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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 19242 matches for " Cristina; Comajuncosas "
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Prospective analysis of clinician accuracy in the diagnosis of benign anorectal pathology: the value of clinical information
Jimeno,Jaime; Vallverdú,Helena; Tubella,Jaume; Sánchez-Pradell,Cristina; Comajuncosas,Jordi; Orbeal,Rolando; Hermoso,Judit; Gris,Pere; López-Negre,José Luis; Urgellés,Joan; Parés,David;
Revista Espa?ola de Enfermedades Digestivas , 2012, DOI: 10.4321/S1130-01082012000300004
Abstract: aim: the prevalence of anorectal disorders in general population is high. the aim of this study was to analyze the influence of clinical symptoms on diagnostic accuracy for benign anorectal pathology among different specialists and evaluate the relationship between diagnostic accuracy and years of professional experience. methods: seven typical cases were selected. in a first interview, participants were shown images and asked to make a diagnosis. afterwards, images with additional information (clinical symptoms) were used. two groups (group 1 = general surgeons and group 2 = medical specialists who attended emergency department) completed both phases of the study to analyze the influence of clinical symptoms on the final diagnosis. results: forty four specialists were interviewed. the percentage of participants making a correct diagnosis in groups 1 and 2, respectively, was as follows: case 1 (perianal abscess): 100 vs. 80.6%, (p = 0.157); case 2 (fissure): 92.3 vs. 51.6% (p = 0.015); case 3 (thrombosed hemorrhoid): 92.3 vs. 74.2% (p = 0.321); case 4 (anal condyloma): 100 vs. 87.1% (p = 0.302); case 5 (rectal prolapse): 100 vs. 83.9% (p = 0.301); case 6 (prolapsed hemorrhoid): 92.3 vs. 29% (p = 0.001), and case 7 (fistula): 100 vs. 67.7% (p = 0.021). there were significant differences in the number of correctly diagnosed cases between groups (p < 0.001). information about clinical symptoms significantly increased overall and specific accuracy. there was no correlation between experience and accuracy. conclusions: clinical symptoms are important for diagnostic accuracy in anorectal pathology. training in anorectal pathology in medical specialists is warranted.
Results of implementation of a fast track pathway for diagnosis of colorectal cancer
Vallverdú Cartié,Helena; Comajuncosas Camp,Jordi; Orbeal Sáenz,Rolando A.; López Negre,José Luis; Gris Garriga,Pedro J.; Jimeno Fraile,Jaime; Hermoso Bosch,Judit; Sánchez Pradell,Cristina; Torra Alsina,Sandra; Urgellés Bosch,Joan; Parés,David;
Revista Espa?ola de Enfermedades Digestivas , 2011, DOI: 10.4321/S1130-01082011000800003
Abstract: introduction: fast track pathways for diagnosis of cancer intend to decrease delays in diagnosis and treatment of cancer. it is recommended to initiate treatment in a period no longer than 30 days since admission in these circuits. aims: to know the characteristics and fluency of our fast track diagnostic pathway (ftdp) for colorectal cancer (crc), with special attention to those patients selected for surgical treatment as a first choice. material and method: all patients who entered the ftdp for crc during a period of 2 years (2008-2009) were analyzed as well as the rest of patients also diagnosed with crc but never seen in the ftdp. results: of the 316 patients referred to the ftdp only 78 (24.7%) were diagnosed as having some kind of cancer derived from the digestive system. at the end 61 patients (19.3%) were diagnosed with ccr. the time interval from entry into the ftdp to the first hospital visit was 3 days (range 1-8), and the interval until colonoscopy was performed was 11.5 days (range 1-41). 14 (41.1%) of those patients chosen for surgery were operated on in a period lesser than 30 days while 28 patients (82.3%) underwent surgery before day 45 since admission into the circuit. conclusions: though the functioning of the ftdp is acceptable, any increase in number of patients can generate delays. for this reason it is advisable to have a team to assure a good functioning of the ftdp. a proper follow-up of the whole process will possibly avoid unnecessary delays and it will improve coordination of the different phases of the fast track pathway and treatment. as the diagnostic outcome is poor it is mandatory to implement alternatives programs like screening of asymptomatic population, allowing an early detection of this condition.
Results of implementation of a fast track pathway for diagnosis of colorectal cancer Resultados de la implementación del circuito de diagnostico rápido de cáncer colorrectal
Helena Vallverdú Cartié,Jordi Comajuncosas Camp,Rolando A. Orbeal Sáenz,José Luis López Negre
Revista Espa?ola de Enfermedades Digestivas , 2011,
Abstract: Introduction: fast track pathways for diagnosis of cancer intend to decrease delays in diagnosis and treatment of cancer. It is recommended to initiate treatment in a period no longer than 30 days since admission in these circuits. Aims: to know the characteristics and fluency of our Fast Track Diagnostic Pathway (FTDP) for Colorectal Cancer (CRC), with special attention to those patients selected for surgical treatment as a first choice. Material and method: all patients who entered the FTDP for CRC during a period of 2 years (2008-2009) were analyzed as well as the rest of patients also diagnosed with CRC but never seen in the FTDP. Results: of the 316 patients referred to the FTDP only 78 (24.7%) were diagnosed as having some kind of cancer derived from the digestive system. At the end 61 patients (19.3%) were diagnosed with CCR. The time interval from entry into the FTDP to the first hospital visit was 3 days (range 1-8), and the interval until colonoscopy was performed was 11.5 days (range 1-41). 14 (41.1%) of those patients chosen for surgery were operated on in a period lesser than 30 days while 28 patients (82.3%) underwent surgery before day 45 since admission into the circuit. Conclusions: though the functioning of the FTDP is acceptable, any increase in number of patients can generate delays. For this reason it is advisable to have a team to assure a good functioning of the FTDP. A proper follow-up of the whole process will possibly avoid unnecessary delays and it will improve coordination of the different phases of the fast track pathway and treatment. As the diagnostic outcome is poor it is mandatory to implement alternatives programs like screening of asymptomatic population, allowing an early detection of this condition. Introducción: los circuitos de diagnóstico rápido de cáncer (CDRC) pretenden disminuir las demoras en el diagnóstico y tratamiento del cáncer colorrectal (CCR). Se recomienda el inicio del primer tratamiento en un plazo de 30 días desde la entrada en el circuito de diagnóstico rápido. Objetivos: conocer las características y fluidez de nuestro circuito de diagnóstico rápido del cáncer colorrectal (CDRC). Centrando el interés en los pacientes cuyo primer tratamiento va a ser el quirúrgico. Material y método: se analizan los pacientes que ingresan el circuito de diagnóstico rápido durante un periodo de 2 a os (2008-2009) y también los pacientes diagnosticados durante el tiempo del estudio por otras vías. Resultados: acceden al circuito de diagnóstico rápido 316 pacientes, 78 pacientes (24,7%) presentan cáncer digestivo, sien
Family, Poverty and Inequalities in Latin America and the Caribbean  [PDF]
Cristina Gomes
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2013.31005
Abstract:

