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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3942 matches for " Common Cold "
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A Survey of the Experience and Impact of Acute Upper Respiratory Tract Infections on People in Six Countries in the 2011/2012 Common Cold and Flu Season  [PDF]
John David Hull, Ian Paul Barton, Jennifer Torgersen, Christine Marie McNeil
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2013.34026
Abstract: Introduction: Acute Upper Respiratory Tract Infections (URTIs) are the most common infectious diseases of humankind. While usually mild and self-limiting, they are characterized by a series of simultaneously occurring symptoms/ signs that are sufficiently disruptive to sufferers’ normal activities in which medication is frequently sought. While the literature has many examples of epidemiological studies on these infections, there are few reports on patient experience and impact. This study was designed to investigate these aspects of Common Cold/Flu across six countries. Methods: A minimum of 500 adults aged 18 and older were recruited in each of six countries (Brazil, China, Germany, India, Russia, and the US) using customary survey research sampling techniques. Single 30-minute (online) or 40-minute door-to-door quantitative questionnaires with c. 50 questions were completed with each participant by the global research firm Ipsos. Main Findings: Across countries, incidence and seasonality of infections reported to this study were consistent with published data. There appears to be a need for patient education on the causes and transmission routes of respiratory infections. Getting good quality sleep and being able to continue with daily activities as an infection resolves are significant drivers to therapy. The most common non-prescription therapies reported were multi-ingredient products in line with the simultaneously occurring multi-symptom nature of the condition(s). Conclusions: This study indicated that acute URTIs exert a significant deleterious effect on sufferers. Public health education, possibly best undertaken by Pharmacists has the potential to impact the extent of virus transmission by ensuring that people know the true cause of the infection, how it is transmitted and how best to combat this. The several simultaneously occurring symptoms encourage sufferers to seek multi-ingredient remedies to allow them to continue with normal activities as their infection resolves naturally.
Effects of zinc and "health belief model" education on upper respiratory infections in hajj travelers: a randomized clinical trial
Mahmoudian S.A,Poya A.
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2007,
Abstract: Background: The common cold is the most prevalent sickness and an important cause of absence from job. Furthermore, it often disturbs travel, including the practice of hajj, causing the use of many inappropriate drugs by these travelers. The health belief model is a psychological model that attempts to explain and predict health behaviors. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of zinc and health belief model based educational intervention on the behavior of hajj travelers with regard to viral upper respiratory tract infections (URTI).Methods: This double-blinded randomized controlled trial was performed among hajj travelers in 2005. Preventive measures were randomly allocated to four groups: 1- education + zinc sulfate. 2- education + placebo. 3- zinc sulfate only 4- placebo only. Data regarding incidence and duration of URTIs, background disorders, vaccination and health behaviors for cold were gathered by questionnaire by physicians and finally analyzed by SPSS 11.5 software using chi-square, t-test and independent samples t-test.Results: A total of 646 travelers were studied. The incidence of common cold in groups receiving zinc were significantly less than that for those receiving the placebo. (P=0.05). However, incidence was statistically the same for those who received education versus those who did not. Use of handkerchief was the most prevalent behavior and use of mask was the least prevalent behavior. Mean duration of symptoms was less in those receiving zinc and education (3.7 days) comparing to those who received placebo and education (5.6 days). Conclusions: This study showed that zinc consumption can decrease the incidence and duration of the common cold. Health belief model based education could promote some preventive behaviors although most people do not take advantage of them. We recommend the use of zinc by those attending hajj.
Evaluation of ColdZyme Mouth Spray against Common Cold in Elderly Care Personnel  [PDF]
Mats Clarsund, Christina Br?kenhielm Persson
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2017.71002
Abstract: ColdZyme? Mouth Spray (ColdZyme) is a mouth spray intended to reduce the probability of catching a cold and/or can help shorten the duration of a cold if used at an early stage of the infection, by forming a barrier on the pharyngeal mucous membrane. This study evaluated the preventative effect of ColdZyme on common cold infections in personnel at elderly care facilities, and assessed the level of reduction in corresponding sick leave. The number of sick-leave days for the personnel decreased from an average of 5.2 days to 3.7 days (29%) when using ColdZyme compared to control period (p = 0.054). 63% of those who had a cold reported the symptoms to be milder than previous colds. Conclusion: Using ColdZyme? Mouth Spray to apply a barrier to the oropharynx may be an easy and practical way to prevent or reduce infections of the common cold virus and corresponding sick leave in personnel working in elderly care.
