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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 404719 matches for " Craig M. Walsh "
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Grand challenges in cell death and survival: apoptosis vs. necroptosis
Craig M. Walsh
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fcell.2014.00003
Assessment of UAV Based Vegetation Indices for Nitrogen Concentration Estimation in Spring Wheat  [PDF]
Olga S. Walsh, Sanaz Shafian, Juliet M. Marshall, Chad Jackson, Jordan R. McClintick-Chess, Steven M. Blanscet, Kristin Swoboda, Craig Thompson, Kelli M. Belmont, Willow L. Walsh
Advances in Remote Sensing (ARS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ars.2018.72006
Abstract: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have become increasingly popular in recent years for agricultural research. High spatial and temporal resolution images obtained with UAVs are ideal for many applications in agriculture. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of vegetation indices (VIs) derived from UAV images for quantification of plant nitrogen (N) concentration of spring wheat, a major cereal crop worldwide. This study was conducted at three locations in Idaho, United States. A quadcopter UAV equipped with a red edge multispectral sensor was used to collect images during the 2016 growing season. Flight missions were successfully carried out at Feekes 5 and Feekes 10 growth stages of spring wheat. Plant samples were collected on the same days as UAV image data acquisition and were transferred to lab for N concentration analysis. Different VIs including Normalized Difference Vegetative Index (NDVI), Red Edge Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVIred edge), Enhanced Vegetation Index 2 (EVI2), Red Edge Simple Ratio (SRred edge), Green Chlorophyll Index (CIgreen), Red Edge Chlorophyll Index (CIred edge), Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) Terrestrial Chlorophyll Index (MTCI) and Red Edge Triangular Vegetation Index (core only) (RTVIcore) were calculated for each flight event. At Feekes 5 growth stage, red edge and green based VIs showed higher correlation with plant N concentration compare to the red based VIs. At Feekes 10 growth stage, all calculated VIs showed high correlation with plant N concentration. Empirical relationships between VIs and plant N concentration were cross validated using test data sets for each growth stage. At Feekes 5, the plant N concentration estimated based on NDVIred edge showed one to one correlation with measured N concentration. At Feekes 10, the estimated and measured N concentration were highly correlated for all empirical models, but the model based on CIgreen was the only model that had a one to one correlation between estimated and measured plant N concentration. The observed high correlations between VIs derived from UAV and the plant N concentration suggests the significance of VIs deriving from UAVs for within-season N concentration monitoring of agricultural crops such as spring wheat.
Adverse effect of increased left ventricular wall thickness on five year outcomes of patients with negative dobutamine stress
Thomas F Walsh, Erica Dall'Armellina, Haroon Chughtai, Timothy M Morgan, William Ntim, Kerry M Link, Craig A Hamilton, Dalane W Kitzman, W Gregory Hundley
Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1532-429x-11-25
Abstract: Between 1999 and 2001, 175 patients underwent a dobutamine stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance (DCMR) procedure utilizing gradient-echo cines. Participants had a LV ejection fraction >55% without evidence of an inducible WMA during peak dobutamine/atropine stress. After an average of 5.5 years, all participants were contacted and medical records were reviewed to determine the post-DCMR occurrence of cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), and unstable angina (USA) or congestive heart failure (CHF) warranting hospitalization.In a multivariate analysis, that took into account Framingham and other risk factors associated with cardiac events, a cine gradient-echo derived LV EDWT ≥12 mm was associated independently with an increase in cardiac death and MI (HR 6.0, p = 0.0016), and the combined end point of MI, cardiac death, and USA or CHF warranting hospitalization (HR 3.0, p = 0.0005).Similar to echocardiography, CMR measures of increased LV wall thickness should be considered a risk factor for cardiac events in individuals receiving negative reports of inducible ischemia after dobutamine stress. Additional prognostic studies of the importance of LV wall thickness and mass measured with steady-state free precession techniques are warranted.Left ventricular (LV) wall motion abnormalities (WMA) induced during intravenous dobutamine are associated with flow limiting epicardial coronary artery stenoses, and predict future cardiac events including myocardial infarction (MI) and cardiac death [1-4]. Typically, if resting LV end-diastolic wall thickness (EDWT) is normal, the absence of dobutamine inducible WMA identifies a group of individuals with a low risk of experiencing future cardiac events [5,6]. Importantly however, in individuals with increased resting LV EDWT, the sensitivity of dobutamine induced LV WMA for identifying flow limiting epicardial stenoses is low (36%) [7]. Also, data from Framingham have shown that increased LV EDWT itself is an independent pr
