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WEATHER INDEX- THE BASIS OF WEATHER DERIVATIVES
Ciumas Cristina,Botos Horia Mircea
Annals of the University of Oradea : Economic Science , 2011,
Abstract: This paper approaches the subject of Weather Derivatives, more exactly their basic element the weather index. The weather index has two forms, the Heating Degree Day (HDD) and the Cooling Degree Day (CDD). We will try to explain their origin, use and the relationship between the two forms of the index. In our research we started from the analysis of the weather derivatives and what they are based on. After finding out about weather index, we were interested in understanding exactly how they work and how they influence the value of the contract. On the national level the research in the field is scares, but foreign materials available. The study for this paper was based firstly on reading about Weather Derivative, and then going in the meteorogical field and determining the way by which the indices were determined. After this, we went to the field with interest in the indices, such as the energy and gas industries, and figured out how they determined the weather index. For the examples we obtained data from the weather index database, and calculated the value for the period. The study is made on a period of five years, in 8 cities of the European Union. The result of this research is that we can now understand better the importance of the way the indices work and how they influence the value of the Weather Derivatives. This research has an implication on the field of insurance, because of the fact that weather derivative are at the convergence point of the stock markets and the insurance market. The originality of the paper comes from the personal touch given to the theoretical aspect and through the analysis of the HDD and CDD index in order to show their general behaviour and relationship.
THE IMPACT OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS ON CREDIT INSURANCE
Ciumas Cristina,Vaidean Viorela-Ligia
Annals of the University of Oradea : Economic Science , 2010,
Abstract: The insurance domain is one of the most complex and extensive areas of the market. However this field is very risk exposed especially in this period of economic instability. One of the most non-performant insurance products at this time is the credit insurance. Due to inability to pay and increasing bad loans, insurance companies have decided to remove these products from their portfolio. We believe that the signs that led to this situation have been very visible for a long time, but the insurance market players refused to give too much importance to them because they based their operations on the artificial strength of the whole system. In this paper we want to show how things have evolved on the credit insurance market as compared to the general insurance market, and if the present situation could have been anticipated and avoided.
THE ROMANIAN INSURANCE MARKET AND THE POTENTIAL EFFECTS OF THE CRISIS UPON IT
Cristina Ciumas,Ioan Nistor,Ecaterina Cumpanasu,Viorela-Ligia Vaidean
Annals of the University of Oradea : Economic Science , 2009,
Abstract: The global financial and economic crisis is felt in almost all the companies that operate on the European financial and insurance markets. The European insurance and re-insurance industry would register a significant decrease of the investments and a redu
ASPECTS REGARDING THE COUTRY RISK AND ITS RATING
Cristina Ciumas,Viorela-Ligia Vaidean,Stefan Manta,Florina Aurica Moldovan
Annals of the University of Oradea : Economic Science , 2009,
Abstract: Is Romania affected by the country risk? Country risk, especially the score given by the rating companies is meant to lead to economic growth or recession. Is it possible for only one grade to have that much impact upon the economy? The truth is that such
INSURANCE CONTRACTS BASED ON INDICES, A STEP TOWARDS WEATHER DERIVATIVES
Ciumas Cristina,Boton#537; Horia-Mircea,Chin#537; Diana-Maria
Annals of the University of Oradea : Economic Science , 2012,
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyze the methodology of structuring an index based insurance contract. The weather has always been the biggest risk factor in agriculture, affecting all aspects of the economic sectors. In the developed countries of the world, there is a significant number of rain-dependent farmers. To gain insight into potential growth of weather markets in developed countries, we are going to analyze the case of India. In 2003, Basix microfinance company in Hyderabad and ICICI Lombard insurance company in Mumbai have launched a pilot weather insurance, which had as basic index phenomena for Mahahbubnagar district of Andhra Pradesh. Further detail can be found in the full-paper. In the paper we will enumerate the appropriate steps in the determining the necessity for the use of index based insurances. The appropriate stages are making a comparison between index based insurances and traditional insurances, and optimizing the use of weather indices in insurance contracts. In order for the contracts to be successful , the recommended steps are : developing a product based in an index, and after the we need to plan and implement the contract. In planning the implementation it is needed that we: identify the risks and areas where they manifest, then identify the best distribution channels; after this we can develop a prototype of the contract. The next step would the testing of the negotiability of the contract, then the contract is opened to be finalized. After this the index based insurance contract can be introduced to the market, but the program needs monitoring in order to insure its successfulness. In order for the market and contract to grow the necessary step are: having access to the necessary meteorological data, determine the optimal way of integrating the contract in the existing economical context, technical feasibility, property rights and the legal framework. In the end, the aim is to familiarize the literacy field and potential beneficiaries of such products and to provide some way to address this market for investment purposes, showing a bridge-point between the traditional insurances and the more elaborated weather derivatives.
Family, Poverty and Inequalities in Latin America and the Caribbean  [PDF]
Cristina Gomes
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2013.31005
Abstract:

