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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6913 matches for " Colin Bruce Josephson "
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The “Natural” History of Medically Treated Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: What Can an Evidence-Based Approach Tell Us?
Colin Bruce Josephson,Bernhard Pohlmann-Eden
Epilepsy Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/216510
Abstract: We systematically reviewed the literature to describe the “natural” history of medically treated temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). No population-based studies recruiting incident cases of TLE irrespective of age exist. Prospective, population-based studies were limited to those recruiting only childhood-onset TLE or those reporting TLE as a subgroup of cohorts of focal epilepsies. Few studies have been performed in the “MRI era” limiting information on natural history secondary to specific pathologies. Available data suggests that TLE is highly variable, with unpredictable transient remissions and low rates of seizure freedom (30 to 50%). Etiology and failure of first and second drug seem to be the most important predictors for treatment prognosis. The role of initial precipitating injuries remains speculative, as imaging information of related events is either missing or conflicting. Prospective cohorts of new-onset TLE with long-term followup using advanced MRI techniques, timely EEG recordings, and assessments of psychiatric comorbidities are needed. 1. Introduction Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most frequent medically refractory epilepsy syndrome seen in epilepsy outpatient clinics. It has received considerable attention in recent years owing to the remarkable rates of remission that can be achieved through surgical intervention [1]. Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) associated with hippocampal sclerosis (mTLE-HS), a condition that can be detected by modern magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques with a high sensitivity and specificity, is now the most common indication for epilepsy surgery. To date, therapeutic advances in TLE have far outpaced our understanding of the natural history of the disorder. According to a recent International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) commission report [2], the natural history of mTLE-HS is characterized by key features such as a history of an initial precipitating injury and a presence of a latent and/or silent period. Prior publications have attempted to assess the course and prognosis of TLE, mTLE, and mTLE-HS using sophisticated electroencephalography (EEG), MRI, and histological techniques trying to identify the “natural” history of all types of TLE. Almost all these studies are limited by the fact that their perspective comes from tertiary care centers and surgical series [3]. The ideal natural history study requires a large prospective cohort of patients with new-onset TLE undergoing extensive structural and functional testing with a followup of >10 years. We conducted a systematic review of the
The Persisting Burden of Intracerebral Haemorrhage: Can Effective Treatments Be Found?
Colin B. Josephson,Joseph Frantzias,Neshika Samarasekera,Rustam Al-Shahi Salman
PLOS Medicine , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000353
Connectivity for bridge-addable monotone graph classes
Louigi Addario Berry,Colin McDiarmid,Bruce Reed
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: A class A of labelled graphs is bridge-addable if for all graphs G in A and all vertices u and v in distinct connected components of G, the graph obtained by adding an edge between u and u is also in A; the class A is monotone if for all G in A and all subgraphs H of G, H is also in A. We show that for any bridge-addable, monotone class A whose elements have vertex set 1,...,n, the probability that a uniformly random element of A is connected is at least (1-o_n(1)) e^{-1/2}, where o_n(1) tends to zero as n tends to infinity. This establishes the special case of a conjecture of McDiarmid, Steger and Welsh when the condition of monotonicity is added. This result has also been obtained independently by Kang and Panagiotiou (2011).
Bone Balance within a Cortical BMU: Local Controls of Bone Resorption and Formation
David W. Smith, Bruce S. Gardiner, Colin Dunstan
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040268
Abstract: Maintaining bone volume during bone turnover by a BMU is known as bone balance. Balance is required to maintain structural integrity of the bone and is often dysregulated in disease. Consequently, understanding how a BMU controls bone balance is of considerable interest. This paper develops a methodology for identifying potential balance controls within a single cortical BMU. The theoretical framework developed offers the possibility of a directed search for biological processes compatible with the constraints of balance control. We first derive general control constraint equations and then introduce constitutive equations to identify potential control processes that link key variables that describe the state of the BMU. The paper describes specific local bone volume balance controls that may be associated with bone resorption and bone formation. Because bone resorption and formation both involve averaging over time, short-term fluctuations in the environment are removed, leaving the control systems to manage deviations in longer-term trends back towards their desired values. The length of time for averaging is much greater for bone formation than for bone resorption, which enables more filtering of variability in the bone formation environment. Remarkably, the duration for averaging of bone formation may also grow to control deviations in long-term trends of bone formation. Providing there is sufficient bone formation capacity by osteoblasts, this leads to an extraordinarily robust control mechanism that is independent of either osteoblast number or the cellular osteoid formation rate. A complex picture begins to emerge for the control of bone volume. Different control relationships may achieve the same objective, and the ‘integration of information’ occurring within a BMU may be interpreted as different sets of BMU control systems coming to the fore as different information is supplied to the BMU, which in turn leads to different observable BMU behaviors.
