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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 87360 matches for " Craig W. Hedberg "
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An Assessment of Food Safety Needs of Restaurants in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria
Sylvester N. Onyeneho,Craig W. Hedberg
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph10083296
Abstract: One hundred and forty five head chefs and catering managers of restaurants in Owerri, Nigeria were surveyed to establish their knowledge of food safety hazards and control measures. Face-to-face interviews were conducted and data collected on their knowledge of risk perception, food handling practices, temperature control, foodborne pathogens, and personal hygiene. Ninety-two percent reported that they cleaned and sanitized food equipment and contact surfaces while 37% engaged in cross-contamination practices. Forty-nine percent reported that they would allow a sick person to handle food. Only 70% reported that they always washed their hands while 6% said that they continued cooking after cracking raw eggs. All respondents said that they washed their hands after handling raw meat, chicken or fish. About 35% lacked knowledge of ideal refrigeration temperature while 6% could not adjust refrigerator temperature. Only 40%, 28%, and 21% had knowledge of Salmonella, E. coli, and Hepatitis A, respectively while 8% and 3% had knowledge of Listeria and Vibrio respectively, as pathogens. Open markets and private bore holes supplied most of their foods and water, respectively. Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient analysis revealed almost perfect linear relationship between education and knowledge of pathogens ( r = 0.999), cooking school attendance and food safety knowledge ( r = 0.992), and class of restaurant and food safety knowledge ( r = 0.878). The lack of current knowledge of food safety among restaurant staff highlights increased risk associated with fast foods and restaurants in Owerri.
Effect of Temperature on the Survival of F-Specific RNA Coliphage, Feline Calicivirus, and Escherichia coli in Chlorinated Water
Paul B. Allwood,Yashpal S. Malik,Sunil Maherchandani,Craig W. Hedberg,Sagar M. Goyal
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2005, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph2005030008
Abstract: We compared the survival of F-specific RNA coliphage MS2, feline calicivirus, and E. coli in normal tap water and in tap water treated to an initial concentration of 50 ppm free chlorine and held at 4°C, 25°C, or 37°C for up to 28 days. Our aim was to determine which of these two organisms (coliphage or E. coli) was better at indicating norovirus survival under the conditions of the experiment. There was a relatively rapid decline of FCV and E. coli in 50 ppm chlorine treated water and both organisms were undetectable within one day irrespective of the temperature. In contrast, FRNA phage survived for 7 to 14 days in 50 ppm chlorine treated water at all temperatures. All organisms survived for 28 days in tap water at 4°C, but FCV was undetectable on day 21 and day 7 at 25°C and 37°C, respectively. Greater survival of FRNA phage compared to E. coli in 50 ppm chlorine treated water suggests that these organisms should be further investigated as indicators of norovirus in depurated shellfish, sanitized produce, and treated wastewater which are all subject to high-level chlorine treatment.
Particle Characteristics and Metal Release From Natural Rutile (TiO2) and Zircon Particles in Synthetic Body Fluids  [PDF]
Yolanda Hedberg, Jonas Hedberg, Inger Odnevall Wallinder
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2012.31006
Abstract: Titanium oxide (rutile, TiO2) and zircon (ZrSiO4), known insoluble ceramic materials, are commonly used for coatings of implant materials. We investigate the release of zirconium, titanium, aluminum, iron, and silicon from different micron-sized powders of 6 powders of natural rutile (TiO2) and zircon (ZrSiO4) from a surface perspective. The investigation includes five different synthetic body fluids and two time periods of exposure, 2 and 24 hours. The solution chemicals rather than pH are important for the release of zirconium. When exceeding a critical amount of aluminum and silicon in the surface oxide, the particles seem to be protected from selective pH-specific release at neutral or weakly alkaline pH. The importance of bulk and surface composition and individual changes between different kinds of the same material is elucidated. Changes in material properties and metal release characteristics with particle size are presented for zircon.
Protective Green Patinas on Copper in Outdoor Constructions  [PDF]
Yolanda Hedberg, Inger Odnevall Wallinder
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.27109
Abstract: The last 15 years of research related to atmospheric corrosion and the release of copper to the environment are shortly summarized. Brown and green patinas with high barrier properties for corrosion are gradually evolved on copper at atmospheric conditions. The corrosion process and repeated dry and wet cycles results in a partial dissolution of corrosion products within the patina. Dissolved copper can be released and dispersed into the environment via the action of rainwater, however the major part is rearranged within the patina during drying cycles. The majority of corrosion products formed have a poor solubility, very different from water soluble copper salts. The release process is very slow and takes place independent of patina color. Its extent has only a marginal effect on the adherent patina. Released copper rapidly interacts with organic matter and in contact with different surfaces already in the close vicinity of the building, such as drainage systems, storm water pipes, pavements, stone materials and soil systems. These surfaces all have high capacities to retain copper in the runoff water and to reduce its concentration and chemical form to non-available and non-toxic levels for aquatic organisms.
What Do the United States and India Have in Common (Besides Indians): Enough for a Strategic Alliance?
