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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 19244 matches for " Cristina Agrati "
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Recombinant Chromosome 4 from a Familial Pericentric Inversion: Prenatal and Adulthood Wolf-Hirschhorn Phenotypes
Francesca Malvestiti,Francesco Benedicenti,Simona De Toffol,Sara Chinetti,Adelheid H?ller,Beatrice Grimi,Gertrud Fichtel,Monica Braghetto,Cristina Agrati,Eleonora Bonaparte,Federico Maggi,Giuseppe Simoni,Francesca Romana Grati
Case Reports in Genetics , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/306098
Abstract: Pericentric inversion of chromosome 4 can give rise to recombinant chromosomes by duplication or deletion of 4p. We report on a familial case of Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome characterized by GTG-banding karyotypes, FISH, and array CGH analysis, caused by a recombinant chromosome 4 with terminal 4p16.3 deletion and terminal 4q35.2 duplication. This is an aneusomy due to a recombination which occurred during the meiosis of heterozygote carrier of cryptic pericentric inversion. We also describe the adulthood and prenatal phenotypes associated with the recombinant chromosome 4. 1. Introduction Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome (WHS) results from partial deletion of the distal short arm of chromosome 4 (4p16.3). The clinical features are variable, with increasing severity depending on the extent of the deletion, although the minimal diagnostic criteria should include the association of typical facial appearance, growth delay, mental retardation, and seizures [1]. Considering that small and large 4p16.3 deletions are associated with mild and severe WHS phenotype, respectively, Zollino et al. [1] have suggested a WHS classification in three categories based on the clinical presentation, all sharing the minimal diagnostic criteria: “mild” form (deletions < 3.5?Mb) refers to patients with a mild mental retardation (MR), possible fluent language, and usually independent walking by the age of 2-3 years; “classical” form (deletions 5–18?Mb) is characterized by major malformations, severe psychomotor delay (PMD), delay or absence of speech, and late walking; “severe” one (deletions > 22–25?Mb) has severe PMD and MR, facial anomalies, severe scoliosis, and psychotic behaviour. At a molecular level, two WHS critical regions (WHSCRs) have been identified: the WHSCR region, which is 165?Kb in size and it is located at about 2?Mb from the telomere between the markers D4S166 and D4S3327 [2], and the WHSCR-2 region which embraces a 300–600?Kb interval between the loci D4S3327 and D4S168 and it is mapped distal to WHSCR at about 1,9?Mb from the telomere [1]. Most of the 4p16 deletions involved in WHS occur de novo, but in 10%–15% of cases the derivative chromosome 4 originate from chromosomal rearrangements in one of the parents. Four different rearrangements are reported [1]: (1) isolated 4p deletion (70% of patients); (2) unbalanced translocation (22%); (3) inverted duplication associated with terminal 4p deletion (6%); (4) recombinant chromosome 4, rec(4), consisting of unbalanced pericentric inversion with a large 4q segment duplicated on the deleted 4p (2%). Herein we describe a
Family, Poverty and Inequalities in Latin America and the Caribbean  [PDF]
Cristina Gomes
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2013.31005
Abstract:

This article adopts the concept of development as freedom and the relationship between income and capabilities to analyze and compare macroeconomic, demographic and poverty trends and inequalities in Latin American and the Caribbean countries, and the responses from governments to promote the inclusion of the poorest and marginalized population groups in development and policies. Differences in population structures indicate that poverty and gender, generational and race inequalities fragment societies. Policies oriented to reduce poverty have been implemented with a set of combined programs such as cash transfers articulated with actions in nutrition, health, education, day-care programs for poor children, civil registration and other programs to promote poverty reduction and the conciliation of domestic and work life for poor women and social protection. Some good practices are discussed, particularly in Brazil and Mexico. During the last 15 years, the Conditioned Cash Transfers programs raised public support and political consensus, guaranteeing continuity in their implementation, development and integration with other social protection programs. Currently there are 18 countries implementing such programs, covering approximately 25 million households and over 133 million people, representing 19% of the Latin American and Caribbean. Policies to reduce poverty, in combination with income distribution and social protection in nutrition, health, education, civil registration and day-care for children, have contributed to human development, and also promoted internal market of consumers, even in rural areas, mobilizing local economies and promoting the return of investments to development. Despite the economic crisis in 2008-2009, Latin America had a relatively good performance in the world economy, demonstrating that social and economic