Magnetic Nanoparticle Sensors
Isaac Koh,Lee Josephson
Sensors , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/s91008130
Abstract: Many types of biosensors employ magnetic nanoparticles (diameter = 5–300 nm) or magnetic particles (diameter = 300–5,000 nm) which have been surface functionalized to recognize specific molecular targets. Here we cover three types of biosensors that employ different biosensing principles, magnetic materials, and instrumentation. The first type consists of magnetic relaxation switch assay-sensors, which are based on the effects magnetic particles exert on water proton relaxation rates. The second type consists of magnetic particle relaxation sensors, which determine the relaxation of the magnetic moment within the magnetic particle. The third type is magnetoresistive sensors, which detect the presence of magnetic particles on the surface of electronic devices that are sensitive to changes in magnetic fields on their surface. Recent improvements in the design of magnetic nanoparticles (and magnetic particles), together with improvements in instrumentation, suggest that magnetic material-based biosensors may become widely used in the future.
L1 Educational Studies in Language and Literature , 2010,
Abduction-Prediction Model of Scientific Inference Reflected in a Prototype System for Model-based Diagnosis
John R. Josephson
Philosophica , 1998,
Abstract: This paper describes in some detail a pattern of justification which seems to be part of common sense logic and also part of the logic of scientific investigations. Calling this pattern abduction, the paper lays out an abduction-prediction model of scientific inference as an update to the traditional hypothetico-deductive model. According to this newer model, scientific theories receive their claims for acceptance and belief from the abductive arguments that support them, and the processes of scientific discovery aim to develop theories with strong abductive support. It is suggested that the study of diagnosis presents a good opportunity for studying abduction under somewhat simpler and more reproducible conditions than occur in scientific discovery. A computer-based diagnostic system is described which provides a small-scale validation of the abduc-tion-prediction model by showing that a version of it can be made precise enough to be implemented and to perform correctly for diagnosis.
Biological Observer-Participation and Wheeler's 'Law without Law'
Brian D. Josephson
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: It is argued that at a sufficiently deep level the conventional quantitative approach to the study of nature faces difficult problems, and that biological processes should be seen as more fundamental, in a way that can be elaborated on the basis of Peircean semiotics and Yardley's Circular Theory. In such a world-view, Wheeler's observer-participation and emergent law arise naturally, rather than having to be imposed artificially. This points the way to a deeper understanding of nature, where meaning has a fundamental role to play that is invisible to quantitative science.
'Beyond quantum theory: a realist psycho-biological interpretation of reality' revisited
Brian D. Josephson
Physics , 2001,
Abstract: It is hypothesised, following Conrad et al. (1988) (http://www.tcm.phy.cam.ac.uk/~bdj10/papers/urbino.html) that quantum physics is not the ultimate theory of nature, but merely a theoretical account of the phenomena manifested in nature under particular conditions. These phenomena parallel cognitive phenomena in biosystems in a number of ways and are assumed to arise from related mechanisms. Quantum and biological accounts are complementary in the sense of Bohr and quantum accounts may be incomplete. In particular, following ideas of Stapp, 'the observer' is a system that, while lying outside the descriptive capacities of quantum mechanics, creates observable phenomena such as wave function collapse through its probing activities. Better understanding of such processes may pave the way to new science.
String Theory, Universal Mind, and the Paranormal
Brian D. Josephson
Physics , 2003,
Abstract: A model consistent with string theory is proposed for so-called paranormal phenomena such as extra-sensory perception (ESP). Our mathematical skills are assumed to derive from a special 'mental vacuum state', whose origin is explained on the basis of anthropic and biological arguments, taking into account the need for the informational processes associated with such a state to be of a life-supporting character. ESP is then explained in terms of shared 'thought bubbles' generated by the participants out of the mental vacuum state. The paper concludes with a critique of arguments sometimes made claiming to 'rule out' the possible existence of paranormal phenomena.
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