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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4160 matches for " Computed Tomography "
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Acute pericarditis as presenting symptom of staphylococcal endocarditis: Mitral valve involvement with fistulous tract from LV to LA and subsequent pseudoaneurysm development  [PDF]
Eric McWilliams, Smriti Saraf, Katarzyna Dickinson
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2013.31007

Acute pericarditis is an unusual presentation of bacterial endocarditis [1]. It is most commonly associated with staphylococcal aureus infection and more likely to occur in young males in association with the risk factors of alcohol or substance abuse or diabetes. Tamponade is a common presenting feature and the aortic valve is the most commonly involved valve. This condition carries a very high mortality whether treated with antibiotics alone or in combination with surgery.

Comparison of metal artifact in digital tomosynthesis and computed tomography for evaluation of phantoms  [PDF]
Tsutomu Gomi
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2013.67089
Abstract: We compared metal artifact in X-ray digital tomosynthesis (DT) and modern computed tomography (CT) reconstruction to improve the image quality. We compared the images of a prosthetic phantom (titanium) and a contrast-detail phantom obtained by DT using conventional filtered backprojection (FBP), metal artifact reduction (MAR) processing, and simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT) methods and those obtained by CT using conventional FBP and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction methods. The effectiveness of each method for enhancing the visibility of a prosthetic phantom was quantified in terms of the intensity profile and root mean square error, and the removal of ghosting artifacts was quantified in terms of the artifact spread function (ASF). In addition, low contrast resolution was evaluated in terms of the contrast-to- noise ratio. Image error was smaller in the MAR DT images in the near in-focus-plane, and the intensity profiles revealed the beam hardening effect. Streak artifacts were reduced in the SIRT DT and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction CT images. The ASF performances of the algorithms were ranked in descending order: 1) MAR DT; 2) CT (adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction, and conventional FBP); 3) SIRT DT; and 4) conventional FBP DT. The low contrast resolution was higher in the CT images than in the DT images. In conclusion, a review of the results revealed that the metal artifact reduction was highest for tomosynthesis with MAR processing, and the low contrast resolution performance was highest for CT.
Computed Tomography Diagnosis of Acute Appendicitis—Pictorial Essay  [PDF]
Aarthi Govindarajan, Bhawna Dev, Roy Santosham, Joseph Santhosh
Surgical Science (SS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2011.23022
Abstract: Acute appendicitis is a common surgical emergency with varied clinical presentations. Early diagnosis is absolutely necessary to minimize morbidity whereas delayed or missed diagnosis can cause adverse consequences. Computed tomography is a highly accurate imaging technique for diagnosing appendicitis. Hence it plays a valuable role in selected patients with suspected appendicitis; [1]. In this essay, we review the normal Computed tomography anatomy of the appendix and the right lower quadrant and illustrate the Computed tomography signs of appendicitis and important differential diagnostic entities. The Computed tomography appearance of complications of acute appendicitis is also presented, as are issues concerning clinical presentation and duration of the symptoms. Computed tomography signs can be varied and overlooked as they say what is easy to see is also easy to miss.
Computed Tomographic Assessment of Body Fat in Dach-shunds: A Pilot Study  [PDF]
Jeffrey F. Comstock, Jennifer L. Wardlaw, Erin L. Brinkman-Ferguson, Dennis E. Rowe
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2013.31001

Obesity has not been linked to causing intervertebral disc degeneration, but has been shown to influence time to ambulation, a strong long-term prognostic indicator in dogs with intervertebral disc disease. However, monitoring obesity to date is imprecise and subjective in the clinical setting. Having an objective formula based on morphometric measurements would potentially be more precise to track our patients’ weights. Dogs have been shown to gain weight along their lumbar spine more rapidly than other areas. Varying body conformations make extrapolation from nonchondrodystrophic dogs to Dachshunds difficult. This study aimed to establish the region of fat accumulation along the thoracolumbar spine in Dachshunds. Retrospective computed tomographic (CT) analysis was performed on healthy Dachshunds that presented for intervertebral disc disease (IVDD). Fat area measured at L3 and L5 using attenuation ranges ﹣135/﹣105 Hounsfield units (HU) was the most dependent on body weight (p = 0.05). There appeared to be no difference between subcutaneous, visceral or total percent body fat with weight agreement. T13, L3 and L5 all had linear relationships with patient weight and will likely be helpful for body mass index (BMI) formula creation (p < 0.01). This study indicates that any consistent location between L3 and L5 will give an accurate representation of the abdominal circumference and most obese area of the Dachshund with the umbilicus used as a landmark.

