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La injuria al honor como motivación de guerra, según Vitoria, Molina y Suárez
Cruz Cruz, Juan
Veritas , 2009,
Abstract: Quando um grande pensador da Era de Ouro espanhola, tal qual Vitoria, Molina ou Suárez, questiona sobre a causa fundamental que justifica uma lícita declara o de guerra, a “injúria” é incluída como uma dessas causas. Aqui, “injúria” é entendida como uma infra o de um direito, uma injusti a cometida e pela qual a repara o n o foi feita. Dentre as injúrias que podem licitamente ser consideradas uma justificativa para a guerra, há o “insulto à honra”, especialmente à honra da Na o e à honra do Soberano. A dificuldade em aceitar essa justificativa para a guerra reside em fazer uma separa o entre o interesse do Soberano e o interesse do povo, i. e. , os homens que comp em a comunidade, que s o os depositários imediatos do poder. Para esses pensadores, a honra é sempre possuída pelo povo. E isso porque um Estado, uma Na o, um povo tem o direito de desfrutar o respeito por suas institui es, leis e costumes, tal qual uma parte integral de sua própria vida. When a great thinker of the Spanish Golden Age, such as Vitoria, Molina or Suárez, inquires about the fundamental cause which justifies a licit declaration of war, “injury” is included as one of these causes. Here, “injury” is understood as an infringement of a right, an injustice committed and for which restitution has not been made. Among the injuries which may licitly be considered a justification for war, there is the “insult to honor”, especially to the honor of the Nation and the honor of the Sovereign. The difficulty in accepting this justification for war lies in making a demarcation between the interest of the Sovereign and the interest of the People, i. e. the men who make up the community, who are the immediate depositaries of power. For these thinkers, honor is always owed to the People. This is because a State, a Nation, a People, has the right to enjoy respect for its institutions, laws and customs, as an integral part of its own life.
Liberalización financiera y el sentimiento del mercado: el caso de la economía mexicana
Cruz, Moritz;
EconoQuantum , 2009,
Abstract: given perfect mobility of capital, it has been argued that financial crises are triggered by swift changes of investors' confidence due to changes on the so-called fundamentals. this implies that once a government financially liberalizes its economy, it constraints its policy autonomy in an ex-post and ex-ante sense because its primary aim is to attract capital and avoid a sudden flight; that is, it aims at exclusively keeping investors' confidence. applying a markov switching autoregressive two regime model and using the m2 to international reserves ratio as the variable capable of modeling the changes on investors' confidence, this paper sheds light on these aspects, identifying the beginning and the end (the timing) of the 1994-95 mexican financial crisis. the estimated probabilities indicate that the financial panic started on november of 1994 and ended in august of 1995.
Vogais na amaz?nia paraense
Cruz, Regina;
Alfa : Revista de Linguística (S?o José do Rio Preto) , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1981-57942012000300010
Abstract: this work deals with a presentation of norte vogais project's actions linked to the probravo team. this paper gives a clear idea of how the ufpa team has been conducting its research about brazilian portuguese spoken in amazon. the norte vogais project database has samples of 318 native speakers from pará. the sociolinguistic descriptions prioritized the research of three phonetic aspects: a) unstressed mid vowels variation in pretonic position; b) unstressed mid vowels variation in post-tonic position and; c) allophonic nasalization. the results reinforce silva neto's hypothesis (1957) that pará is a dialectal island in antenor nascente's classification in relation to north dialects. in order to precise the sociolinguistic descriptions, two new actions were necessary: a) sociolinguistic situation map of inter dialectal contact areas in pará and; b) acoustic analysis of the vowel system of brazilian portuguese spoken in the amazon region of pará.
Euglenophyta Pigmentadas asociadas a Hymenachne Amplexicaulis en una Sabana tropical inundable
SALAZAR,Cruz;
Acta Botánica Venezuelica , 2004,
Abstract: descriptions are given here of 80 taxa of the euglenophyta (5 belonging to genus euglena, 12 to lepocinclis, 29 to phacus, 16 to strombomonas, and 18 to trachelomonas). samples were collected by scraping off the periphyton of the roots, stems, and submersed leaves of hymenachne amplexicaulis (gramineae) from a floodable savanna in apure state,venezuela (07° 33? lat. n, 69°10?long. w). habitat characterized by acidic waters, low salinity, and a high density of macrophytes. of the 80 taxa, 40 are new reports for venezuela and 4 are proposed as new to science (s. girardiana var. multiondulata c. salazar var. nov.; t. armata var. nana f. intermedia c. salazar f. nov.; t. pyramidata f. inevoluta c. salazar f. nov.; t. volzii var. ellipsoidal c. salazar var. nov.).
