Abstract:
A magnetic impurity in a fermionic superfluid hosts bound quasiparticle states known as Yu-Shiba-Rusinov (YSR) states. We argue here that, if the impurity is mobile (i.e., has a finite mass), the impurity and its bound YSR quasiparticle move together as a midgap molecule, which has an unusual "Mexican-hat" dispersion that is tunable via the fermion density. We map out the impurity dispersion, which consists of an "atomic" branch (in which the impurity is dressed by quasiparticle pairs) and a "molecular" branch (in which the impurity binds a quasiparticle). We discuss the experimental realization and detection of midgap Shiba molecules, focusing on lithium-cesium mixtures, and comment on the prospects they offer for realizing exotic many-body states.

Abstract:
Solid state systems derive their richness from the interplay between interparticle interactions and novel band structures that deviate from those of free particles. Strongly interacting systems, where both of these phenomena are of equal importance, exhibit a variety of theoretically interesting and practically useful phases. Systems of ultracold atoms are rapidly emerging as precise and controllable simulators, and it is precisely in this strongly interacting regime where simulation is the most useful. Here we demonstrate how to hybridize Bloch bands in optical lattices to introduce long-range ferromagnetic order in an itinerant atomic system. We find spontaneously broken symmetry for bosons with a double-well dispersion condensing into one of two distinct minima, which we identify with spin-up and spin-down. The density dynamics following a rapid quench to the ferromagnetic state confirm quantum interference between the two states as the mechanism for symmetry breaking. Unlike spinor condensates, where interaction is driven by small spin-dependent differences in scattering length, our interactions scale with the scattering length itself, leading to domains which equilibrate rapidly and develop sharp boundaries characteristic of a strongly interacting ferromagnet.

Abstract:
We present the design, construction and characterization of Bitter-type electromagnets which can generate high magnetic fields under continuous operation with efficient heat removal for cold atom experiments. The electromagnets are constructed from a stack of alternating layers consisting of copper arcs and insulating polyester spacers. Efficient cooling of the copper is achieved via parallel rectangular water cooling channels between copper layers with low resistance to flow; a high ratio of the water-cooled surface area to the volume of copper ensures a short length scale ~1 mm to extract dissipated heat. High copper fraction per layer ensures high magnetic field generated per unit energy dissipated. The ensemble is highly scalable and compressed to create a watertight seal without epoxy. From our measurements, a peak field of 770 G is generated 14 mm away from a single electromagnet with a current of 400 A and a total power dissipation of 1.6 kW. With cooling water flowing at 3.8 l/min, the coil temperature only increases by 7 degrees Celsius under continuous operation.

Abstract:
We demonstrate stable levitation and trapping of ice particles of 30~200 micon at low background gas pressures in the presence of a temperature gradient. The thermophoretic force levitates the particles, which have long lifetimes of over an hour. The equilibrium position depends on the background pressure and temperature gradient, which is consistent with theoretical expectations. Furthermore, we investigate interesting launching and merging dynamics of the levitated particles, as well as the development of instability at high background pressures. Our system provides a robust platform to investigate the aggregation of floating ice particles in air, and potentially chemical and biological processes in a microgravity environment.

Abstract:
In few-body physics, Efimov states are an infinite series of three-body bound states that obey universal discrete scaling symmetry when pairwise interactions are resonantly enhanced. Despite abundant reports of Efimov states in recent cold atom experiments, direct observation of the discrete scaling symmetry remains an elusive goal. Here we report the observation of three consecutive Efimov resonances in a heteronuclear Li-Cs mixture near a broad interspecies Feshbach resonance. The positions of the resonances closely follow a geometric series $1$, $\lambda$, $\lambda^2$. The observed scaling constant $\lambda_{\rm exp} = 4.9(4)$ is in good agreement with the predicted value of 4.88.