This article adopts the concept of development as freedom and the relationship between income and capabilities to analyze and compare macroeconomic, demographic and poverty trends and inequalities in Latin American and the Caribbean countries, and the responses from governments to promote the inclusion of the poorest and marginalized population groups in development and policies. Differences in population structures indicate that poverty and gender, generational and race inequalities fragment societies. Policies oriented to reduce poverty have been implemented with a set of combined programs such as cash transfers articulated with actions in nutrition, health, education, day-care programs for poor children, civil registration and other programs to promote poverty reduction and the conciliation of domestic and work life for poor women and social protection. Some good practices are discussed, particularly in Brazil and Mexico. During the last 15 years, the Conditioned Cash Transfers programs raised public support and political consensus, guaranteeing continuity in their implementation, development and integration with other social protection programs. Currently there are 18 countries implementing such programs, covering approximately 25 million households and over 133 million people, representing 19% of the Latin American and Caribbean. Policies to reduce poverty, in combination with income distribution and social protection in nutrition, health, education, civil registration and day-care for children, have contributed to human development, and also promoted internal market of consumers, even in rural areas, mobilizing local economies and promoting the return of investments to development. Despite the economic crisis in 2008-2009, Latin America had a relatively good performance in the world economy, demonstrating that social and economic

Family and women decide child nutrition—The role of human development, capabilities and lifestyles  [PDF]
Cristina Gomes
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.57153
Abstract:

In this article, capacities and freedom approach, as well as lifestyles are explored taking into account child nutrition, and other relevant dimensions of human life more than just economic and other elementary resources, and also social, cultural, psychological, values and freedom dimensions. Nourishment, health and survival are considered some of the elementary capabilities, and the concept of malnutrition, including under and over-nutrition, is discussed, based upon the comparison of data on food production and distribution from the macro level context, as well as from the family and individual levels included anthropometrical measurements. The advantages and limits of different kinds of measurements are discussed, suggesting more complex approaches, based also upon family and gender equality. The double burden of malnutrition, under and over-nourishment of children is highlighted as a public health issue to be resolved by adequate policies and considering the role of female empowerment, nutrition-knowledge and education as relevant keys to achieve equality in family food and resource distribution, healthy lifestyles and human development.

