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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1973 matches for " Cynthia Kendell "
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How do surgeons decide to refer patients for adjuvant cancer treatment? Protocol for a qualitative study
Urquhart Robin,Kendell Cynthia,Sargeant Joan,Buduhan Gordon
Implementation Science , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1748-5908-7-102
Abstract: Background Non-small cell lung cancer, breast cancer, and colorectal cancer are commonly diagnosed cancers in Canada. Patients diagnosed with early-stage non-small cell lung, breast, or colorectal cancer represent potentially curable populations. For these patients, surgery is the primary mode of treatment, with (neo)adjuvant therapies (e.g., chemotherapy, radiotherapy) recommended according to disease stage. Data from our research in Nova Scotia, as well as others’, demonstrate that a substantial proportion of non-small cell lung cancer and colorectal cancer patients, for whom practice guidelines recommend (neo)adjuvant therapy, are not referred for an oncologist consultation. Conversely, surveillance data and clinical experience suggest that breast cancer patients have much higher referral rates. Since surgery is the primary treatment, the surgeon plays a major role in referring patients to oncologists. Thus, an improved understanding of how surgeons make decisions related to oncology services is important to developing strategies to optimize referral rates. Few studies have examined decision making for (neo)adjuvant therapy from the perspective of the cancer surgeon. This study will use qualitative methods to examine decision-making processes related to referral to oncology services for individuals diagnosed with potentially curable non-small cell lung, breast, or colorectal cancer. Methods A qualitative study will be conducted, guided by the principles of grounded theory. The study design is informed by our ongoing research, as well as a model of access to health services. The method of data collection will be in-depth, semi structured interviews. We will attempt to recruit all lung, breast, and/or colorectal cancer surgeons in Nova Scotia (n ≈ 42), with the aim of interviewing a minimum of 34 surgeons. Interviews will be audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Data will be collected and analyzed concurrently, with two investigators independently coding and analyzing the data. Analysis will involve an inductive, grounded approach using constant comparative analysis. Discussion The primary outcomes will be (1) identification of the patient, surgeon, institutional, and health-system factors that influence surgeons’ decisions to refer non-small cell lung, breast, and colorectal cancer patients to oncology services when consideration for (neo)adjuvant therapy is recommended and (2) identification of potential strategies that could optimize referral to oncology for appropriate individuals.
A novel approach to surface electromyography: an exploratory study of electrode-pair selection based on signal characteristics
Cynthia Kendell, Edward D Lemaire, Yves Losier, Adam Wilson, Adrian Chan, Bernie Hudgins
Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1743-0003-9-24
A team approach to improving colorectal cancer services using administrative health data
Geoffrey Porter, Robin Urquhart, Jingyu Bu, Cynthia Kendell, Maureen MacIntyre, Ron Dewar, George Kephart, Yukiko Asada, Eva Grunfeld
Health Research Policy and Systems , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1478-4505-10-4
Abstract: The objectives of this paper are to: 1) provide a detailed description of the methodologies employed across the various studies being conducted by Team ACCESS; 2) demonstrate how administrative health data can be used to evaluate access and quality in CRC services; and 3) provide an example of an interdisciplinary team approach to addressing health service delivery issues.All patients diagnosed with CRC in NS between 2001 and 2005 were identified through the Nova Scotia Cancer Registry (NSCR) and staged using the Collaborative Stage Data Collection System. Using administrative databases that were linked at the patient level, Team ACCESS created a retrospective longitudinal cohort with comprehensive demographic, clinical, and healthcare utilization data. These data were used to examine access to and quality of CRC services in NS, as well as factors affecting access to and quality of care, at various transition points along the continuum of care. Team ACCESS has also implemented integrated knowledge translation strategies targeting policy- and decision- makers.The development of Team ACCESS represents a unique approach to CRC research. We anticipate that the skills, tools, and knowledge generated from our work will also advance the study of other cancer disease sites in NS. Given the increasing prevalence of cancer, and with national and provincial funding agencies promoting collaborative research through increased funding for research team development, the work carried out by Team ACCESS is important in the Canadian context and exemplifies how a team approach is essential to comprehensively addressing issues surrounding not only cancer, but other chronic diseases in Canada.In Canada, an estimated 22,200 new cases of colorectal cancer (CRC) were diagnosed in 2011, making it the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in both men and women in Canada [1]. Despite a modest decrease in national mortality rates over the last 20 years, CRC mortality still accounts for approxim
