Abstract:
A scheme is proposed for the generation of branch-entangled pairs of microcavity polaritons through spontaneous inter-branch parametric scattering. Branch-entanglement is achievable when there are two twin processes, where the role of signal and idler can be exchanged between two different polariton branches. Branch-entanglement of polariton pairs can lead to the emission of frequency-entangled photon pairs out of the microcavity. In planar microcavities, the necessary phase-matching conditions are fulfilled for pumping of the upper polariton branch at an arbitrary in-plane wave-vector. The important role of nonlinear losses due to pair scattering into high-momentum exciton states is evaluated. The results show that the lack of protection of the pump polaritons in the upper branch is critical. In photonic wires, branch-entanglement of one-dimensional polaritons is achievable when the pump excites a lower polariton sub-branch at normal incidence, providing protection from the exciton reservoir.

Abstract:
We investigate theoretically the dynamical behavior of a qubit obtained with the two ground eigenstates of an ultrastrong coupling circuit-QED system consisting of a finite number of Josephson fluxonium atoms inductively coupled to a transmission line resonator. We show an universal set of quantum gates by using multiple transmission line resonators (each resonator represents a single qubit). We discuss the intrinsic 'anisotropic' nature of noise sources for fluxonium artificial atoms. Through a master equation treatment with colored noise and manylevel dynamics, we prove that, for a general class of anisotropic noise sources, the coherence time of the qubit and the fidelity of the quantum operations can be dramatically improved in an optimal regime of ultrastrong coupling, where the ground state is an entangled photonic 'cat' state.

Abstract:
This article reviews recent theoretical and experimental advances in the fundamental understanding and active control of quantum fluids of light in nonlinear optical systems. In presence of effective photon-photon interactions induced by the optical nonlinearity of the medium, a many-photon system can behave collectively as a quantum fluid with a number of novel features stemming from its intrinsically non-equilibrium nature. We present a rich variety of photon hydrodynamical effects that have been recently observed, from the superfluid flow around a defect at low speeds, to the appearance of a Mach-Cherenkov cone in a supersonic flow, to the hydrodynamic formation of topological excitations such as quantized vortices and dark solitons at the surface of large impenetrable obstacles. While our review is mostly focused on a class of semiconductor systems that have been extensively studied in recent years (namely planar semiconductor microcavities in the strong light-matter coupling regime having cavity polaritons as elementary excitations), the very concept of quantum fluids of light applies to a broad spectrum of systems, ranging from bulk nonlinear crystals, to atomic clouds embedded in optical fibers and cavities, to photonic crystal cavities, to superconducting quantum circuits based on Josephson junctions. The conclusive part of our article is devoted to a review of the exciting perspectives to achieve strongly correlated photon gases. In particular, we present different mechanisms to obtain efficient photon blockade, we discuss the novel quantum phases that are expected to appear in arrays of strongly nonlinear cavities, and we point out the rich phenomenology offered by the implementation of artificial gauge fields for photons.

Abstract:
We explore theoretically the physics of a collection of two-level systems coupled to a single-mode bosonic field in the non-standard configuration where each (artificial) atom is coupled to both field quadratures of the boson mode. We determine the rich phase diagram showing 'superradiant' phases with different symmetries. We demonstrate that it is possible to pass from a discrete, parity-like $\mathbb{Z}_2$ symmetry to a continuous U(1) symmetry even in the ultrastrong coupling regime where the rotating wave approximation for the interaction between field and two-level systems is no longer applicable. By applying this general paradigm, we propose a scheme for the experimental implementation of such continuous U(1) symmetry in circuit QED systems, with the appearance of photonic Goldstone and amplitude modes above a critical point.

Abstract:
We present a full quantum theory for the dissipative dynamics of an optical cavity in the ultra-strong light-matter coupling regime, in which the vacuum Rabi frequency is comparable to the electronic transition frequency and the anti-resonant terms of the light-matter coupling play an important role. In particular, our model can be applied to the case of intersubband transitions in doped semiconductor quantum wells embedded in a microcavity. The coupling of the intracavity photonic mode and of the electronic polarization to the external, frequency-dependent, dissipation baths is taken into account by means of quantum Langevin equations in the input-output formalism. Observable spectra (reflection, absorption, transmission and electroluminescence) are calculated analytically in the case of a time-independent vacuum Rabi frequency.

Abstract:
We investigate the appearance of spontaneous coherence in the parametric emission from planar semiconductor microcavities in the strong coupling regime. Calculations are performed by means of a Quantum Monte Carlo technique based on the Wigner representation of the coupled exciton and cavity-photon fields. The numerical results are interpreted in terms of a non-equilibrium phase transition occurring at the parametric oscillation threshold: below the threshold, the signal emission is incoherent, and both the first and the second-order coherence functions have a finite correlation length which becomes macroscopic as the threshold is approached. Above the threshold, the emission is instead phase-coherent over the whole two-dimensional sample and intensity fluctuations are suppressed. Similar calculations for quasi-one-dimensional microcavities show that in this case the phase-coherence of the signal emission has a finite extension even above the threshold, while intensity fluctuations are suppressed.

Abstract:
We propose a scheme for the resonant generation of counter-polarized single photons in double asymmetric cavities with a small Kerr optical nonlinearity (as that created by a semiconductor quantum well) compared to the mode broadening. Due to the interplay between spatial intercavity tunneling and polarization coupling, by weakly exciting with circularly polarized light one of the cavities, we predict strong antibunching of counter-polarized light emission from the non-pumped auxiliary cavity. This scheme due to quantum interference is robust against surface scattering of pumping light, which can be suppressed both by spatial and polarization filters.

Abstract:
We study the screening of an external potential produced by a two-dimensional gas of charged excitons (trions). We determine the contribution to the dielectric function induced by these composite charged particles within a random phase approximation. In mixtures of free electrons and trions, the trion response is found dominant. In the long wave-length limit, trions behave as point charges with mass equal to the sum of the three particle components. For finite wave-vectors, we show how the dielectric response is sensitive to the composite nature of trions and the internal degrees of freedom. Predictions are presented for the screening of a Coulomb potential, the scattering by charged impurities and the properties of trionic plasmons.

Abstract:
We investigate the two-dimensional motion of polaritons injected into a planar microcavity by a continuous wave optical pump in presence of a static perturbation, e.g. a point defect. By finding the stationary solutions of the nonlinear mean-field equations (away from any parametric instability), we show how the spectrum of the polariton Bogoliubov-like excitations reflects onto the shape and intensity of the resonant Rayleigh scattering emission pattern in both momentum and real space. We find a superfluid regime in the sense of the Landau criterion, in which the Rayleigh scattering ring in momentum space collapses as well as its normalized intensity. More generally, we show how collective excitation spectra having no analog in equilibrium systems can be observed by tuning the excitation angle and frequency. Predictions with realistic semiconductor microcavity parameters are given.