Kern W. Craig
Asian Social Science , 2013, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v9n2p70
Abstract: The United States and India have much in common (besides Indians), enough in fact to constitute a comprehensive alliance. Both countries are former British colonies. Both use the English language: unofficially but more in the US; and, officially but less in India. Both are complimentarily large, the US in terms of area and India in terms of population. The people of India are however younger and poorer. Both countries have long coastlines and together they are adjacent the major oceans of the world: Pacific, Artic, and Atlantic including the Gulf of Mexico; and, Indian including the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal. The United States of America and the Republic of India have now converged as welfare states. The US was once more capitalistic whereas India was once more socialistic. Both countries use Affirmative Action: for minorities and women in the US; and, for Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and Other Backward Classes in India. Both governments are secular but the US is predominately Christian whereas India is predominately Hindu. Both countries face the threat of Islamic terrorism particularly the US vis-à-vis Afghanistan and India vis-à-vis Pakistan. And both the United States and India must contend with the new super-state, China.
The effects of obesity on venous thromboembolism: A review  [PDF]
Genyan Yang, Christine De Staercke, W. Craig Hooper
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2012.24069
Abstract: Obesity has emerged as a global health issue that is associated with wide spectrum of disorders, including coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, stroke, and venous thromboembolism (VTE). VTE is one of the most common vascular disorders in the United States and Europe and is associated with significant mortality. Although the association between obesity and VTE appears to be moderate, obesity can interact with other environmental or genetic factors and pose a significantly greater risk of VTE among individuals who are obese and who are exposed simultaneously to several other risk factors for VTE. Therefore, identification of potential interactions between obesity and certain VTE risk factors might offer some critical points for VTE interventions and thus minimize VTE morbidity and mortality among patients who are obese. However, current obesity measurements have limitations and can introduce contradictory results in the outcome of obesity. To overcome these limitations, this review proposes several future directions and suggests some avenues for prevention of VTE associated with obesity as well.
Low Temperature Electrostatic Force Microscopy of a Deep Two Dimensional Electron Gas using a Quartz Tuning Fork
J. A. Hedberg,A. Lal,Y. Miyahara,P. Grütter,G. Gervais,M. Hilke,L. Pfeiffer,K. W. West
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1063/1.3499293
Abstract: Using an ultra-low temperature, high magnetic field scanning probe microscope, we have measured electric potentials of a deeply buried two dimensional electron gas (2DEG). Relying on the capacitive coupling between the 2DEG and a resonant tip/cantilever structure, we can extract electrostatic potential information of the 2DEG from the dynamics of the oscillator. We present measurements using a quartz tuning fork oscillator and a 2DEG with a cleaved edge overgrowth structure. The sensitivity of the quartz tuning fork as force sensor is demonstrated by observation of Shubnikov de Haas oscillations at a large tip-2DEG separation distance of more than 500 nm.
Management of progressive type 2 diabetes: role of insulin therapy
Chemitiganti Ramachandra,Spellman Craig W
Osteopathic Medicine and Primary Care , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1750-4732-3-5
Abstract: Insulin is an effective treatment for achieving tight glycemic control and improving clinical outcomes in patients with diabetes. While insulin therapy is required from the onset of diagnosis in type 1 disease, its role in type 2 diabetes requires consideration as to when to initiate and advance therapy. In this article, we review a case study that unfolds over 5 years and discuss the therapeutic decision points, initiation and advancement of insulin regimens, and analyze new data regarding the advantages and disadvantages of tight management of glucose levels.
The Structure of Dark Matter Halos in an Annihilating Dark Matter Model
Matthew W. Craig,Marc Davis
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1016/S1384-1076(01)00072-0
Abstract: The inability of standard non-interacting cold dark matter (CDM) to account for the small scale structure of individual galaxies has led to the suggestion that the dark matter may undergo elastic and/or inelastic scattering. We simulate the evolution of an isolated dark matter halo which undergoes both scattering and annihilation. Annihilations produce a core that grows with time due to adiabatic expansion of the core as the relativistic annihilation products flow out of the core, lessening the binding energy. An effective annihilation cross section per unit mass equal to $>.03 cm^2 g^{-1} (100 km s^{-1}/v$) with a scattering cross section per unit mass of .6 cm g$^{-1}$ produces a 3 kpc core in a 10$^{10}$ M$_{\sun}$ halo that persists for 100 dynamical times. The same cross section leads to a core of only 120 pc in a rich cluster. In addition to creating to cores, annihilation should erase structure on scales below $\sim 3\times10^8$ M$_{\sun}$. Annihilating dark matter provides a mechanism for solving some of the problems of non-interacting CDM, at the expense of introducing a contrived particle physics model.
Purpose in life among very old men  [PDF]
Pia Hedberg, Yngve Gustafson, Christine Brulin, Lena Aléx
Advances in Aging Research (AAR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aar.2013.23014
Abstract: This paper provides very old men’s experiences of and reflections on purpose in life. The answers from an interview question about purpose in life from 23 men were analyzed by using qualitative content analysis. The results revealed three content areas: talking of purpose of life in general, talking of own purpose in life and reflections on purpose in life. Our findings showed that very old men experienced purpose in life most strongly when remembering the past and describing their earlier work. The old men reflected on purpose in life not just from their own individual perspectives, but also from a more reflective and analytic perspective.
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