“It’s a Wild Ride”: A Phenomenological Exploration of High Maternal, Gestational Weight Gain  [PDF]
Cynthia L. Murray
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.618293
Abstract: High maternal, gestational weight gain is associated with high birthweight, large-for-gestational-age birthweights, cesarean delivery, child overweight, and short- and long-term postpartum weight retention. In this phenomenological study, the meaning and experiences of weight gain for pregnant women with high gestational weight gain were investigated. Data were collected through interviews with pregnant women from Atlantic Canada. van Manen’s method of phenomenology was utilized. The data analysis revealed four patterns or major themes: being caught off guard; losing your bearings; hanging on for dear life; and hoping for health. The participants experienced their gestational weight gain as an unexpected “wild ride” that they could not control. The findings highlight the need for health care professionals to provide pregnant women with more support concerning gestational weight gain.
An Analysis of the Effectiveness of Sanctions as a Law Enforcement Tool in International Law: A Case Study of Zimbabwe from 2001 to 2013  [PDF]
Cynthia Chipanga, Torque Mude
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2015.55031
Abstract: The focus of this research is analysing the effectiveness of sanctions as a law enforcement tool in international law, a case study of Zimbabwe from 2001 to 2013, to analyse the extent to which sanctions are effective in compelling the behaviour of the targeted ZANU PF elite. The conclusion drawn from this research was that sanctions were not effective in compelling the behaviour of the targets as they strengthened their undemocratic practises and human rights violations. Moreover, the lack of a comprehensive nature of sanctions led the targeted circumventing the restrictions, as there was room for other alternative options. In addition, sanctions ended up hurting the innocent civilians, thereby violating international law.
Delay of Game: A Content Analysis of Coverage of Black Male Athletes by Magazines and News Websites 2002-2012  [PDF]
Cynthia M. Frisby
Advances in Journalism and Communication (AJC) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajc.2016.44009
Abstract: According to research on sports media, reporters have both gender and racial biases. Women are marginalized in the media (Billings, Halone, & Denham, 2002), and athletes are stereotyped based on race (Banet-Weiser, 1999). These depictions affect the public’s image of athletics and particular athletes. The purpose of this analysis is to determine if White male athletes are offered both more media attention and more salient coverage than Black male athletes (Billings, Halone, & Denham, 2002). Data obtained in the analysis show that, currently, coverage of athletes is not equal quantitatively or qualitatively. Disproportionate coverage involving black male athletes was found in news stories that involved instances of crime, domestic/sexual violence, moral failure, and/or the athlete’s “natural” skills and abilities.
A Content Analysis of Serena Williams and Angelique Kerber’s Racial and Sexist Microagressions  [PDF]
Cynthia M. Frisby
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.55019
Abstract: The primary purpose of this exploratory study was to determine if microaggressions regularly found in sport coverage were present in stories about two elite female tennis players. Microaggressions are subtle statements that unconsciously communicate denigrating messages to female athletes. In recent years, qualitative studies have introduced the types of microaggressions that female athletes experience. In the present study, a content analysis of 643 news stories was conducted in order to provide a quantitative measure of the frequency in which microaggressions appear in news stories about female athletes. Serena Williams, ranked number two in the list of top female tennis players, was selected because several qualitative studies show this female athlete of color is often the victim of racial slurs and epitaphs in news stories, as well as, news reports that feature insults to her physical appearance and body type. Angelique Kerber, the number one ranked female tennis player was selected in order to determine if an athlete of color receives more micro-aggresions than a top-ranked White female athlete. Data show that Serena Williams experienced more microaggresive themes related to gender roles and racial insults than Angelique Kerber (p < 0.0000). It is concluded that future research should explore in greater depth the microagression aimed at Black female athletes in all levels of sports and their participation.
