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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2133 matches for " Cooper "
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Personal Troubles and Public Issues: A Sociological Imagination of Black Athletes’ Experiences at Predominantly White Institutions in the United States  [PDF]
Joseph N. Cooper
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2012.23035
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to provide a socio-historical examination of Black athletes’ experiences at predominantly White institutions (PWIs) and connect these experiences with the broader social issues facing Blacks in the United States (US). Historically, the prevalence of racism within the US has contributed to the oppression, discrimination, and limited upward mobility of Blacks. In the US, racist beliefs have been institutionalized formally through federal and state laws as well as informally through social practices and norms. Using Mills’ (1959) sociological imagination as a conceptual framework, the author provides a critical examination of the connection between the personal biographies of Black athletes at PWIs and the historical public issues facing Blacks in the US as documented in scholarly and relevant literatures. Understanding the connection between biographies and history allows for a more holistic understanding of the root causes of these personal troubles and public issues. Common themes in the literature that will be highlighted and addressed include experiences with racial discrimination/social isolation, academic neglect, economic deprivation, and limited leadership opportunities.
A Case of Cytomegalovirus-Induced Arthritis after Lymphocyte-Depleting Therapy for Kidney Allograft Rejection  [PDF]
Richard Fuquay, James Eric Cooper
Open Journal of Nephrology (OJNeph) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojneph.2012.21001
Abstract: Cytomegalovirus viremia and tissue-invasive disease are common after kidney transplantation. Chemoprophylaxis has made substantial improvement in this clinical problem. Here we report a 29-year-old woman who had kidney allograft rejection and received lymphocyte-depleting therapy. She presented with a new oligo-arthritis that led to 2 successive arthrocenteses. The etiology of the inflammation could not be determined initially. On the second arthrocentesis, a synovial fluid cytomegalovirus polymerase chain reaction test was positive. The patient responded to treatment with valganciclovir, had negative follow-up serum cytomegalovirus polymerase chain reaction tests, and experienced resolution of her joint inflammation. We review briefly the data for cytomegalovirus chemoprophylaxis, preemptive screening, and treatment recommendations.
Postoperative Complications after Thoracic Surgery in the Morbidly Obese Patient
Lebron Cooper
Anesthesiology Research and Practice , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/865634
Abstract: Little has been recently published about specific postoperative complications following thoracic surgery in the morbidly obese patient. Greater numbers of patients who are obese, morbidly obese, or supermorbidly obese are undergoing surgical procedures. Postoperative complications after thoracic surgery in these patients that can lead to increased morbidity and mortality, prolonged hospital stay, and increased cost of care are considered. Complications include difficulties with mask ventilation and securing the airway, obstructive sleep apnea with risk of oversedation, pulmonary complications related to reduced total lung capacity, reduced functional residual capacity, and reduced vital capacity, risks of aspiration pneumonitis and ventilator-associated pneumonia, cardiomyopathies, and atrial fibrillation, inadequate diabetes management, positioning injuries, increased risk of venous thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism. The type of thoracic surgical procedure may also pose other problems to consider during the postoperative period. Obese patients undergoing thoracic surgery pose a challenge to those caring for them. Those working with these patients must understand how to recognize, prevent, and manage these postoperative complications. 1. Introduction Little has been recently published about specific postoperative complications following thoracic surgery in the morbidly obese patient. Anesthesia and postoperative management of morbidly obese patients in thoracic surgery are based on experience in these patients undergoing other types of procedures [1]. While approximately 5% of patients undergoing surgical procedures are considered morbidly obese (BMI > 40?kg/m2), another 30% of patients in the US are considered obese (BMI > 30?kg/m2) [2]. The exact number of these who require thoracic surgery is unknown. However, considering that postoperative complications are a major cause of morbidity, mortality, prolonged hospital stay, and increased cost of care, it is important that those working with these patients during the postoperative period understand how to recognize, prevent, and manage these complications [3]. 2. Airway Complications Mask ventilation and intubation may be difficult in the morbidly obese patient secondary to excessive tissue in the posterior pharyngeal wall [4]. A Mallampati score of III or IV and increased neck circumference have been found to be the best predictors of potential difficulty with tracheal intubation [5]. These considerations should be kept in mind when planning extubation following thoracic surgery in the morbidly obese
The Year of the Mammoth
Alan Cooper
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0040078
Control and maintenance of mammalian cell size
Stephen Cooper
BMC Cell Biology , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2121-5-35
Abstract: A reexamination of the model and experiments of Conlon and Raff indicates that exponential growth is fully compatible with cell size maintenance, and that mammalian cells have a system to regulate and maintain cell size that is related to the process of S-phase initiation. Mammalian cell size control and its relationship to growth rate–faster growing cells are larger than slower growing cells–is explained by the initiation of S phase occurring at a relatively constant cell size coupled with relatively invariant S- and G2-phase times as interdivision time varies.This view of the mammalian cell cycle, the continuum model, explains the mass growth pattern during the division cycle, size maintenance, size determination, and the kinetics of cell-size change following a shift-up from slow to rapid growth.Conlon and Raff have described experiments that they claim casts doubt on a basic assumption regarding the way mammalian cell size is maintained during proliferation [1]. The key question studied by Conlon and Raff asks, "How do cells maintain a constant cell size and cell size distribution during extended cell growth?" In a cell culture growing over many generations, the cell size distribution neither varies nor broadens. Cells do not get progressively larger nor do they get progressively smaller. One formulation of this result is that cell mass increase is regulated during the cell cycle so that there is no disparity between the rate of cell mass increase and the rate of cell number increase. Total cell number and total cell mass increase in parallel during unlimited exponential growth. If there were any disparity or disproportion in the rate of mass and cell number increase, cells would get either larger or smaller during extended growth.In an article accompanying the work by Conlon and Raff [2], a quote by Robert Brooks (Kings College, London) sums up the problem: "If [cell] growth is exponential, then cells must have a size control over division, since otherwise rand
