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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2082 matches for " Cynthia Gayle Wible "
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Schizophrenia as a Disorder of Social Communication
Cynthia Gayle Wible
Schizophrenia Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/920485
Abstract: Evidence is reviewed for the existence of a core system for moment-to-moment social communication that is based on the perception of dynamic gestures and other social perceptual processes in the temporal-parietal occipital junction (TPJ), including the posterior superior temporal sulcus (PSTS) and surrounding regions. Overactivation of these regions may produce the schizophrenic syndrome. The TPJ plays a key role in the perception and production of dynamic social, emotional, and attentional gestures for the self and others. These include dynamic gestures of the body, face, and eyes as well as audiovisual speech and prosody. Many negative symptoms are characterized by deficits in responding within these domains. Several properties of this system have been discovered through single neuron recording, brain stimulation, neuroimaging, and the study of neurological impairment. These properties map onto the schizophrenic syndrome. The representation of dynamic gestures is multimodal (auditory, visual, and tactile), matching the predominant hallucinatory categories in schizophrenia. Inherent in the perceptual signal of gesture representation is a computation of intention, agency, and anticipation or expectancy (for the self and others). The neurons are also tuned or biased to rapidly detect threat-related emotions. I review preliminary evidence that overactivation of this system can result in schizophrenia.
Schizophrenia as a Disorder of Social Communication
Cynthia Gayle Wible
Schizophrenia Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/920485
Abstract: Evidence is reviewed for the existence of a core system for moment-to-moment social communication that is based on the perception of dynamic gestures and other social perceptual processes in the temporal-parietal occipital junction (TPJ), including the posterior superior temporal sulcus (PSTS) and surrounding regions. Overactivation of these regions may produce the schizophrenic syndrome. The TPJ plays a key role in the perception and production of dynamic social, emotional, and attentional gestures for the self and others. These include dynamic gestures of the body, face, and eyes as well as audiovisual speech and prosody. Many negative symptoms are characterized by deficits in responding within these domains. Several properties of this system have been discovered through single neuron recording, brain stimulation, neuroimaging, and the study of neurological impairment. These properties map onto the schizophrenic syndrome. The representation of dynamic gestures is multimodal (auditory, visual, and tactile), matching the predominant hallucinatory categories in schizophrenia. Inherent in the perceptual signal of gesture representation is a computation of intention, agency, and anticipation or expectancy (for the self and others). The neurons are also tuned or biased to rapidly detect threat-related emotions. I review preliminary evidence that overactivation of this system can result in schizophrenia. 1. Introduction Is there a system for dynamic moment to moment social communication in the brain? Social perception has now been extensively studied in humans and nonhuman primates and is defined as follows: “…the initial states of evaluating the social communicative intentions of others by analysis of eye-gaze direction, facial expressions, body movements, and other types of biological motion.” [1]. Recent evidence suggests that such a system does exist and that abnormal activity in this system may produce the symptoms and cognitive deficits that comprise the syndrome of schizophrenia. A posterior system will be described whose activity may correspond to or underlie the perceptual experience of conversing and interacting with others. Until recently, communication has primarily been studied through language research. This line of research has focused mainly on the structure of the representation and the neural basis of language input (graphemes, phonemes), the internal lexical/semantic representation, and language output (writing and speech production) and has made significant progress in understanding language. 2. Communication Involves Not Only Language
Hippocampal Physiology, Structure and Function and the Neuroscience of Schizophrenia: A Unified Account of Declarative Memory Deficits, Working Memory Deficits and Schizophrenic Symptoms
Cynthia G. Wible
Behavioral Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/bs3020298
Abstract: Memory impairment is a consistent feature of the schizophrenic syndrome. Hippocampal dysfunction has also been consistently demonstrated. This review will discuss neurophysiological and neuroanatomical aspects of memory formation and how they relate to memory impairment in schizophrenia. An understanding of the cellular physiology and connectivity of the hippocampus with other regions can also aid in understanding the relationship between schizophrenic declarative or relational memory deficits, working memory deficits and the clinical symptoms of the syndrome.
