollution from CO. Other policies such as the prohibition on visible emission, fugitive dust, particulate matter, nitrogen and the reduction of animal matter are correlated with higher levels of CO. Regulations on orchard and citrus heaters have no significant effect on the number of exceedances of the CO and NO2 standards.

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