This article adopts the concept of development as freedom and the relationship between income and capabilities to analyze and compare macroeconomic, demographic and poverty trends and inequalities in Latin American and the Caribbean countries, and the responses from governments to promote the inclusion of the poorest and marginalized population groups in development and policies. Differences in population structures indicate that poverty and gender, generational and race inequalities fragment societies. Policies oriented to reduce poverty have been implemented with a set of combined programs such as cash transfers articulated with actions in nutrition, health, education, day-care programs for poor children, civil registration and other programs to promote poverty reduction and the conciliation of domestic and work life for poor women and social protection. Some good practices are discussed, particularly in Brazil and Mexico. During the last 15 years, the Conditioned Cash Transfers programs raised public support and political consensus, guaranteeing continuity in their implementation, development and integration with other social protection programs. Currently there are 18 countries implementing such programs, covering approximately 25 million households and over 133 million people, representing 19% of the Latin American and Caribbean. Policies to reduce poverty, in combination with income distribution and social protection in nutrition, health, education, civil registration and day-care for children, have contributed to human development, and also promoted internal market of consumers, even in rural areas, mobilizing local economies and promoting the return of investments to development. Despite the economic crisis in 2008-2009, Latin America had a relatively good performance in the world economy, demonstrating that social and economic

Family and women decide child nutrition—The role of human development, capabilities and lifestyles  [PDF]
Cristina Gomes
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.57153
Abstract:

In this article, capacities and freedom approach, as well as lifestyles are explored taking into account child nutrition, and other relevant dimensions of human life more than just economic and other elementary resources, and also social, cultural, psychological, values and freedom dimensions. Nourishment, health and survival are considered some of the elementary capabilities, and the concept of malnutrition, including under and over-nutrition, is discussed, based upon the comparison of data on food production and distribution from the macro level context, as well as from the family and individual levels included anthropometrical measurements. The advantages and limits of different kinds of measurements are discussed, suggesting more complex approaches, based also upon family and gender equality. The double burden of malnutrition, under and over-nourishment of children is highlighted as a public health issue to be resolved by adequate policies and considering the role of female empowerment, nutrition-knowledge and education as relevant keys to achieve equality in family food and resource distribution, healthy lifestyles and human development.

Education, Work and Reproductive Health among Adolescents in Latin America and the Caribbean  [PDF]
Cristina Gomes
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2013.32019
Abstract:

Investments in education, work, and the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents and youth contribute to their human development and autonomy, and guarantee that they will have their own resources and pensions for old age. In Latin America and the Caribbean 100 million adolescents aged 10 to 19 years demand schools and teachers in secondary education, employment and health services. This work describes and analyses the situation of adolescents and youths in these three areas of interest, as a basis for defining priorities and the integration of policies oriented to take advantage of the demographic bonus and to enhance the sustainability of future dignified ageing for youth generations. Since Latin America and the Caribbean is the region with the highest inequality rates in the world, investing in demographic dividend can also contribute to decreasing inequalities in the long term. Secondary data from censuses, surveys and international organizations are analysed to relate to the three relevant issues of interest. Most than half of teens in Central America, and between 20% and 40% of adolescents in South America leave school before completing secondary level education and most of them receive poor quality education, 20% of them do not study or work and some are trapped in a triad of problems: the secondary school dropout, unemployment, informal and unprotected work and adolescent pregnancy. Despite the decline in adolescent fertility rates, they continue to be up to seven times higher among the less educated. Unemployment rates are three times higher for young people than for adults, half of them work in informal and low skilled jobs. The relationship between health, education, employment, poverty and inequalities demonstrates the need to strengthen and integrate policies of inclusion at school and at work, as well as special protection and social security for adolescents and youth.

From Prototype and Skopos Theories to Corpus-Based and Audiovisual Approaches in Children’s Literature Translation  [PDF]
Cristina Chifane
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.38011
Abstract: For a long time an unexploited field of scientific research, Children’s Literature Translation Studies deserve a thorough examination primarily due to the current world-wide publishing boom of children’s texts. The dominance of the literary productions of the Anglo-American environment determines the overwhelming number of translations in different cultures and languages. Most translation theories which have been traditionally analyzed and applied to what is generally assumed to be adult literature should be revisited and reconsidered in the case of children’s books with the aim of helping translators and ensuring the efficiency of the translation process. From this perspective, the present article focuses upon the influence of the prototype theory upon children’s literature translation strategies, the importance of the double addressee in the skopos theory, the advantages of the corpus-based approach and the adaptation to the changing landscapes of children’s texts intermediated by the audiovisual approach. Since contemporary translators of children’s literary texts are facing the imperative of tight deadlines, they need to be clearly aware of their translation commission trying to fulfill the expectations of the potential target readers. The aforementioned theories and approaches pave the way to new discoveries with respect to the challenge of translating children’s texts which share both similarities and differences with adult literature.
Identity in Sport Teams  [PDF]
Cristina Zucchermaglio, Francesca Alby
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.23031
Abstract: In this paper we analyze identity in a soccer team using a discursive perspective, in which individual psycho-logical functioning is considered to be built in and through social interactions within groups. Analysis is based on naturally-occurring interactions that were audio recorded during technical meetings before and after the match. The data were collected within an ethnographic investigation of an Italian soccer tam carried out over a two-month period. The results show that the team’s members made rhetorical use of a complex repertoire of their own and others’ social identities, and that two main variables influenced the use of social identity markers: a) the role of the speakers (in particular the “power” role of the coach); b) the result of the match around which the interactive discourse revolved. Against this background, we discuss how narratives and identity positionings were used to achieve specific goals and to perform specific actions, such as the planning of future matches and the interpretation of victories and defeats.
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