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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2308 matches for " Cuthbert AW "
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Bicarbonate Secretion in the Murine Gallbladder - Lessons for the Treatment of Cystic Fibrosis
Cuthbert AW
JOP Journal of the Pancreas , 2001,
Abstract: The epithelium lining the gallbladder of mammalian species has absorptive and secretory functions. An important function is the secretion of a bicarbonate rich fluid that helps neutralise stomach acid and provides an appropriate environment for intestinal enzymes. In cystic fibrosis (CF) this secretory function is lost. This study concerns the bicarbonate secreting activity of murine gallbladders in vitro using wild type and CF mice and four main questions are considered as follows: a) Does the murine gallbladder secrete bicarbonate electrogenically and is this prevented in CF? b) Can the secretory activity in CF gallbladders be restored by gene therapy or pharmacologically? c) How is the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) involved in bicarbonate secretion? d) Does the data offer prospects for the treatment of CF?. Work from both the author's laboratory and the literature will be reviewed. Consideration of the currently available data indicates that the wild type murine gallbladder does secrete bicarbonate electrogenically and that this is absent in CF mice. Further it has been demonstrated that bicarbonate secretory activity can be restored by both gene therapy and by the use of drugs. The role of CFTR in bicarbonate secretion remains equivocal. Much evidence suggests that CFTR can act as a channel for HCO(3)(-) ions as well as Cl(-) ions, while others propose a parallel arrangement of CFTR with a Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchanger is necessary. The matter is further complicated by the regulatory role of CFTR on other transporting activities. Opportunities for possible application to man are discussed.
QoS in Node-Disjoint Routing for Ad Hoc Networks  [PDF]
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2008, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2008.11011
Abstract: Ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of mobile nodes that can communicate with each other without using any fixed infrastructure. To support multimedia applications such as video and voice MANETs require an efficient routing protocol and quality of service (QoS) mechanism. Node-Disjoint Multipath Routing Protocol (NDMR) is a practical protocol in MANETs: it reduces routing overhead dramatically and achieves multiple node-disjoint routing paths. QoS support in MANETs is an important issue as best-effort routing is not efficient for supporting multimedia applications. This paper presents a novel adaptation of NDMR, QoS enabled NDMR, which introduces agent-based SLA management. This enhancement allows for the intelligent selection of node-disjoint routes based on network conditions, thus fulfilling the QoS requirements of Service Level Agreements (SLAs).
Climate Change Adaptation and Vulnerability: A Case of Rain Dependent Small-Holder Farmers in Selected Districts in Zambia  [PDF]
Cuthbert Casey Makondo, Kenneth Chola, Blesswell Moonga
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2014.34034
Abstract: Food crop production by small-holder farmers in Africa is particularly vulnerable to climate change, given high dependence on rainfall coupled with limited adaptive capacity. In Zambia, smallholder farmers contribute about 79% of national stable food requirements particularly maize. This paper attempted to establish levels of food security in each of the three agro-ecological zones of Zambia, and evaluated the current adaptive measures of rain dependent small-holder farmers against climate change risks. The challenges farmers are facing in adapting to the change risks were identified and livelihood vulnerability assessed. The findings indicate that rain dependent small-holder farmers in Zambia are highly vulnerable to weather related shocks which impact greatly on their food production; and that the levels of vulnerability vary across gender and per agro-ecological zone. After the evaluation of scenarios including staple food crop yields (maize), the authors conclude that most rain-fed small-holder farmers in Zambia (about 70%) are facing considerable hardships in adapting to the changing climate, which in turn, undermines their contribution to food security. While efforts by government have been made to assist farmers towards climate change adaptation, there still remains many challenges to achieve the desired outcomes. Most farmers (66%) are unable to afford certain alternatives, such as those of agro-forestry or conservation. Difficulties in accessing markets, poor road infrastructure, fluctuating market prices, high costs and late deliveries of farming in-puts were found to be among the major challenges that farmers are facing in Zambia. There are also no systematic early warning systems in place against natural hazards and disasters. This makes farming a difficult undertaking in Zambia.