Sacrificing Dignity for Publicity: Content Analysis of Female and Male Athletes on “Sports Illustrated” and “ESPN the Magazine” Covers from 2012-2016  [PDF]
Cynthia M. Frisby
Advances in Journalism and Communication (AJC) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajc.2017.52007
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to assess changes in how often female athletes were portrayed on the cover when compared to male athletes. A content analysis of the manner by which male and female athletes were depicted on sports magazine covers from 2012-2016 was performed. A total of 245 cover pages taken from two top sports magazines, Sports Illustrated and ESPN: The magazine were used to analyze depictions of individual male and female athletes. Despite females’ increased participation in sport since the enactment of Title IX and calls for greater media coverage of female athletes, women appeared on just 10 percent of the covers compared to male athletes. Data show that the percentage of female athletes on the sports magazines covers did not change significantly over the span of five years and were comparable to levels reported by other researchers. Beyond the limited appearance on sport magazine covers, female athletes were shown in sexually objectifying poses, seductive eye gazes, scantily clad clothing, and sexy/inviting body poses while male athletes are often seen in their team uniforms depicted in active, game playing athletic motions associated or related to his sport. It is concluded that male athletes are still portrayed in ways which support hegemonic ideas of masculinity.
Misrepresentations of Lone Shooters: The Disparate Treatment of Muslim, African American, Hispanic, Asian, and White Perpetrators in the US News Media  [PDF]
Cynthia M. Frisby
Advances in Journalism and Communication (AJC) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajc.2017.52010
Abstract: The purpose of the present study is to determine how news stories about mass shootings are framed when reporting on a lone shooter. Data obtained revealed specific biases in news stories about mass shootings and perpetrators of color. National print media included in the study were USA Today, the Washington Post, The New York Times, the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, and the Los Angeles Times. Data shows that of the N = 170 stories, 75% of the stories involving a white shooter included the word or references to hero while shootings that involved lone shooters of color using the hero was found in 25% of the stories (P < .001). Results from this research are discussed in terms of their implications and significance for future research.
An investigation into the psychometric properties of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in patients with breast cancer
Jacqui Rodgers, Colin R Martin, Rachel C Morse, Kate Kendell, Mark Verrill
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-3-41
Abstract: A cross-sectional design was used. The study used a pooled data set from three breast cancer clinical groups. The dependent variables were HADS anxiety and depression sub-scale scores. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on the HADS to determine its psychometric properties in 110 patients with breast cancer. Seven models were tested to determine model fit to the data.Both factor analysis methods indicated that three-factor models provided a better fit to the data compared to two-factor (anxiety and depression) models for breast cancer patients. Clark and Watson's three factor tripartite and three factor hierarchical models provided the best fit.The underlying factor structure of the HADS in breast cancer patients comprises three distinct, but correlated factors, negative affectivity, autonomic anxiety and anhedonic depression. The clinical utility of the HADS in screening for anxiety and depression in breast cancer patients may be enhanced by using a modified scoring procedure based on a three-factor model of psychological distress. This proposed alternate scoring method involving regressing autonomic anxiety and anhedonic depression factors onto the third factor (negative affectivity) requires further investigation in order to establish its efficacy.A diagnosis of breast cancer is often accompanied by a significant and profound experience of psychological distress, the most commonly presenting symptoms being those of anxiety and depression [1]. Indeed, prevalence rates of clinically relevant levels of anxiety and depression in cancer patients have been estimated to be up to 45% [2-4]. It has been observed that psychological symptoms often decrease over time, further it has also been observed in the clinical presentation of breast cancer that up to 30% of these patients will continue to experience clinically relevant levels of anxiety and depression at follow-up [5].The role of psychological variables, particularly those of anxiety and depres
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