A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Clinical Study on ColdZyme® Mouth Spray against Rhinovirus-Induced Common Cold  [PDF]
Mats Clarsund, Marcus Fornbacke, Lena Uller, Sebastian L. Johnston, Cecilia Ahlstr?m Emanuelsson
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2017.74013
Common colds incur significant costs in terms of sick leave and personal discomfort for affected individuals. This study investigated the performance of ColdZyme Mouth Spray (ColdZyme), a protective barrier against common cold, in rhinovirus-inoculated healthy volunteers. This randomized, doubleblind, placebo-controlled pilot study was conducted on 46 healthy volunteers inoculated with rhinovirus 16 via the nose. Subjects self-administered ColdZyme or placebo 6 times daily for 11 days. Symptoms were recorded daily in a diary. Rhinovirus 16 in nasal and oropharyngeal samples at days 0, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 10 were quantified by RT-qPCR. The primary outcome measure was the reduction in viral load in oropharyngeal samples. Rhinovirus 16 was only detected in 35 out of 46 inoculated subjects. Exploratory analysis measuring the total viral load (i.e., area under the curve (AUC)) for days 3 - 10 in successfully inoculated subjects found that ColdZyme treatment resulted in a lower total viral load in the oropharynx (p = 0.023). In subjects who experienced symptomatic common cold, irrespectively, if virus were detected, treatment with ColdZyme resulted in a reduction in the number of days with common cold symptoms from 6.5 to 3.0 days (p = 0.014) in comparison to placebo. ColdZyme reduced virus infection in the oropharynx and reduced the number of days with common cold symptoms and highlights the possible importance of the oropharynx in common cold infections. Suitable outcome measures for a feasible study on ColdZyme are total viral load in the oropharynx in subjects having detectable virus present in nasal or oropharyngeal samples.
User Experience of ColdZyme Mouth Spray against Common Cold in Competitive Athletes  [PDF]
Ulf Blom, Ida Nelson
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2018.82002
ColdZyme Mouth Spray (ColdZyme) is intended to reduce the probability of catching a cold and/or can help shorten the duration of a cold, if used at an early stage of the infection, by forming a barrier on the pharyngeal mucous membrane. The user experience of ColdZyme on naturally occurring common cold infections was evaluated in competitive athletes training professionally or on an amateur level. Thirteen athletes completed weekly electronic surveys on occurrence of common colds, cold severity and user experience over the course of 3 months. The 13 participants reported in total 15 cold incidents with an average duration of 7.4 days. The average cold severity was 31.2 on a visual-analogue scale (VAS) ranging from 0 (mildest possible cold) to 100 (worst possible cold). The overall user satisfaction with ColdZyme was high. 81% of the reported colds were experienced to be milder and/or shorter than usual. None of the participants reported “No effect”. Out of the participants who reported absence of a cold in the previous week, 69% reported a positive answer to the question if ColdZyme had prevented them from catching a cold in the previous week. Conclusion: The present study evaluated prevention and alleviation of naturally occurring common cold in athletes, and demonstrated that ColdZyme may be an easy and practical way for competitive athletes to prevent or reduce infections of the common cold virus and corresponding unwanted absence from training and competition. Due to the lack of a comparator group, a placebo effect cannot be excluded.
Efficacy and safety of a multiherbal formula with vitamin C and zinc (Immumax) in the management of the common cold
Mostafa Yakoot, Amel Salem
International Journal of General Medicine , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S16266
Abstract: acy and safety of a multiherbal formula with vitamin C and zinc (Immumax) in the management of the common cold Original Research (7009) Total Article Views Authors: Mostafa Yakoot, Amel Salem Published Date January 2011 Volume 2011:4 Pages 45 - 51 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S16266 Mostafa Yakoot1, Amel Salem2 1Green Clinic, Alexandria, Egypt; 2Mabbarah Hospital, Alexandria, Egypt Objective: To study the potential efficacy and tolerability of a natural multiherbal formula (Immumax) containing Echinacea extract 120 mg, garlic powder 100 mg, Nigella sativa oil 200 mg, and Panax ginseng extract 50 mg plus vitamin C 50 mg and elemental zinc 7.5 mg in the treatment of patients suffering from the common cold. Design and setting: The study was conducted in a prospective, double-blind, randomized, controlled study design in an outpatient setting. Patients and methods: Sixty-two eligible patients with symptoms of the common cold were randomized to either Immumax or placebo treatment groups for the duration of their symptoms or a maximum of 14 days. Resolution rates were estimated using Kaplan–Meier analysis, and resolution profiles were compared between groups using the log-rank test. The mean percentage change in total symptom severity scores at days 4 and 8 from baseline were compared between the two groups by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: The median (interquartile range) time to resolution of all symptoms was 8 (5–9) days in the placebo group and 4 (3–6) days in the Immumax group. The results of the log-rank test indicate that symptoms resolved significantly faster in the Immumax group than in the placebo group (P < 0.001). The mean percentage reduction in total symptom severity scores from baseline at days 4 and 8 was significantly greater in the Immumax group than in the placebo group by one-way ANOVA (P < 0.01). Conclusion: We can conclude from our study that Immumax is helpful in reducing the duration and severity of common cold symptoms.