Reciprocal Teaching of Lecture Comprehension Skills in College Students
Norman Spivey,Andrea Cuthbert
The Journal of Scholarship of Teaching and Learning , 2006,
Analysis of Energy Characteristics of Rice and Coffee Husks Blends
Cuthbert F. Mhilu
ISRN Chemical Engineering , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/196103
Abstract: Production of first generation biofuels using food crops is under criticism over sustainability issues on food security. Tanzania is showing active interest in developing second generation biofuels to deal with some of such issues, especially from the feedstock point of view. This paper reports work done to determine energy characteristics of rice and coffee husks. The results show that coffee husks have better energy quality than rice husks, while heating values of coffee are 18.34?MJ/kg and 13.24?MJ/kg for rice husk. Thermogravimetric analysis made for coffee husks blended rice husks at a ratio of 75?:?25% vol. show better material degradation characteristics yielding low residual mass of 23.65%, compared to 26.50% of char and ash remaining in pure rice husks. Derivative thermogravimetric analysis shows comparable hemicellulose degradation peak values of ?11.5 and ?11.2 and cellulose ?3.20 and ?2.90 in pure coffee and rice husks, respectively. In coffee and rice husks blends, substantial reductions of hemicellulose and cellulose peaks were observed. Use of coffee and rice husks blends applying high temperature gasification would reduce the latter’s flammability, while increasing its flame retention characteristics, hence offering opportunities for production of clean syngas in a sustainable manner. 1. Introduction 1.1. Background and Goal For many years, we have consumed fossil fuels with no worries about possible shortages, but, now, those same oil fields are running dry, while use of coal as a source of energy is also facing criticisms due to its contribution on environmental pollution. In view of this situation, there has been a growing impetus looking for alternative sources of energy for the future. Biomass based second generation biofuels could partly assist to resolve some of these issues, especially from the feedstock point of view for energy production applying various conversion methods to improve the combustion efficiency. The advantages of using biomass are obvious as this material, is generally left to rot or burnt in an uncontrolled manner, producing CO2 as well as smoke. Most African countries are facing problems of inadequate access to modern sources of energy. The United Republic of Tanzania being one of the sub-Saharan African countries is showing active interest in the development of the second generation biofuels, especially from the feedstock point of view to address criticism over sustainability issues as well as arguments on food security arising from the production of 1st generation biofuels derived from food crops materials to
Modelling the Suitability of Pine Sawdust for Energy Production via Biomass Steam Explosion  [PDF]
Zephania Chaula, Mahir Said, Geoffrey John, Samwel Manyele, Cuthbert Mhilu
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2014.51001

Biomass material as a source of fuel is difficult to handle, transport, store, and utilize in its original form. To overcome these challenges and make it suitable for energy prodution, the material must be pre-treated. Biomass steam explosion is one of the promising pretreatment methods where moisture and hemicellulose are removed in order to improve biomass storage and fuel properties. This paper is aimed to model the suitability of pine saw dust for energy production through steam explosion process. The peak property method was used to determine the kinetic parameters. The model has shown that suitable operating conditions for steam explosion process to remove moisture and hemicellulose from pine sawdust. The temperature and pressure ranges attained in the current study are 260 -317 (533 -590 K), 4.7 -10.8 MPa, respectively.

Addressing Challenges in the Management of Paediatric Intussusceptions in the District Hospital  [PDF]
Senyo Gudugbe, Jonathan Cuthbert Balea Dakubo, Samuel Essoun
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2014.44035
Abstract: Intussusception is the leading cause of intestinal obstruction in children and its management can be challenging especially in centres with inadequate resources where this problem becomes more daunting. Nineteen cases of intussusception in the paediatric age group which were managed by medical officers in a district Hospital in Ghana are discussed. The outcomes of cases treated by open surgery, and those managed by pneumatic reduction were studied. We highlight the use of an improvised set up used in achieving pneumatic reduction thereby obviating operative reduction.