Distinguishing between linear and exponential cell growth during the division cycle: Single-cell studies, cell-culture studies, and the object of cell-cycle research
Stephen Cooper
Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4682-3-10
Abstract: The purpose or objective of cell cycle analysis is presented and discussed. These ideas are applied to the controversy between proponents of linear growth as a possible growth pattern during the cell cycle and the proponents of exponential growth during the cell cycle. Differential (pulse) and integral (single cell) experiments are compared with regard to cell cycle analysis and it is concluded that pulse-labeling approaches are preferred over microscopic examination of cell growth for distinguishing between linear and exponential growth patterns. Even more to the point, aggregate experiments are to be preferred to single-cell studies.The logical consistency of exponential growth – integrating and accounting for biochemistry, cell biology, and rigorous experimental analysis – leads to the conclusion that proposals of linear growth are the result of experimental perturbations and measurement limitations. It is proposed that the universal pattern of cell growth during the cell cycle is exponential.In a recent paper Mitchison [1] proposed that single cell analysis is preferred for determining the pattern of cell growth or size increase during the cell cycle. Mitchison argues that population analysis tends to average data and thus obscure the variability observed amongst individual cells. Mitchison suggests that "... they provide extra information that is not available from studies of cell populations. Without them a cell biologist can be misled."Here I argue to the contrary, that single cell studies are more misleading than population studies. Understanding cell growth should be based on cell culture behavior rather than single cell studies. It is also argued that single-cell studies do not statistically distinguish between linear and exponential growth patterns. In contrast, pulse-labeling experiments of cultures are able to distinguish these different growth patterns. The conclusion of Mitchison [1], that linear cell growth is a valid description of cell growth durin
Comment on and reply to "Analysis of variation of amplitudes in cell cycle gene expression" by Liu, Gaido and Wolfinger: On the analysis of gene expression during the normal, eukaryotic, cell cycle
Stephen Cooper
Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4682-2-47
Abstract: The results of Liu, Gaido and Wolfinger demonstrate that different inhibition methods proposed to "synchronize" cells lead to different levels of gene expression. This result, in and of itself, should be taken as evidence that the original work of Whitfield et al. is flawed and should not be used to support the notion that the cells studied were synchronized or that the microarray analyses identify cell-cycle-regulated genes. Furthermore, the DNA content evidence presented by Whitfield et al. supports the proposal that the cells described as 'synchronized' are not synchronized. A comparison of the gene expression amplitudes from two different experiments indicates that the results are not reproducible.It is concluded that the analysis of Liu, Gaido, and Wolfinger is problematic because their work assumes that the cells they analyze are or were synchronized. The very fact that different inhibition methods lead to different degrees of gene expression should be taken as additional evidence that the experiments should be viewed skeptically rather than accepted as an approach to understanding gene expression during the cell cycle.The recent paper by Liu, Gaido, and Wolfinger entitled "Analysis of Variation of Amplitudes for Cell Cycle Gene Research" [1] requires comment. Because the subject of gene expression variation during the cell cycle is such an important topic of current interest, it is necessary that any work supporting cycle-specific gene expression be beyond reproach and criticism. If the paper by Liu, Gaido and Wolfinger [1] remains unchallenged, it will merely be used as another reference supporting the data of Whitfield et al. [2] regarding gene expression variation during the division cycle. Because I believe that such a conclusion is unwarranted, I now summarize my objections to this analysis so that readers may be able to compare two alternative views of the cell cycle and gene expression during the cell cycle.As the reader will gather, the view I present
The time to address undernutrition in infants and young children is now
P Cooper
South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition , 2012,
Honey in wound care: antibacterial properties
Cooper, Rose
GMS Krankenhaushygiene Interdisziplin?r , 2007,
Abstract: Honey is an ancient wound treatment that was re-introduced into modern medical practice in Australasia and Europe following the development of regulated wound care products. Its therapeutic properties are attributed to its antimicrobial activity and its ability to stimulate rapid wound healing. This review will briefly describe the evidence that demonstrates its antimicrobial activity in vitro and in vivo.
Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties in Young People: The Challenge for Policy Makers
Paul Cooper
International Journal of Emotional Education , 2010,
Abstract: This paper considers some of the policy issues associated with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBD) in young people. After briefly defining SEBD the paper goes on to consider some of the ways in which SEBD impinges on different areas of social policy. Emphasis is placed on the need for coherence between different policy areas. Particular attention is given to the area of education and the need for more sophisticated conceptions of the meaning of inclusive education.
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