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Influence of Acute Ozone Exposure on the Tissue Oxidant/Antioxidant Balance in Physical Exercise
ágnes UGRON,Cristina BIDIAN,Remus MOLDOVAN,Nicoleta DECEA
Applied Medical Informatics , 2012,
Abstract: Aims: The influence of acute ozone (O3) exposure on the tissue oxidant/antioxidant (O/AO) balance in the brain, myocardium, lungs and striated muscles was studied at rest and during exercise. Material and Methods: The research was performed in 3 groups of white male Wistar rats with a weight of 280-300 g: Group I – control group, sedentary rats under normoxia conditions; Group II – sedentary rats, acutely exposed to O3; Group III – animals acutely exposed to O3, followed by exercise under normoxia conditions. The rats were exposed to ozone for 3 days, 5 min/day. Group III was trained daily for 3 days under normoxia conditions by the swimming test. In order to determine the indicators of the oxidant/antioxidant balance, tissue samples from the brain, myocardium, lungs and quadriceps muscle of the anesthetized animals were taken. On the third day the following were measured: malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyls (PC), hydrogen donor capacity (HD) and total sulfhydryl (thiol) group content (SH). Results: Between the indicators of the tissue O/AO balance, significant correlations were evidenced in the brain, myocardium, lungs and muscles. Conclusions: Acute combined stress through O3 pre-exposure and exercise causes OS on account of PC in the brain, myocardium and muscles, a decrease in AO defense capacity on account of HD in the brain, lungs and muscles, and an increase in AO defense capacity in the myocardium.
Family, Poverty and Inequalities in Latin America and the Caribbean  [PDF]
Cristina Gomes
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2013.31005
Abstract:

This article adopts the concept of development as freedom and the relationship between income and capabilities to analyze and compare macroeconomic, demographic and poverty trends and inequalities in Latin American and the Caribbean countries, and the responses from governments to promote the inclusion of the poorest and marginalized population groups in development and policies. Differences in population structures indicate that poverty and gender, generational and race inequalities fragment societies. Policies oriented to reduce poverty have been implemented with a set of combined programs such as cash transfers articulated with actions in nutrition, health, education, day-care programs for poor children, civil registration and other programs to promote poverty reduction and the conciliation of domestic and work life for poor women and social protection. Some good practices are discussed, particularly in Brazil and Mexico. During the last 15 years, the Conditioned Cash Transfers programs raised public support and political consensus, guaranteeing continuity in their implementation, development and integration with other social protection programs. Currently there are 18 countries implementing such programs, covering approximately 25 million households and over 133 million people, representing 19% of the Latin American and Caribbean. Policies to reduce poverty, in combination with income distribution and social protection in nutrition, health, education, civil registration and day-care for children, have contributed to human development, and also promoted internal market of consumers, even in rural areas, mobilizing local economies and promoting the return of investments to development. Despite the economic crisis in 2008-2009, Latin America had a relatively good performance in the world economy, demonstrating that social and economic

Family and women decide child nutrition—The role of human development, capabilities and lifestyles  [PDF]
Cristina Gomes
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.57153
Abstract:

In this article, capacities and freedom approach, as well as lifestyles are explored taking into account child nutrition, and other relevant dimensions of human life more than just economic and other elementary resources, and also social, cultural, psychological, values and freedom dimensions. Nourishment, health and survival are considered some of the elementary capabilities, and the concept of malnutrition, including under and over-nutrition, is discussed, based upon the comparison of data on food production and distribution from the macro level context, as well as from the family and individual levels included anthropometrical measurements. The advantages and limits of different kinds of measurements are discussed, suggesting more complex approaches, based also upon family and gender equality. The double burden of malnutrition, under and over-nourishment of children is highlighted as a public health issue to be resolved by adequate policies and considering the role of female empowerment, nutrition-knowledge and education as relevant keys to achieve equality in family food and resource distribution, healthy lifestyles and human development.