A Serious Adverse Effect of Pseudoephedrine Used For Common Cold Treatment : Ventricular Arrhythmia
Cenk Aypak,Ozlem Turedi,Adnan Yuce,Suleyman Gorpelioglu
Cukurova Medical Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Common cold is one of the frequently seen disease in childhood. Pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (PEH) is a sympathomimetic drug which is widely used for treatment of common cold as a decongestant on children. The aim of this case report is, to draw attention to serious adverse effects of PEH treatment. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(3.000): 506-510]
The Efficacy and Safety of a Patent Pending Combination of Ginger and Goldenrod Extracts on the Management of Cold Symptoms: A Randomized, Double-Blind Controlled Trial  [PDF]
Johane Guay, Pierre Champagne, Pascal Guibord, Joerg Gruenwald
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.312216
Abstract: Objective: In a randomized, double-blind, exploratory, active-controlled trial, the efficacy and safety of a patent-pending combination of Ginger and Goldenrod extracts (BDI-630) in alleviating cold symptoms in community-dwelling adults was compared to a combination of standardized amounts of Echinacea (EC) components. Methods: 44 healthy adults, experiencing new onset of cold symptoms were randomly assigned to receive either BDI-630 (900 mg) or EC (500 mg) twice daily for 10 days. The severity of cold symptoms and the quality of life was assessed by self-reporting of subjects using the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS-21? 2004). Results: The intent-to-treat population (ITT) consisted of 44 subjects (n = 22 for BDI-630; n = 22 for EC). The modified ITT (mITT) population consisted of 40 subjects, excluding four subjects with major protocol deviations related to inclusion/exclusion criteria and/or use of prohibited drugs from the efficacy analysis (n = 3 for BDI-630 and n = 1 for EC). Results indicated a sig-nificant difference between the two groups: the superiority of BDI-630 over EC was particularly noticeable between Day 1 and Day 7, as demonstrated by a 14-fold difference of the mean percentage of change of total score from baseline in the mITT population. Adverse events (AEs) following the intake of BDI-630 were mostly limited to mild gastrointestinal intolerance in less than 10% of the subjects. Conclusions: BDI-630 was shown to be more effective than EC in alleviating cold symptoms in the adult population, particularly during the first 7 days of treatment. BDI-630 was very well tolerated by all subjects.
Recurrent Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Children;The Influence of Green Vegetables, Beef, Whole Milk and Butter  [PDF]
Loes G. H. Ten Velde, Jolien Leegsma, Ellen J. Van der Gaag
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.410A011

Background: Immunological mechanism and dietary nutrients are important mediators in the health of children. In this intervention study a dietary advice is given to children between 1 and 6 years of age with recurrent respiratory tract infections. Could a change in nutrient intake result in an altered clinical outcome? Design: In this prospective cohort study 61 children were included and evaluated at a paediatric outpatient clinic. The control group consisted of 32 children included at an infant welfare centre. The patient group followed the dietary advice (green vegetables, beef, whole milk, full-fat butter) for three months, in which parents filled out their dietary intake and health status on a daily basis. A follow up form was filled out by the parents 3 months after completion of the study period. For statistical analysis the programme SPSS version 15.0 was used. Results: In the patient group there was a statistical significant reduction in days with a respiratory infection (15.7 to 11.5 days a month), subfebrile temperature days (1.9 to 0.5 days a month) and febrile temperature days (1.0 to 0.7 days a month) compared to the control group. Also, antibiotic use decreased significantly. No significant changes were measured in body mass index. Conclusions: A change of diet towards green vegetables, beef, whole milk and full-fat butter has positive health effects in children. This diet may work by adding nutrients to optimize immunological mechanisms. There were no adverse effects and it can be utilized by general pediatricians and general practitioners.

Efficacy of a Topical Aromatic Rub (Vicks VapoRub®)-Speed of Action of Subjective Nasal Cooling and Relief from Nasal Congestion  [PDF]
Ron Eccles, Martez Jawad, David L. Ramsey, J. David Hull
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2015.51002
Abstract: Vicks VapoRub® (VVR) is a pharmaceutical preparation containing a combination of levomenthol, eucalyptus oil, turpentine oil and camphor as active ingredients, and thymol, cedarwood oil, and white soft paraffin as excipients. VVR is a petrolatum-based ointment to be either applied topically to the chest, throat, and back or added to hot water and the aromatic vapours inhaled. When used topically, the actives are evaporated by body temperature and inspired. The main therapeutic effects are the feeling of relief from nasal congestion and relief from cough. These were primarily experienced by patients as the trigeminal and olfactory impact of the aromatics and were hypothesized to be experienced within minutes. This was a randomized, single-(Investigator) blind, controlled, 2-arm (VVR vs. petrolatum), parallel design pilot study in 50 otherwise healthy adult patients suffering from common cold and experiencing nasal congestion. Speed to detection of a sensation of nasal cooling and nasal decongestion was assessed following application of the recommended amount of product. The time to first experience of a sensation of nasal cooling was significantly (p < 0.001) faster for patients who received VVR compared to control (median times of 23 and 99 seconds respectively). VVR delivered a statistically significant sensation of nasal cooling at all times from 12 seconds to 15 minutes after product application. The time to first experience of a sensation of nasal decongestion was significantly (p = 0.0102) faster for patients who received VVR compared to control (median times of 62 and 126 seconds respectively). VVR delivered a statistically significant sensation of nasal decongestion at all times from 62 seconds to 15 minutes after product application. No adverse events were reported during the study. Conclusion: Patients using Vicks VapoRub® as directed experienced significant differences from control for sensation of nasal cooling in 12 seconds and the sensation of nasal decongestion in 62 seconds.
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