Comparative Study of Clinical Manifestation, Plain Film Radiography and Computed Tomography for Diagnosis of Maxillofacial Trauma  [PDF]
Amit Goel
Modern Plastic Surgery (MPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/mps.2015.54008
Abstract: Objective: Maxillofacial injuries are one of the commonest injuries encountered. Roentgenographic evaluation of maxillofacial trauma is of prime importance for diagnosis and treatment of these injuries. Study Design: Forty patients were evaluated in the prospective four-year study. We studied and evaluated the demography and diagnostic efficacy of clinical, plain radiography, and computed scan in maxillofacial trauma. Result: Road traffic accidents were the commonest cause of maxillofacial injuries. Patients having multiple fractures, mandibular fractures were the commonest. Conclusion: Computed tomography proved a useful adjunct in midfacial trauma.
Non-Mass Forming Isolated Omental Panniculitis: A Case Report  [PDF]
Keishi Hakoda, Masanori Yoshimitsu, Ichiro Omori, Masashi Miguchi, Toshihiko Kohashi, Hideki Ohdan, Naoki Hirabayashi
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2017.67021
Abstract: A 61-year-old man presenting with abdominal pain and fever refractory to antibiotics underwent diagnostic laparoscopy and non-mass-forming isolated omental panniculitis was identified. He presented with left-upper-quadrant abdominal pain. Laboratory data and the CT findings suggested intraabdominal bacterial disease in the splenic flexure, which we treated with antibiotics and fasting. He clinically improved once, but later relapsed with abdominal pain migration to the left-lower-quadrant. CT re-examination revealed no inflammation in the splenic flexure, but attenuation of adipose tissue in the greater omentum. We partially extracted the greater omentum during diagnostic laparoscopy and diagnosed omental panniculitis and administered steroids. He improved and was discharged three days after starting oral prednisone and is recurrence-free with a close follow-up. The characteristic CT feature of omentum panniculitis is a high-density fatty mass, but we noted only an attenuation of adipose tissue in the greater omentum. Diagnositic laparoscopy is useful for diagnosing this condition.
Chest Computed Tomography of Elderly Subjects at University Hospital Campus Lomé  [PDF]
Pihou Gbande, Lantam Sonhaye, Massaga Dagbé, Dagouaba Ouoba, Lama Kegdigoma Agoda-Koussema, Komlanvi Victor Adjenou
Open Journal of Radiology (OJRad) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojrad.2018.84027
Abstract: Background: Radiology in elderly as pediatric radiology poses a number of problems. The normal radiological appearance of the elderly patient’s chest is very varied and the changes are ubiquitous. Purpose: To describe the computed tomography profile of the elderly subject’s chest. Materials and Methods: Descriptive prospective study from January 1st to June 30th, 2018 carried out at the University Campus Hospital of Lomé. Results: We recorded 64 chest CT scans. The average age of the patients was 71.3. Internists (n = 21, 32.8%) and general practitioner (n = 16, 25%) were the major applicants for these tests. In most cases, thoracic CT examinations were requested as part of an extension assessment (n = 21, 32.8%), dyspnea and pneumonitis in 18.8% of cases each. All thoracic CT examinations were performed with contrast injection. CT with the TAP protocol was the most observed, accounted for more than half of the exams (56%). The main pathological lesions observed were diffuse parenchymal lesions (39.5%), pleurisy (11.1%) and PAH (11.1%). Conclusion: Computed tomography occupies an important place in the care of the elderly but the actors involved in their care must be trained to take optimal care.