Analysis of Stress Backlogs during Case-File Processing in Forensic Science Laboratory  [PDF]
Gloria Cuthbert Omari, Samwel Victor Manyele, George Mwaluko
Engineering (ENG) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2017.912063
Abstract: Case-file backlogs were identified as one of the cause factors affecting the competitiveness of the forensic science laboratory (FSL). Backlogs represent case-files?that remain unprocessed or unreported within a selected time interval (year, week or month) which leads to increased customer complaints, rework, cost of analysis, degradation of biological samples, etc. Case-file backlogging was quantified in three consecutive years (2014 to 2016), using the following parameters: case-files received and case-files processed, difference of which gives case-files backlogged. There was a need to define time interval for a case-file to be regarded as backlogged (that is, one week), results of which can translate into backlogged case-files per month or year. A data collection tool was established and used for three work stations (forensic chemistry, biology/DNA and toxicology laboratories). The tool includes starting and ending date for each?time interval, in which the numbers of case-files received and processed were entered followed by computing the backlogs. It was observed that, case-files reported?increased between 2014 and 2016 leading to a decrease in backlogged case-files.?The annual percentage of the case-files backlogged was highest for forensic?toxicology. The highest number of case-files backlogged was observed for forensic?chemistry, followed by forensic biology/DNA. The number of case-files?backlogged per analyst per year was highest in 2014 and dropped continuously?towards 2016, being comparably higher in forensic biology/DNA and chemistry.?Probability density functions (PDFs) and cumulative distribution functions (CDFs)?of backlogs data indicated that a large number of backlogs created in previous?weeks were eliminated. It was concluded that the effect of case-file backlogging on FSL competitiveness can be minimized by continued management effort in backlog elimination.
Non-Isothermal Degradation and Thermodynamic Properties of Pine Sawdust  [PDF]
Zephania Chaula, Geoffrey John, Mahir Said, Samwel Manyele, Cuthbert Mhilu
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2018.912017
Abstract: The study of non-isothermal kinetics analyzed the reactivity of pine sawdust, while the thermodynamic properties analyzed energy consumed and released from the pine sawdust. The kinetic parameters were determined by analyzing mass loss of pine sawdust components by using Thermogravimeric analyzer. The cellulose has the highest conversion rate of 9.5%/min at 610 K compared to hemicellulose and lignin, which are 5%/min at 600 K and 2%/min at 800 K, respectively. The activation Energy for cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin was 457.644, 259.876, and 89.950 kJ/mol, respectively. The thermodynamic properties included the change of Gibbs free energy for cellulose and hemicellulose, which were -214.440 and -30.825 kJ/mol respectively, their degradation was spontaneous in forward direction, while change of Gibbs free energy for lignin was 207.507 kJ/mol, which is non-spontaneous reaction. The positive value of change of entropies for the active complex compounds formed from hemicellulose and cellulose is less stable, while the active complex compounds of lignin are characterized by a much higher degree of arrangement since its change of entropy is negative. The kinetic and thermodynamic properties show that pine sawdust is a good candidate for production of char since it is easier to remove hemicellulose through thermal process.
Analysis of Employee’s Longevity and Academic Development in Forensic Science Laboratory  [PDF]
Gloria Cuthbert Omari, Samwel Victor Manyele, George Mwaluko
Engineering (ENG) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2019.114015
Abstract: This paper presents the detailed analysis of academic development index and longevity among forensic science laboratory (FSL) employees as the key factors for improving organizational performance based on human capital development. The data were collected from human resource database involving 171 (88%) employees out of 195. New mathematical formulations were developed for academic development index Ad, a measure of the time delay in academic development while working within FSL, simple longevity (Ls) and complex longevity (Lc), based on years served and academic certificates attained. The values of Ad, Ls and Lc were compared for different units and departments including zonal laboratories between Y2014 and Y2016. Both total and average values of Ls, Lc?and Ad indicated an imbalance in the distribution of staff in different laboratories, necessitating re-allocation to improve performance. The employment trend analysis shows that the work force has been diversified from Y2004 to Y2016 leading to improved management of finance, procurement and human resource in the FSL. As a result of a training program, the percent of staff with MSc has been increasing from about 3.5% in Y2004 to 9% in Y2015. The average values of longevity and academic development index were observed to be the better parameters for comparing laboratories or units than the total values. Results show a balanced staff distribution based on Lc and Ad
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