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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 462716 matches for " Cynthia A. Paszkowski "
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Constructed Borrow-Pit Wetlands as Habitat for Aquatic Birds in the Peace Parkland, Canada
Eva C. Kuczynski,Cynthia A. Paszkowski
ISRN Ecology , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/217357
Abstract: The Peace Parkland, Alberta, Canada is part of a continentally important region for breeding and migrating aquatic birds. As a result of resource development and agricultural conversion, many wetlands have been lost. Road construction in the area results in the creation of borrow pits, <3?ha ponds created when soil is removed to form the road bed. We surveyed 200 borrow pits for aquatic birds in May through August 2007. We examined patterns of occurrence and richness, categorizing ponds based on surrounding landscape type: agriculture (0–33.3% forest within 500?m), mixed habitat (33.4–66.6% forest), and forested (66.7–100% forest). Principal Component Analysis indicated that pond environments differed based on local and landscape features. Twenty-seven species of aquatic birds used borrow pits, with 13 nesting. Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling and Indicator Species Analysis of birds observed in each month revealed assemblages characteristic of agricultural ponds, including horned grebe, lesser scaup, American coot, and mallard, and of ponds with >33.3% forest, including bufflehead, ring-necked duck, green-winged teal, and American wigeon. Because borrow pits were used by a variety of dabbling and diving aquatic birds in repeatable assemblages across the breeding season, we propose that these wetlands be integrated into avian conservation strategies. 1. Introduction Constructed ponds are used by aquatic birds for several purposes. They can function as temporary resting and refueling stops in spring and fall for birds en route to more northerly breeding areas or southerly wintering areas. Birds may also settle and breed on them. Drought conditions negatively affect the availability of breeding habitat for aquatic birds in western Canada, and it is likely that migrating birds move northward seeking deeper, more permanent wetlands when preferred habitat is nonexistent in dry years on the prairies [1]; constructed ponds may meet their needs. Constructed wetlands may add habitat to the landscape when many natural sites have been destroyed or degraded. Since the 1950s, agricultural expansion in western Canada, and especially in Alberta, has resulted in wetland degradation and destruction, and accompanying declines in populations of breeding waterfowl [2]. At least 64% of marshes have been lost as a result of development in the settled south and central regions of Alberta [3]. Development due to oil and gas extraction in boreal Alberta is proceeding rapidly, involving large-scale habitat fragmentation, road construction [4], and tremendous wetland loss in the
Effects of Disturbance Associated with Natural Gas Extraction on the Occurrence of Three Grassland Songbirds
Laura E. Hamilton,Brenda C. Dale,Cynthia A. Paszkowski
Avian Conservation and Ecology , 2011, DOI: 10.5751/ace-00458-060107
Abstract: Despite declines in the grassland bird guild and increasing rates of natural gas extraction on the Canadian prairies, relatively few studies have examined the effects of well sites and related infrastructure on these species. We conducted point counts on Canadian Forces Base Suffield, Alberta to investigate the effects of two well densities (high: 16 wells/2.59km2, low: 9 wells/2.59km2) on Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis), Chestnut-collared Longspur (Calcarius ornatus), and Sprague's Pipit (Anthus spragueii) occurrence and abundance. Additionally, model building was employed to determine if landscape features, i.e., soil type, elevation, and topography, along with well density and anthropogenic disturbance to natural vegetation, i.e., the combined areas affected by wells, pipelines, trails, and roads, could predict the occurrence of the three species. For Savannah Sparrows, occurrence and abundance were higher in areas with high well densities compared with low well densities, reflecting the species' general tolerance of human disturbances. Chestnut-collared Longspurs were ubiquitous in the study area and abundance was not related to well density. Models for this species performed poorly and failed to predict occurrence accurately. Models for Sprague's Pipit were the strongest and showed that this species' occurrence was negatively related to anthropogenic disturbance. For all three species, landscape features had low predictive power. Our results indicate that disturbance caused by well sites and related infrastructure affect occurrence of some species and should be incorporated into conservation strategies for grassland birds, especially as undisturbed grasslands become candidates for energy development.