Interaction between Primary Care Physicians and Specialists for Diagnosis and Management of Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis  [PDF]
Keiko Morii, Kozo Yoshimori, Miyako Sudo, Hideo Ogata, Masao Okumura, Akihiko Gemma, Shoji Kudoh, Kozui Kida
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2011.24074
Abstract: Objective: Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) may be a complex syndrome rather than a single, uniform disease entity. The problems associated with HP treatment include a lack of awareness of primary care procedures and scarcity of recent information regarding HP. The main objective of this study was to investigate the problems in the interaction between primary care physicians and chest specialists. Data source: All available clinical records of cases at the Fukujuji Chest Hospital, Tokyo, between 1994 and 2005, supervised by specialists of a university hospital. Study selection: All cases suspected of HP during the period. Results: Nine cases were excluded because of insufficient records or because they did not satisfy the clinical criteria. Twenty-eight enrolled patients (14 men and 14 women; mean age, 53.0 years) were initially treated for respiratory infections by primary care physicians. The final HP types were summer-type (n = 18), bird fancier’s lung (n = 2), ventilation-related (n = 3), or undetectable antigen (n = 5). On the basis of the interval between the onset of initial symptoms and the time of referral to our hospital, the cases can be categorized into 3 groups, which may represent acute, subacute, and chronic HP. Conclusion: All patients initially received treatment on the basis of a different diagnosis at primary evaluation. We concluded that interaction between primary care physicians and chest specialists is essential for solving problems associated with the early diagnosis and adequate treatment of HP.
Spontaneous esophageal intramural hematoma in a young man wrongly diagnosed as achalasia  [PDF]
Liv Vandermeulen, Fazia Mana, Koenraad Nieboer, Daniel Urbain
Open Journal of Gastroenterology (OJGas) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojgas.2012.22017
Abstract: Intramural hematoma of the esophagus is a rare but well described type of acute injury of the esophageal wall and it is more frequently being recognized throughout the world. Patients usually present with acute retrosternal or epigastric pain, minor hematemesis and dysphagia. The condition is mostly seen in women with abnormal coagulation and it can either occur spontaneous or induced by trauma or transesopha-geal procedures. It is associated with food impaction and vomiting. Esophageal intramural hematoma has also been reported in young and healthy patients. Case reports with coexisting achalasia are limited. Management is conservative and its course is benign.
Evaluation of Coronary Venous Anatomy by Multislice Computed Tomography  [PDF]
Jing Ping Sun, Xing Sheng Yang, Yat Yin Lam, Mario J. Garcia, Cheuk Man Yu
World Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery (WJCS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wjcs.2012.24018
Abstract: Background:The coronary venous system is increasingly targeted for pacing in patients with severe heart failure. The recent advancement of Multi-Detector Computed Tomography (MDCT) allows accurate analysis of the coronary arteries, but little data exist on its role in assessing cardiac venous anatomy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of using MDCT in evaluating the cardiac venous anatomy in patients with heart disease; Methods and Results: One hundred and eighteen subjects (59 ± 11 years, 100 males) were studied by contrast enhanced 16-slice CT with retrospective ECG-reconstructions. The diameter, length, and angulations of coronary veins were measured from both volume rendered 3-dimensional images and curved multi-planar images. The coronary sinus vein was visualized in all of patients. However, the posterior, postero-lateral, lateral, antero-lateral and anterior veins were found in 71.2%, 50.0%, 65.3%, 9.3% and 96% patients, respectively. Twenty-three (19.5%) subjects had neither postero-lateral nor lateral cardiac veins. The ostial diameter angle of take-off and total length of the postero-lateral and lateral veins ranged from 1.7 - 7.0 mm, 38 - 160 degrees and 2.6 - 10.6 mm, respectively; Conclusions: This study confirms the feasibility of assessing diameter, length, and angulations of coronary veins by MDCT. This non-invasive information should be useful for pre-operative lead placement planning for patients scheduled to have cardiac resynchronization therapy.
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