Family and women decide child nutrition—The role of human development, capabilities and lifestyles  [PDF]
Cristina Gomes
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.57153
Abstract:

In this article, capacities and freedom approach, as well as lifestyles are explored taking into account child nutrition, and other relevant dimensions of human life more than just economic and other elementary resources, and also social, cultural, psychological, values and freedom dimensions. Nourishment, health and survival are considered some of the elementary capabilities, and the concept of malnutrition, including under and over-nutrition, is discussed, based upon the comparison of data on food production and distribution from the macro level context, as well as from the family and individual levels included anthropometrical measurements. The advantages and limits of different kinds of measurements are discussed, suggesting more complex approaches, based also upon family and gender equality. The double burden of malnutrition, under and over-nourishment of children is highlighted as a public health issue to be resolved by adequate policies and considering the role of female empowerment, nutrition-knowledge and education as relevant keys to achieve equality in family food and resource distribution, healthy lifestyles and human development.

Education, Work and Reproductive Health among Adolescents in Latin America and the Caribbean  [PDF]
Cristina Gomes
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2013.32019
Abstract:

Investments in education, work, and the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents and youth contribute to their human development and autonomy, and guarantee that they will have their own resources and pensions for old age. In Latin America and the Caribbean 100 million adolescents aged 10 to 19 years demand schools and teachers in secondary education, employment and health services. This work describes and analyses the situation of adolescents and youths in these three areas of interest, as a basis for defining priorities and the integration of policies oriented to take advantage of the demographic bonus and to enhance the sustainability of future dignified ageing for youth generations. Since Latin America and the Caribbean is the region with the highest inequality rates in the world, investing in demographic dividend can also contribute to decreasing inequalities in the long term. Secondary data from censuses, surveys and international organizations are analysed to relate to the three relevant issues of interest. Most than half of teens in Central America, and between 20% and 40% of adolescents in South America leave school before completing secondary level education and most of them receive poor quality education, 20% of them do not study or work and some are trapped in a triad of problems: the secondary school dropout, unemployment, informal and unprotected work and adolescent pregnancy. Despite the decline in adolescent fertility rates, they continue to be up to seven times higher among the less educated. Unemployment rates are three times higher for young people than for adults, half of them work in informal and low skilled jobs. The relationship between health, education, employment, poverty and inequalities demonstrates the need to strengthen and integrate policies of inclusion at school and at work, as well as special protection and social security for adolescents and youth.