Nest Boxes Facilitate Local-Scale Conservation of Common Goldeneye (Bucephala clangula) and Bufflehead (Bucephala albeola) in Alberta, Canada
Robert M. Corrigan,Garry J. Scrimgeour,Cynthia Paszkowski
Avian Conservation and Ecology , 2011, DOI: 10.5751/ace-00435-060101
Abstract: We tested the general predictions of increased use of nest boxes and positive trends in local populations of Common Goldeneye (Bucephala clangula) and Bufflehead (Bucephala albeola) following the large-scale provision of nest boxes in a study area of central Alberta over a 16-year period. Nest boxes were rapidly occupied, primarily by Common Goldeneye and Bufflehead, but also by European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris). After 5 years of deployment, occupancy of large boxes by Common Goldeneye was 82% to 90% and occupancy of small boxes by Bufflehead was 37% to 58%. Based on a single-stage cluster design, experimental closure of nest boxes resulted in significant reductions in numbers of broods and brood sizes produced by Common Goldeneye and Bufflehead. Occurrence and densities of Common Goldeneye and Bufflehead increased significantly across years following nest box deployment at the local scale, but not at the larger regional scale. Provision of nest boxes may represent a viable strategy for increasing breeding populations of these two waterfowl species on landscapes where large trees and natural cavities are uncommon but wetland density is high.
Experiences of Low Gestational Weight Gain: A Phenomenological Study with Pregnant Women  [PDF]
Cynthia L. Murray, Sherrill A. Conroy
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.619300
Abstract: Low maternal, gestational weight gain is associated with preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, low birthweight, small-for-gestational-age infants, neural tube defects, infant death, failure to initiate breastfeeding, and childhood asthma. The advantage of qualitative research is it can provide valuable insights for health care professionals into the experience and perceptions of low gestational weight gain from the vantage point of women with first-hand lived experience. In this Heideggarian interpretive phenomenological study, the meaning and experiences of weight gain for pregnant women with low gestational weight gain were explored. Data were collected through interviews with 10 pregnant women from Atlantic Canada. Conroy’s pathway for interpretive phenomenology was utilized. A hermeneutical spiral of interpretation identified six patterns or major themes: confronting one’s mortality; defending oneself against a permanent metamorphosis into a stranger; playing with fire and brimstone; slipping under the radar; trying to find peace; and riding an emotional roller coaster. The findings point to a war that is being waged over pregnant bodies with respect to weight that leaves pregnant women fending for themselves, apparently with little help from their health care providers. Implications of the findings for health practice, education, and research are discussed.
Characterization and Comparison of Saprist and Fibrist Newfoundland Sphagnum Peat Soils  [PDF]
Emmanuel S. Asapo, Cynthia A. Coles
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2012.117057
Abstract: Saprist and fibrist sphagnum peat soils obtained from the same natural peat bog owned by Traverse Nurseries, Torbay, Newfoundland, Canada were characterized to study their potential for adsorbing metals. Both peat soils had a pH of 4.2. The saprist peat had the lower fiber content (68.6% versus 75%), higher cation exchange capacity (70 meq/100g versus 45 meq/100g), higher moisture content (86% versus 82%), higher organic matter content (91% versus 84%), higher wet bulk density (0.65 g/cm3 versus 0.60 g/cm3) and higher dry bulk density (0.28 g/cm3 versus 0.20 g/cm3). A crystallography study showed that the saprist peat was completely amorphous and the metal content analysis showed high calcium and iron concentrations in both types of peat with higher values in the fibrist peat. Carboxylic acid, alcoholic hydroxyl, phenolic hydroxyl, amine and amide functional groups were present and these could be responsible for binding metal ions via ion exchange and or complexation reactions.
CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins in normal mammary development and breast cancer
Cynthia A Zahnow
Breast Cancer Research , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/bcr428
Abstract: Breast cancer is, in part, a result of the overexpression of transcription factors that disrupt the delicate balance between cellular proliferation, terminal differentiation and programmed cell death. Yet, when expressed at physiologic levels, many of these same transcription factors are critical for normal development of the mammary gland. The C/EBPs play a pivotal role in controlling growth and differentiation of the mammary gland. Accordingly, this review focuses on the role that the C/EBPs play in both breast cancer and in normal mammary development.The C/EBPs together form a highly conserved family of transcription factors that bind to sequence-specific DNA sequences as dimers and that regulate the transcription of genes involved in proliferation and differentiation. Six C/EBP genes have thus far been identified, and they are designated C/EBPα, C/EBPβ, C/EBPγ, C/EBPδ, C/EBPε, and C/EBPζ (also known as CHOP [C/EBP homologous protein-10] or GADD153) (for a review of the nomenclature, see [1]). Of these genes, C/EBPβ, C/EBPα, and C/EBPδ have been the most thoroughly studied in rodent and human mammary tissue, and will be the focus of this review.C/EBPs belong to the leucine zipper class of DNA-binding proteins. They contain an amino-terminal transactivation domain and a highly basic DNA-binding region immediately adjacent to the carboxyl-terminal, leucine-rich dimerization domain (Fig. 1).The dimerization domain is characterized as an amphipathic, α-helix containing a heptad repeat of leucines that project uniformly along the hydrophobic side of the helix and that interdigitate with the leucine residues of a dimerization partner [2]. Dimerization can occur within a C/EBP family, between different C/EBP family members, or between different groups of leucine zipper proteins [3]. Dimerization of these helices has been proposed to bring into close proximity the basic amino acids associated with the DNA binding domain from the two polypeptide chains [2,4]. Dimerization
El itinerario del estructuralismo en la Universidad de Buenos Aires (1958 - 1966)
Anuario de investigaciones , 2005,
Abstract: main subjet: consider the subjects that study structuralist authors in the university of buenos aires between 1958 and 1966, and the objective of these readings. objectives: introduce some results of a reception study focusing in the transformation produced by the reader on the text. methodology: (collect data from syllabus; (2) interviews to old students and professors; (3) case analisis, in wich structuralist categories are used; (4) data synthesis and verification. sources: syllabus and historical documents (faculty of philosophy, university of buenos aires); eliseo verón's review of a book of germani. results: french structuralism is used as a tool for ideologic criticism, and it emerged as an alternative scientific model
A dor, o indivíduo e a cultura
Sarti, Cynthia A.;
Saúde e Sociedade , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-12902001000100002
Abstract: in the pain, the relation between the individual and society appears clearly. the way in which pain is felt and expressed is ruled by cultural codes and pain itself is constituted, as a human fact, by the meanings given to it by society, that sanctions the ways to demonstrate feelings. although pain is a singular experience for the one who feels it, it happens within a symbolic system, making it a cultural fact.
Advances in labor analgesia
Cynthia A Wong
International Journal of Women's Health , 2009, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S4553
Abstract: dvances in labor analgesia Review (8876) Total Article Views Authors: Cynthia A Wong Published Date October 2009 Volume 2009:1 Pages 139 - 154 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S4553 Cynthia A Wong Department of Anesthesiology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: The pain of childbirth is arguably the most severe pain most women will endure in their lifetimes. The pain of the early first stage of labor arises from dilation of the lower uterine segment and cervix. Pain from the late first stage and second stage of labor arises from descent of the fetus in the birth canal, resulting in distension and tearing of tissues in the vagina and perineum. An array of regional nerve blocks, systemic analgesic, and nonpharmacologic techniques are currently used for labor analgesia. Nonpharmacologic methods are commonly used, but the effectiveness of these techniques generally lacks rigorous scientific study. Continuous labor support has been shown to decrease the use of pharmacologic analgesia and shorten labor. Intradermal water injections decrease back labor pain. Neuraxial labor analgesia (most commonly epidural or combined spinal-epidural) is the most effective method of pain relief during childbirth, and the only method that provides complete analgesia without maternal or fetal sedation. Current techniques commonly combine a low dose of local anesthetic (bupivacaine or ropivacaine) with a lipid soluble opioid (fentanyl or sufentanil). Neuraxial analgesia does not increase the rate of cesarean delivery compared to systemic opioid analgesia; however, dense neuraxial analgesia may increase the risk of instrumental vaginal delivery.
Clinical Aspects of Genomics: An Update
Cynthia A. Prows
Online Journal of Issues in Nursing , 2008,
Abstract: With each passing year genomic technology and information increases in relevance for clinical practice in diverse healthcare settings. This article focuses on three examples of how genomics is impacting the care of patients in diverse healthcare settings: genomics and infectious diseases, genomics and breast cancer, and genomics and medications. Nurses have an important role in both helping patients understand the purpose, limitations, and potential benefits and risks of genomic technology and providing information related to their care.
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