Education, Work and Reproductive Health among Adolescents in Latin America and the Caribbean  [PDF]
Cristina Gomes
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2013.32019
Abstract:

Investments in education, work, and the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents and youth contribute to their human development and autonomy, and guarantee that they will have their own resources and pensions for old age. In Latin America and the Caribbean 100 million adolescents aged 10 to 19 years demand schools and teachers in secondary education, employment and health services. This work describes and analyses the situation of adolescents and youths in these three areas of interest, as a basis for defining priorities and the integration of policies oriented to take advantage of the demographic bonus and to enhance the sustainability of future dignified ageing for youth generations. Since Latin America and the Caribbean is the region with the highest inequality rates in the world, investing in demographic dividend can also contribute to decreasing inequalities in the long term. Secondary data from censuses, surveys and international organizations are analysed to relate to the three relevant issues of interest. Most than half of teens in Central America, and between 20% and 40% of adolescents in South America leave school before completing secondary level education and most of them receive poor quality education, 20% of them do not study or work and some are trapped in a triad of problems: the secondary school dropout, unemployment, informal and unprotected work and adolescent pregnancy. Despite the decline in adolescent fertility rates, they continue to be up to seven times higher among the less educated. Unemployment rates are three times higher for young people than for adults, half of them work in informal and low skilled jobs. The relationship between health, education, employment, poverty and inequalities demonstrates the need to strengthen and integrate policies of inclusion at school and at work, as well as special protection and social security for adolescents and youth.

From Prototype and Skopos Theories to Corpus-Based and Audiovisual Approaches in Children’s Literature Translation  [PDF]
Cristina Chifane
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.38011
Abstract: For a long time an unexploited field of scientific research, Children’s Literature Translation Studies deserve a thorough examination primarily due to the current world-wide publishing boom of children’s texts. The dominance of the literary productions of the Anglo-American environment determines the overwhelming number of translations in different cultures and languages. Most translation theories which have been traditionally analyzed and applied to what is generally assumed to be adult literature should be revisited and reconsidered in the case of children’s books with the aim of helping translators and ensuring the efficiency of the translation process. From this perspective, the present article focuses upon the influence of the prototype theory upon children’s literature translation strategies, the importance of the double addressee in the skopos theory, the advantages of the corpus-based approach and the adaptation to the changing landscapes of children’s texts intermediated by the audiovisual approach. Since contemporary translators of children’s literary texts are facing the imperative of tight deadlines, they need to be clearly aware of their translation commission trying to fulfill the expectations of the potential target readers. The aforementioned theories and approaches pave the way to new discoveries with respect to the challenge of translating children’s texts which share both similarities and differences with adult literature.
Racism in Health Services in Brazil  [PDF]
Cristina Gomes
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2016.611027
Abstract: This article discusses racial prejudices and discrimination in perceptions, attitudes and practices among health personnel in the municipality of Camaçari. The survey’s methodology included racist statements in questionnaires distributed to 634 health workers, as well as socio-determinants of health, family and work characteristics. Results indicate how masked racism is reproduced through ambiguous attitudes and practices; the feeling that speaking about race/color would create a racist conflict, supposing that it does not exist, and resistance against accepting the need to correct injustices and promoting affirmative policies.
Elites in Competition and the Reorganization of Power: The Case of Brazil  [PDF]
Cristina Gomes
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2019.91002
Abstract: This article describes the formation of the traditional elite of Brazil from the colonial period, and the main ruptures affecting the republic during short democratic periods in which changes were observed in the composition of their elite. The most recent change is historically contextualized by the formation of a new elite, in the form of the governments of Lula da Silva and Dilma Rousseff, who were never part of the political-military-hereditary lineage of traditional elites. This was the scenario of the 2014 elections and the impeachment that once again broke away from the democratic system. The historical practices of the traditional elite of Brazil showed themselves to be caught in a vicious circle around the coup d’état to return to power, confronting the responses of the new progressive elite that had resulted from elections during the short periods of democracy. A qualitative methodology of bibliographic review is applied for the construction of the conceptual and analytical framework, and the collection of information from the media for recent facts has still been little analyzed with content analysis, and is complemented with two interviews with people who occupied high government posts, both before and during the coup. The results indicate that the new government elite undervalued the process of financial globalization and promoted the strengthening of representatives of international networks and their entry into the decision-making process, where they formed parallel command structures and networks contrary to government decisions and facilitated the rupture of democracy.
Identity in Sport Teams  [PDF]
Cristina Zucchermaglio, Francesca Alby
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.23031
Abstract: In this paper we analyze identity in a soccer team using a discursive perspective, in which individual psycho-logical functioning is considered to be built in and through social interactions within groups. Analysis is based on naturally-occurring interactions that were audio recorded during technical meetings before and after the match. The data were collected within an ethnographic investigation of an Italian soccer tam carried out over a two-month period. The results show that the team’s members made rhetorical use of a complex repertoire of their own and others’ social identities, and that two main variables influenced the use of social identity markers: a) the role of the speakers (in particular the “power” role of the coach); b) the result of the match around which the interactive discourse revolved. Against this background, we discuss how narratives and identity positionings were used to achieve specific goals and to perform specific actions, such as the planning of future matches and the interpretation of victories and defeats.
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