Abstract:
We present experimental evidence showing that an interacting Bose condensate in a shaken optical lattice develops a roton-maxon excitation spectrum, a feature normally associated with superfluid helium. The roton-maxon feature originates from the double-well dispersion in the shaken lattice, and can be controlled by both the atomic interaction and the lattice shaking amplitude. We determine the excitation spectrum using Bragg spectroscopy and measure the critical velocity by dragging a weak speckle potential through the condensate - both techniques are based on a digital micromirror device. Our dispersion measurements are in good agreement with a modified-Bogoliubov model.

Abstract:
Standard Gibbs sampling applied to a multivariate normal distribution with a specified precision matrix is equivalent in fundamental ways to the Gauss-Seidel iterative solution of linear equations in the precision matrix. Specifically, the iteration operators, the conditions under which convergence occurs, and geometric convergence factors (and rates) are identical. These results hold for arbitrary matrix splittings from classical iterative methods in numerical linear algebra giving easy access to mature results in that field, including existing convergence results for antithetic-variable Gibbs sampling, REGS sampling, and generalizations. Hence, efficient deterministic stationary relaxation schemes lead to efficient generalizations of Gibbs sampling. The technique of polynomial acceleration that significantly improves the convergence rate of an iterative solver derived from a \emph{symmetric} matrix splitting may be applied to accelerate the equivalent generalized Gibbs sampler. Identicality of error polynomials guarantees convergence of the inhomogeneous Markov chain, while equality of convergence factors ensures that the optimal solver leads to the optimal sampler. Numerical examples are presented, including a Chebyshev accelerated SSOR Gibbs sampler applied to a stylized demonstration of low-level Bayesian image reconstruction in a large 3-dimensional linear inverse problem.

Abstract:
Heavy electronic states originating from the f atomic orbitals underlie a rich variety of quantum phases of matter. We use atomic scale imaging and spectroscopy with the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) to examine the novel electronic states that emerge from the uranium f states in URu2Si2. We find that as the temperature is lowered, partial screening of the f electrons' spins gives rise to a spatially modulated Kondo-Fano resonance that is maximal between the surface U atoms. At T=17.5 K, URu2Si2 is known to undergo a 2nd order phase transition from the Kondo lattice state into a phase with a hidden order parameter. From tunneling spectroscopy, we identify a spatially modulated, bias-asymmetric energy gap with a mean-field temperature dependence that develops in the hidden order state. Spectroscopic imaging further reveals a spatial correlation between the hidden order gap and the Kondo resonance, suggesting that the two phenomena involve the same electronic states.

Abstract:
Recently we have used spectroscopic mapping with the scanning tunneling microscope to probe modulations of the electronic density of states in single crystals of the high temperature superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+d (Bi-2212) as a function of temperature [C. V. Parker et al., Nature (London) 468, 677 (2010)]. These measurements showed Cu-O bond-oriented modulations that form below the pseudogap temperature with a temperature-dependent energy dispersion displaying different behaviors in the superconducting and pseudogap states. Here we demonstrate that quasiparticle scattering off impurities does not capture the experimentally observed energy- and temperature-dependence of these modulations. Instead, a model of scattering of quasiparticles from short-range stripe order, with periodicity near four lattice constants (4a), reproduces the experimentally observed energy dispersion of the bond-oriented modulations and its temperature dependence across the superconducting critical temperature, Tc. The present study confirms the existence of short-range stripe order in Bi-2212.

Abstract:
Identifying the mechanism of superconductivity in the high-temperature cuprate superconductors is one of the major outstanding problems in physics. We report local measurements of the onset of superconducting pairing in the high-transition temperature (Tc) superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+d using a lattice-tracking spectroscopy technique with a scanning tunneling microscope. We can determine the temperature dependence of the pairing energy gaps, the electronic excitations in the absence of pairing, and the effect of the local coupling of electrons to bosonic excitations. Our measurements reveal that the strength of pairing is determined by the unusual electronic excitations of the normal state, suggesting that strong electron-electron interactions rather than low-energy (<0.1 volts) electron-boson interactions are responsible for superconductivity in the cuprates.