Hippocampal temporal-parietal junction interaction in the production of psychotic symptoms: a framework for understanding the schizophrenic syndrome
Cynthia G. Wible
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00180
Abstract: A framework is described for understanding the schizophrenic syndrome at the brain systems level. It is hypothesized that over-activation of dynamic gesture and social perceptual processes in the temporal-parietal occipital junction (TPJ), posterior superior temporal sulcus (PSTS) and surrounding regions produce the syndrome (including positive and negative symptoms, their prevalence, prodromal signs, and cognitive deficits). Hippocampal system hyper-activity and atrophy have been consistently found in schizophrenia. Hippocampal activity is highly correlated with activity in the TPJ and may be a source of over-excitation of the TPJ and surrounding regions. Strong evidence for this comes from in-vivo recordings in humans during psychotic episodes. Many positive symptoms of schizophrenia can be reframed as the erroneous sense of a presence or other who is observing, acting, speaking, or controlling; these qualia are similar to those evoked during abnormal activation of the TPJ. The TPJ and PSTS play a key role in the perception (and production) of dynamic social, emotional, and attentional gestures for the self and others (e.g., body/face/eye gestures, audiovisual speech and prosody, and social attentional gestures such as eye gaze). The single cell representation of dynamic gestures is multimodal (auditory, visual, tactile), matching the predominant hallucinatory categories in schizophrenia. Inherent in the single cell perceptual signal of dynamic gesture representations is a computation of intention, agency, and anticipation or expectancy (for the self and others). Stimulation of the TPJ resulting in activation of the self representation has been shown to result a feeling of a presence or multiple presences (due to heautoscopy) and also bizarre tactile experiences. Neurons in the TPJ are also tuned, or biased to detect threat related emotions. Abnormal over-activation in this system could produce the conscious hallucination of a voice (audiovisual speech), a person or a touch. Over-activation could interfere with attentional/emotional gesture perception and production (negative symptoms). It could produce the unconscious feeling of being watched, followed, or of a social situation unfolding along with accompanying abnormal perception of intent and agency (delusions). Abnormal activity in the TPJ would also be predicted to create several cognitive disturbances that are characteristic of schizophrenia, including abnormalities in attention, predictive social processing, working memory, and a bias to erroneously perceive threat.
The Ethics of Direct Primary Care  [PDF]
Andy Wible
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2019.91003
Abstract: Direct primary care (DPC) is a market based approach to providing medical care. Patients avoid insurance and directly pay a monthly membership type of fee to physicians for unlimited access. DPC practices have been growing throughout the United States by claiming to be better for patients and primary care physicians. This paper looks into the ethical implications of such practices and explores future moral concerns if DPC continues to expand. Finally, from a societal perspective, regulated universal coverage, as provided in countries such as Japan, is examined as a way to achieve most of the benefits of DPC while avoiding many of the problems.
Healthy Children Arizona: Early Intervention for Prevention  [PDF]
Sabrina Plattner, Gayle McCartney, Cynthia Thomson, Andrea Balderama, David S. Alberts, Janet A. Foote
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2014.48078
Abstract:

The Healthy Children Arizona (HCA) program was developed to promote early, positive exposure to cancer-preventive diet, physical activity and sun safety behaviors. Five lessons delivered weekly were evaluated by classroom teachers while pre- and post-curriculum surveys examined increases in students’ understanding of concepts and self-reported behavior. The first and second graders and their teachers in ethnically diverse elementary schools (including Title 1) in Tucson and Phoenix, Arizona participated in the curriculum assessment. All 5 interactive lessons were highly rated by teachers in qualitative assessments. Aggregated analyses of pre- (n = 582) and post- (n = 588) comparison tests indicated that the HCA curriculum significantly increased students’ knowledge of each of six measured concepts (p < 0.0001), although correct choice of muscle-building foods (25%), whole grain items (78%) and target time for daily exercise (61%) were lower than desired. Mean self-reported fruit and vegetable servings eaten in the previous day increased from 3.1 ± 1.8 to 3.8 ± 1.6 (p < 0.0001). The HCA curriculum significantly improved cancer prevention knowledge among primary school children.

The Potential of Photo-Talks to Reveal the Development of Scientific Discourses  [PDF]
Cassie Quigley, Gayle Buck
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.32033
Abstract: This study explores the potential of a photo-elicitation technique, photo-talks (Serriere, 2010), for understanding how young girls understand, employ and translate new scientific discourses. Over the course of a nine week period, 24 kindergarten girls in an urban girls’ academy were observed, videotaped, photographed and interviewed while they were immersed into scientific discourse. This paper explicitly describes how their emerging discursive patterns were made visible through this methodological tool. The findings are presented in vignettes in three themes uncovered during our analysis which are the following: Presented the recollection of the scientific Discourse, Described the understanding of scientific Discourse, and Created an opportunity for the translation into everyday discourse. Science educators can benefit from this methodological tool as a reflective tool with their participants, to validate and/or complicate data. Additionally, this methodological tool serves to make discourse patterns more visible by providing a visual backdrop to the conversations thus revealing the development as it is occurring in young children.