From Prototype and Skopos Theories to Corpus-Based and Audiovisual Approaches in Children’s Literature Translation  [PDF]
Cristina Chifane
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.38011
Abstract: For a long time an unexploited field of scientific research, Children’s Literature Translation Studies deserve a thorough examination primarily due to the current world-wide publishing boom of children’s texts. The dominance of the literary productions of the Anglo-American environment determines the overwhelming number of translations in different cultures and languages. Most translation theories which have been traditionally analyzed and applied to what is generally assumed to be adult literature should be revisited and reconsidered in the case of children’s books with the aim of helping translators and ensuring the efficiency of the translation process. From this perspective, the present article focuses upon the influence of the prototype theory upon children’s literature translation strategies, the importance of the double addressee in the skopos theory, the advantages of the corpus-based approach and the adaptation to the changing landscapes of children’s texts intermediated by the audiovisual approach. Since contemporary translators of children’s literary texts are facing the imperative of tight deadlines, they need to be clearly aware of their translation commission trying to fulfill the expectations of the potential target readers. The aforementioned theories and approaches pave the way to new discoveries with respect to the challenge of translating children’s texts which share both similarities and differences with adult literature.
Racism in Health Services in Brazil  [PDF]
Cristina Gomes
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2016.611027
Abstract: This article discusses racial prejudices and discrimination in perceptions, attitudes and practices among health personnel in the municipality of Camaçari. The survey’s methodology included racist statements in questionnaires distributed to 634 health workers, as well as socio-determinants of health, family and work characteristics. Results indicate how masked racism is reproduced through ambiguous attitudes and practices; the feeling that speaking about race/color would create a racist conflict, supposing that it does not exist, and resistance against accepting the need to correct injustices and promoting affirmative policies.
Elites in Competition and the Reorganization of Power: The Case of Brazil  [PDF]
Cristina Gomes
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2019.91002
Abstract: This article describes the formation of the traditional elite of Brazil from the colonial period, and the main ruptures affecting the republic during short democratic periods in which changes were observed in the composition of their elite. The most recent change is historically contextualized by the formation of a new elite, in the form of the governments of Lula da Silva and Dilma Rousseff, who were never part of the political-military-hereditary lineage of traditional elites. This was the scenario of the 2014 elections and the impeachment that once again broke away from the democratic system. The historical practices of the traditional elite of Brazil showed themselves to be caught in a vicious circle around the coup d’état to return to power, confronting the responses of the new progressive elite that had resulted from elections during the short periods of democracy. A qualitative methodology of bibliographic review is applied for the construction of the conceptual and analytical framework, and the collection of information from the media for recent facts has still been little analyzed with content analysis, and is complemented with two interviews with people who occupied high government posts, both before and during the coup. The results indicate that the new government elite undervalued the process of financial globalization and promoted the strengthening of representatives of international networks and their entry into the decision-making process, where they formed parallel command structures and networks contrary to government decisions and facilitated the rupture of democracy.
Interferon-α Improves Phosphoantigen-Induced Vγ9Vδ2 T-Cells Interferon-γ Production during Chronic HCV Infection
Eleonora Cimini, Cécile Bonnafous, Veronica Bordoni, Eleonora Lalle, Helene Sicard, Alessandra Sacchi, Giulia Berno, Cristiana Gioia, Gianpiero D’Offizi, Ubaldo Visco Comandini, Chrysoula Vlassi, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi, Federico Martini, Chiara Agrati
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037014
Abstract: In chronic HCV infection, treatment failure and defective host immune response highly demand improved therapy strategies. Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells may inhibit HCV replication in vitro through IFN-γ release after Phosphoantigen (PhAg) stimulation. The aim of our work was to analyze Vγ9Vδ2 T-cell functionality during chronic HCV infection, studying the role of IFN-α on their function capability. IFN-γ production by Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells was analyzed in vitro in 24 HCV-infected patients and 35 healthy donors (HD) after PhAg stimulation with or without IFN-α. The effect of in vivo PhAg/IFN-α administration on plasma IFN-γ levels was analyzed in M. fascicularis monkeys. A quantitative analysis of IFN-γ mRNA level and stability in Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells was also evaluated. During chronic HCV infection, Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells showed an effector/activated phenotype and were significantly impaired in IFN-γ production. Interestingly, IFN-α was able to improve their IFN-γ response to PhAg both in vitro in HD and HCV-infected patients, and in vivo in Macaca fascicularis primates. Finally, IFN-α increased IFN-γ-mRNA transcription and stability in PhAg-activated Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells. Altogether our results show a functional impairment of Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells during chronic HCV infection that can be partially restored by using IFN-α. A study aimed to evaluate the antiviral impact of PhAg/IFN-α combination may provide new insight in designing possible combined strategies to improve HCV infection treatment outcome.
Identity in Sport Teams  [PDF]
Cristina Zucchermaglio, Francesca Alby
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.23031
Abstract: In this paper we analyze identity in a soccer team using a discursive perspective, in which individual psycho-logical functioning is considered to be built in and through social interactions within groups. Analysis is based on naturally-occurring interactions that were audio recorded during technical meetings before and after the match. The data were collected within an ethnographic investigation of an Italian soccer tam carried out over a two-month period. The results show that the team’s members made rhetorical use of a complex repertoire of their own and others’ social identities, and that two main variables influenced the use of social identity markers: a) the role of the speakers (in particular the “power” role of the coach); b) the result of the match around which the interactive discourse revolved. Against this background, we discuss how narratives and identity positionings were used to achieve specific goals and to perform specific actions, such as the planning of future matches and the interpretation of victories and defeats.
Review: The Molecular Basis of Resistance in Mycobaterium tuberculosis  [PDF]
Lorena Cristina Santos
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2012.21004
Abstract: Tuberculosis is a serious global public health problem and its high prevalence is strongly associated with the increase of drug resistance. This steady increase in the frequency of M. tuberculosis strains resistant to one or more agents commonly used to treat tuberculosis has drawn worldwide attention to understanding the molecular basis of resistance in M. tuberculosis. TB resistance is a great concern in the antibiotic resistance pandemic due to the high risk of death, as patients can remain infected for months or years and also because of the difficulty of the treatment. A molecular understanding of the series of events that render M. tuberculosis multi-drug resistant is very important in order to find a fast and appropriated diagnosis as well as a new target for new drugs.
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