Identification and proteomic profiling of exosomes in human cerebrospinal fluid
Jonathan M Street, Perdita E Barran, C Logan Mackay, Stefan Weidt, Craig Balmforth, Tim S Walsh, Rod TA Chalmers, David J Webb, James W Dear
Journal of Translational Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5876-10-5
Abstract: CSF was collected from 5 study participants undergoing thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (around 200 - 500 ml per participant) and low-density membrane vesicles were concentrated by ultracentrifugation. The presence of exosomes was determined by western blot for marker proteins, isopycnic centrifugation on a sucrose step gradient and transmission electron microscopy with immuno-labelling. Whole protein profiling was performed using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR).Flotillin 1 and tumor susceptibility gene 101 (TSG101), two exosomal marker proteins, were identified in the ultracentrifugation pellet using western blot. These markers localized to a density consistent with exosomes following isopycnic centrifugation. Transmission electron microscopy visualized structures consistent with exosomes in size and appearance that labelled positive for flotillin 1. Therefore, the pellet that resulted from ultracentrifugation of human CSF contained exosomes. FT-ICR profiling of this pellet was performed and 84-161 ions were detected per study participant. Around one third of these ions were only present in a single study participant and one third were detected in all five. With regard to ion quantity, the median coefficient of variation was 81% for ions detected in two or more samples.Exosomes were identified in human CSF and their proteome is a potential new reservoir for biomarker discovery in neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. However, techniques used to concentrate exosomes from CSF need refinement to reduce variability. In this study we used relatively large starting volumes of human CSF, future studies will focus on exosome isolation from smaller 'real life' clinical samples; a key challenge in the development of exosomes as translational tools.Exosomes are lipid and protein rich vesicles that are formed as part of the intra-cellular endosomal pathway [1]. During maturation of early endosomes into late endosomes w
Ecosystem-Scale Effects of Nutrients and Fishing on Coral Reefs
Sheila M. Walsh
Journal of Marine Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/187248
Abstract: Nutrient pollution and fishing are the primary local causes of coral reef decline but their ecosystem-scale effects are poorly understood. Results from small-scale manipulative experiments of herbivores and nutrients suggest prioritizing management of fishing over nutrient pollution because herbivores can control macroalgae and turf in the presence of nutrients. However, ecological theory suggests that the opposite occurs at large scales. Moreover, it is unclear whether fishing decreases herbivores because fishing of predators may result in an increase in herbivores. To investigate this paradox, data on the fish and benthic communities, fishing, and nutrients were collected on Kiritimati, Kiribati. Oceanographic conditions and a population resettlement program created a natural experiment to compare sites with different levels of fishing and nutrients. Contrary to theory, herbivores controlled macroalgae in the presence of nutrients at large spatial scales, and herbivores had greater effects on macroalgae when nutrients were higher. In addition, fishing did not increase herbivores. These results suggest that protecting herbivores may have greater relative benefits than reducing nutrient pollution, especially on polluted reefs. Reallocating fishing effort from herbivores to invertivores or planktivores may be one way to protect herbivores and indirectly maintain coral dominance on reefs impacted by fishing and nutrient pollution. 1. Introduction Fishing [1–7] and nutrient pollution [8, 9] or both [10–14] are cited as the most important local causes of coral reef decline. It is difficult, however, to evaluate local fishing and nutrient effects independently because these factors are almost always confounded and large-scale experiments are infeasible. Results from theoretical and small-scale experimental studies (typically <1?m2, four from 50 to 250?m2 [14]) suggest prioritizing management of herbivore populations because herbivores can control the effect of nutrients on macroalgal and turf abundance and nutrient enrichment alone is not sufficient to cause a phase shift from coral to macroalgal and/or turf algal dominance [11, 14, 15]. In order to apply these results and implement ecosystem-based management, information is needed on (1) how fishing and nutrients interactively affect the fish and benthic communities, (2) the mechanisms by which fishing (rather than cages that exclude fish) and nutrients are linked to shifts to macroalgal and turf algal dominance, and (3) whether herbivores can control macroalgae and turf algae when nutrient enrichment
The anti-inflammatory effects of levocetirizine - are they clinically relevant or just an interesting additional effect?