Education, Work and Reproductive Health among Adolescents in Latin America and the Caribbean  [PDF]
Cristina Gomes
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2013.32019
Abstract:

Investments in education, work, and the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents and youth contribute to their human development and autonomy, and guarantee that they will have their own resources and pensions for old age. In Latin America and the Caribbean 100 million adolescents aged 10 to 19 years demand schools and teachers in secondary education, employment and health services. This work describes and analyses the situation of adolescents and youths in these three areas of interest, as a basis for defining priorities and the integration of policies oriented to take advantage of the demographic bonus and to enhance the sustainability of future dignified ageing for youth generations. Since Latin America and the Caribbean is the region with the highest inequality rates in the world, investing in demographic dividend can also contribute to decreasing inequalities in the long term. Secondary data from censuses, surveys and international organizations are analysed to relate to the three relevant issues of interest. Most than half of teens in Central America, and between 20% and 40% of adolescents in South America leave school before completing secondary level education and most of them receive poor quality education, 20% of them do not study or work and some are trapped in a triad of problems: the secondary school dropout, unemployment, informal and unprotected work and adolescent pregnancy. Despite the decline in adolescent fertility rates, they continue to be up to seven times higher among the less educated. Unemployment rates are three times higher for young people than for adults, half of them work in informal and low skilled jobs. The relationship between health, education, employment, poverty and inequalities demonstrates the need to strengthen and integrate policies of inclusion at school and at work, as well as special protection and social security for adolescents and youth.

From Prototype and Skopos Theories to Corpus-Based and Audiovisual Approaches in Children’s Literature Translation  [PDF]
Cristina Chifane
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.38011
Abstract: For a long time an unexploited field of scientific research, Children’s Literature Translation Studies deserve a thorough examination primarily due to the current world-wide publishing boom of children’s texts. The dominance of the literary productions of the Anglo-American environment determines the overwhelming number of translations in different cultures and languages. Most translation theories which have been traditionally analyzed and applied to what is generally assumed to be adult literature should be revisited and reconsidered in the case of children’s books with the aim of helping translators and ensuring the efficiency of the translation process. From this perspective, the present article focuses upon the influence of the prototype theory upon children’s literature translation strategies, the importance of the double addressee in the skopos theory, the advantages of the corpus-based approach and the adaptation to the changing landscapes of children’s texts intermediated by the audiovisual approach. Since contemporary translators of children’s literary texts are facing the imperative of tight deadlines, they need to be clearly aware of their translation commission trying to fulfill the expectations of the potential target readers. The aforementioned theories and approaches pave the way to new discoveries with respect to the challenge of translating children’s texts which share both similarities and differences with adult literature.
Identity in Sport Teams  [PDF]
Cristina Zucchermaglio, Francesca Alby
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.23031
Abstract: In this paper we analyze identity in a soccer team using a discursive perspective, in which individual psycho-logical functioning is considered to be built in and through social interactions within groups. Analysis is based on naturally-occurring interactions that were audio recorded during technical meetings before and after the match. The data were collected within an ethnographic investigation of an Italian soccer tam carried out over a two-month period. The results show that the team’s members made rhetorical use of a complex repertoire of their own and others’ social identities, and that two main variables influenced the use of social identity markers: a) the role of the speakers (in particular the “power” role of the coach); b) the result of the match around which the interactive discourse revolved. Against this background, we discuss how narratives and identity positionings were used to achieve specific goals and to perform specific actions, such as the planning of future matches and the interpretation of victories and defeats.
Review: The Molecular Basis of Resistance in Mycobaterium tuberculosis  [PDF]
Lorena Cristina Santos
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2012.21004
Abstract: Tuberculosis is a serious global public health problem and its high prevalence is strongly associated with the increase of drug resistance. This steady increase in the frequency of M. tuberculosis strains resistant to one or more agents commonly used to treat tuberculosis has drawn worldwide attention to understanding the molecular basis of resistance in M. tuberculosis. TB resistance is a great concern in the antibiotic resistance pandemic due to the high risk of death, as patients can remain infected for months or years and also because of the difficulty of the treatment. A molecular understanding of the series of events that render M. tuberculosis multi-drug resistant is very important in order to find a fast and appropriated diagnosis as well as a new target for new drugs.
Simplified Optimization Routine for Tuning Robust Fractional Order Controllers  [PDF]
Cristina I. Muresan
American Journal of Computational Mathematics (AJCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajcm.2013.33B002
Abstract:

Fractional order controllers have been used intensively over the last decades in controlling different types of processes. The main methods for tuning such controllers are based on a frequency domain approach followed by optimization routine, generally in the form of the Matlab fminsearch, but also evolving to more complex routines, such as the genetic algorithms. An alternative to these time consuming optimization routines, a simple graphical method has been proposed. However, these graphical methods are not suitable for all combinations of the imposed performance specifications. To preserve their simplicity, but also to make these graphical methods generally applicable, a modified graphical method using a very straightforward and simple optimization routine is proposed within the paper. Two case studies are presented, for tuning fractional order PI and PD controllers.


The Accounting Harmonization Process: Italian Public Principles and International Accounting Standards. Is It a Cultural Choice?  [PDF]
Roberto Jannelli, Cristina Tesone
Open Journal of Accounting (OJAcct) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojacct.2013.24017
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to evaluate the complex process of Accounting Harmonization, which involves the Italian Public Administration and the pressure to have a more transparent information system for the development of suitable accountability and comparability. Additionally, the paper examines the degree of diffusion of the IPSAS, the main characteristics of these principles and the difficulties face implementing them. These difficulties, lead to the creation of a set of European Public Sector Accounting Standards (EPSAS). The introduction of the new accounting rules is intended to facilitate the comparability of financial statements and improve the quality and transparency of economic and financial information, favouring the increase of efficiency and integration, at least at a European level. The investigation of this paper supports the theory that before selecting the best principles to apply, it is necessary to make a cultural choice.
Bayesian Coalescent Analysis of the Intra-Host Evolution of Hepatitis C Virus: Memory Genomes and Clinical Implications  [PDF]
Ricardo Recarey, Juan Cristina
Natural Science (NS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2014.69061
Abstract:

Genetic variability plays a key role in the biology and medical treatment of RNA viruses. As an RNA virus, Hepatitis C virus (HCV) replicate as complex distributions of closely related genomes termed viral quasispecies. The behavior of the evolving HCV quasispecies population is influenced by the ensemble of mutants that compose the viral population. One such influence is the presence of minority subpopulations, termed memory genomes, in the mutant spectra. Biologically relevant mutants have been previously observed to be present as memory genomes in RNA viral populations. For that reason, an in-depth analysis of HCV quasispecies populations is crucial for our understanding viral evolution, drug resistance and therapy outcome. Recently developed next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms make it possible to investigate viral quasispecies at much greater detail. In order to gain insight into these matters, we have performed a Bayesian coalescent analysis of hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) sequences of a HCV quasispecies population circulating in a chronic patient, recently obtained by ultra-deep sequencing. The results of these studies revealed a mean rate of evolution of HCV HVR1 of the intra-host quasispecies population of 4.80 × 10-2 amino acid substitutions/site/year. A sharp and rapid diversification of the HCV quasispecies isolated from the patient in three different sub-populations was observed. The most abundant sequence in the quasispecies population was not found to be the center of a tight and complex network around this sequence, suggesting that the quasispecies population as a whole efficiently explore a wide sequence space. Co-evolution of relevant amino acid sites had been identified in the HVR1. This speaks of the possible roll of these residues in HVR1 to allow the virus to shift between combinations of residues to escape the immune system while retaining its structure and functions. The results of these studies highlight the importance of minority genomes in HCV population history and evolution, the mutant clouds as reservoirs of phenotypic and genetic variants for virus adaptability, as well as the roll of the mutant spectra to overcome selective constraints.

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