Los restos de pingüinos (Spheniscidae) de los sitios de Cabo Blanco (Santa Cruz, Patagonia Argentina): Análisis tafonómico y perspectivas arqueológicas
Cruz,Isabel;
Intersecciones en antropolog?-a , 2006,
Abstract: some properties of spheniscidae make them potentially very suitable for intensive exploitation by patagonian hunters: they are easy to hunt, have a higher economic yield than other birds in the region, and are spatially predictable during the long breeding season, when they remain on land. however, the archaeological record of the atlantic coast of patagonia suggests little or no exploitation at all of spheniscidae breeding colonies throughout the holocene. nonetheless, taphonomic observations in the region have provided indications that there is a high probability of archaeological materials found with modern bird remains. spheniscidae remains at sites in cabo blanco (santa cruz, argentina) are among the few bone assemblages of these birds that have been recovered in archaeological deposits from continental patagonia. a taphonomic analysis is presented here, aimed at assessing the integrity (sensu binford 1981) of these deposits. furthermore, the need for a rigorous estimation of all the agents and processes taking part in the formation of penguin bone assemblages in the region before attempting interpretations of past human behavior is examined.
Monte adentro: Aproximaciones sobre la ocupación prehispánica de la serranía de Calilegua (prov. de Jujuy)
Cruz,Pablo;
Intersecciones en antropolog?-a , 2010,
Abstract: early colonial sources indicate the multi-ethnic nature of the eastern andean piedmont of jujuy province before, during and after the spaniards' arrival. however, the historiography shows us that the region was considered as marginal in respect to the great "core areas" of the argentine northwest; a meeting place, a point of articulation, or a boundary between the andes and the chaco. this article presents results obtained from archaeological investigations of the region. the new data confirm much of the historical information that attests to the intense occupation of the region in pre-hispanic times, which resists the classical image of a border zone. the intense and prolonged occupation is explained by the agricultural potential of the area, as well as the operation of numerous mines and the exploitation of wildlife, which had a high economic and symbolic value among pre-hispanic andean peoples.
Homicidio masculino en Ciudad Juárez: Costos de las masculinidades subordinadas
Cruz, Salvador;
Frontera norte , 2011,
Abstract: the high rates of male homicide in ciudad juárez in 2008 and 2009, which claimed almost four thousand lives, constitutes the main expression of urban violence. this violence has taken its toll on young, mostly marginalized men. the data show that male homicide has characteristics associated with traditional meanings of masculinity, the cost of which affects life itself. this phenomenon can be regarded as a male activity, because of the schedules, settings and style of the executions, which exploit a form of subjectivity with a tendency towards violence, which reproduces the gender asymmetries and meanings associated with the male-female dichotomy.
Educa??o corporativa: A proposta empresarial no discurso e na prática
Cruz, Daniele;
Educa??o em Revista , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-46982010000200016
Abstract: to analyze the corporate educational (ce) model adopted by leader magazine and the employees expectations about their development due to knowledge acquisition and professional improvement. a critical case study, with documental analysis and inter views. the referential discussed the changes occurred in the last three decades that influ enced the global scenario and the influence of business people upon educational poli cies. as a result, we noticed that, although companies speak of the retail education as a formal ce policy, in practical terms it is reduced to a few isolated actions, offering behavioral courses on its majority. the proposal was aimed at strategic objectives, focus ing on the market and without considering the interests of the employees. although the company regards its policies as relevant, the employees have failed to recognize the ce as an educational model and regard the actions as specific courses, believing however, that the work developed in the company really contributes for their personal and profes sional development.
Huacas olvidadas y cerros santos: Apuntes metodológicos sobre la cartografía sagrada en los Andes del sur de Bolivia
Cruz,Pablo;
Estudios atacame?os , 2009, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-10432009000200005
Abstract: a combination of early colonial sources and local archaeological and ethnographic data enable this paper to identify the cases of mountspotosí and porco, quiquijana, and poder de dios as pre-columbian huacas and sacred mountains in the region of potosí and chuquisaca (bolivia). their study and analysis explores the religious and political dimensions of mountain cults in the south central andes.
O Hospital-Colónia Rovisco Pais: a última leprosaria portuguesa e os universos contingentes da experiência e da memória
Cruz, Alice;
História, Ciências, Saúde-Manguinhos , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-59702009000200008
Abstract: the hospital-colónia rovisco pais was inaugurated in portugal in the 1940s for the treatment, study and prophylaxis of leprosy based on the compulsive internment model, whose configuration reflects the total institution concept proposed by goffman. it concerns an important hygiene project of the estado novo. its educative paradigm combined elements inspired in european social medicine and the ideology of the paternalistic portuguese dictatorial regime. the hospital colony here will be thought of as a disciplinary dispositive, developing considerations regarding the confrontation between disciplinary power and experience. memory emerges as a contingent instrument to access the practices and interstitial meanings woven into the hospital colony's daily life, seeking to find out about the experience of its former patients as political subjects.
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