Giant breast tumors: Surgical management of phyllodes tumors, potential for reconstructive surgery and a review of literature
Margaret I Liang, Bhuvaneswari Ramaswamy, Cynthia C Patterson, Michael T McKelvey, Gayle Gordillo, Gerard J Nuovo, William E Carson
World Journal of Surgical Oncology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7819-6-117
Abstract: We report two cases of giant breast tumors and discuss the techniques utilized for pre-operative diagnosis, tumor removal, and breast reconstruction. A review of the literature on the surgical management of phyllodes tumors was performed.Management of the giant phyllodes tumor presents the surgeon with unique challenges. The majority of these tumors can be managed by simple mastectomy. Axillary lymph node metastasis is rare, and dissection should be limited to patients with pathologic evidence of tumor in the lymph nodes.The phyllodes tumor, originally described by Johannes Muller in 1838, has presented a diagnostic and treatment dilemma for physicians since its original description. Classically, the name cystosarcoma phyllodes was assigned because of the tumor's fleshy appearance and tendency to contain macroscopic cysts. The term, however, is a misnomer as these tumors are usually benign. Phyllodes tumor is the currently accepted nomenclature according to the World Health Organization (WHO).While the surgical management of the phyllodes tumor has been addressed many times in the literature, few reports have specifically commented on the giant phyllodes tumor, an entity that presents the surgeon with several unique management problems. The median size of phyllodes tumors is around 4 cm [1]. Twenty percent of tumors grow larger than 10 cm, the arbitrary cut off point for the designation as a giant tumor. These tumors can reach sizes up to 40 cm in diameter [2]. We will review two recent cases at The Ohio State University that had pre-operative diagnoses of giant phyllodes tumor and discuss the surgical techniques employed, including the reconstructive options.We performed a retrospective chart review of patients treated for giant phyllodes tumors at The Ohio State University Medical Center between the years 1999–2001. A Medline search for articles in the English language using the key words phyllodes tumor and cystosarcoma phyllodes was also conducted.Patient A is a
A Reexamination of the Carnivora Malleus (Mammalia, Placentalia)
John R. Wible, Michelle Spaulding
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0050485
Abstract: Authoritative anatomical references depict domestic dogs and cats as having a malleus with a short rostral (anterior) process that is connected via a ligament to the ectotympanic of the auditory bulla. Similar mallei have been reported for representatives of each of the 15 extant families of Carnivora, the placental order containing dogs and cats. This morphology is in contrast to a malleus with a long rostral process anchored to the ectotympanic that is considered to be primitive for mammals. Our reexamination of extant carnivorans found representatives from 12 families that possess an elongate rostral process anchored to the ectotympanic. Consequently, the malleus also is a component of the bulla. In a subset of our carnivoran sample, we confirmed that the elongate rostral process on the ectotympanic is continuous with the rest of the malleus through a thin osseous lamina. This morphology is reconstructed as primitive for Carnivora. Prior inaccurate descriptions of the taxa in our sample having mallei continuous with the bulla were based on damaged mallei. In addition to coupling to the ectotympanic, the rostral process of the malleus was found to have a hook-like process that fits in a facet on the skull base in representatives from seven families (felids, nandiniids, viverrids, canids, ursids, procyonids, and mustelids); its occurrence in the remaining families could not be ascertained. This feature is named herein the mallear hook and is likewise reconstructed to be primitive for Carnivora. We also investigated mallei in one additional placental order reported to have mallei not connected to the ectotympanic, Pholidota (pangolins), the extant sister group of Carnivora. We found pholidotans to also have anchored mallei with long rostral processes, but lacking mallear hooks. In light of our results, other mammals previously reported to have short rostral processes should be reexamined.
Editorial Comments
Gayle Langley
Health SA Gesondheid , 2008, DOI: 10.4102/hsag.v13i2.274
Abstract: Perusing the contents of this edition of Health SA Gesondheid, one is struck by the incredible depth and range as well as the complexity of health problems which present themselves for intervention in this country. Opsomming Wanneer ‘n mens die inhoud van hierdie uitgawe van Health SA Gesondheid deurkyk, tref die ongelooflike diepte en omvang van die ingewikkeldheid van gesondheidsprobleme wat hulle vir die tussentrede in hierdie land voordoen, ‘n mens. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.
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