Garry M Walsh
Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1710-1492-5-14
Abstract: The effects of histamine are exerted through three well defined classical G protein coupled histamine receptor subtypes termed H1R, H2R, and H3R [1] and the more recently described H4R [2]. Histamine signalling through H1R is responsible for the majority of the immediate manifestations of allergic disease. Levocetirizine (Xyzal?) is the single R-isomer of the racemic mixture piperazine H1R-antagonist cetirizine dihydrochloride in a once-daily 5mg formulation. The parent compound cetirizine (Zyrtec), a once-daily 10 mg formulation, is also an effective treatment for allergic disease being the most-widely used second-generation antihistamine worldwide. Levocetirizine is a selective, potent, oral histamine H1R antagonist that is licensed in Europe as tablets and oral solution for use in adults and children over 2 years of age for the symptomatic treatment of allergic rhinitis (including persistent allergic rhinitis) and chronic idiopathic urticaria. More recently, levocetirizine tablets under the trade name Xyzal have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in adults and children over 6 years of age in the United States.Levocetirizine is a potent antihistamine as demonstrated by its ability to inhibit cutaneous histamine-induced itching and the wheal and flare reaction [3-5]. The histamine-induced wheal and flare model in human skin is a widely-used reproducible and standardized methodology that gives an objective measure of the effectiveness of antihistamines in human subjects, together with any differences in onset and duration of action. The majority of these studies found levocetirizine to be the most potent of the antihistamines tested [5], including the parent compound cetirizine [6]. Large, well designed controlled clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of levocetirizine in adults with allergic rhinitis and chronic idiopathic urticaria [7,8], while well conducted studies have demonstrated levocetirizine to be safe and effective in young
Introductory Editorial (Journal of Cell Death)
Garry M. Walsh
Journal of Cell Death , 2012,
Antagonism of cytokine-induced eosinophil accumulation in asthma
Garry M. Walsh
Frontiers in Pharmacology , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2012.00197
Non-uniqueness in conformal formulations of the Einstein constraints
D. M. Walsh
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1088/0264-9381/24/8/002
Abstract: Standard methods in non-linear analysis are used to show that there exists a parabolic branching of solutions of the Lichnerowicz-York equation with an unscaled source. We also apply these methods to the extended conformal thin sandwich formulation and show that if the linearised system develops a kernel solution for sufficiently large initial data then we obtain parabolic solution curves for the conformal factor, lapse and shift identical to those found numerically by Pfeiffer and York. The implications of these results for constrained evolutions are discussed.
On the stability of solutions of the Lichnerowicz-York equation
Darragh M Walsh
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0264-9381/30/6/065007
Abstract: We study the stability of solution branches for the Lichnerowicz-York equation at moment of time symmetry with constant unscaled energy density. We prove that the weak-field lower branch of solutions is stable whilst the upper branch of strong-field solutions is unstable. The existence of unstable solutions is interesting since a theorem by Sattinger proves that the sub-super solution monotone iteration method only gives stable solutions.
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