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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 909 matches for " Clement Akais Okia "
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Effect of Mode of Auxin Application on Rooting and Bud Break of Shea Tree (Vitellaria paradoxa) Cuttings  [PDF]
Moses Okao, Lawrence Ogwal, Gloria Mutoni, Samuel Oyuko Alip, John Bosco Lamoris Okullo, Clement Akais Okia
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2016.715194
Abstract: Vegetative propagation by stem cutting is an important technique applied for agricultural production where rooting success is one of the major aspects. A study to assess the effects of mode of application of rooting hormones (IBA) on adventitious root formation of V. paradoxa stem cuttings was conducted. Accordingly, four application methods were investigated in a 4 × 3 factorial experiment using a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The application methods were: 24-hour extended soak, foliar spraying, basal quick dip and delayed IBA application method. Thus, the parameters used to determine rooting success were mean root length and root number. The effect of these application methods on occurrence of bud break was also considered. On the whole, root length was observed to be a function of IBA concentration, whereby root length increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) with an increment in IBA concentration. Stem cuttings subjected to 24-h extended soak at 100 ppm rooted best (59.5% ± 8.33%), where as foliar sprayed stem cuttings exhibited the worst rooting success (11.9 ± 3.06 - 23.8% ± 4.16%). Bud break appeared to decrease with increasing IBA concentration and delaying IBA application enhanced rooting percentage of the quick dip method by 7.1%, 9.5% and 11.9% at 2500 ppm, 3500 ppm and 4500 ppm, respectively. The extended soak method of IBA application at 80 ppm shows potential for large scale production of V. paradoxa through stem cuttings.
Wild and semi-wild food plants in Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom, Uganda: cultural significance, local perceptions and social implications of their consumption
Jacob Godfrey AGEA,Clement Akais OKIA,Joseph OBUA,John HALL
International Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants , 2011,
Abstract: This paper presents the cultural significances, local perceptions and social implications of consumption of wild and semi-wild food plants (WSWFPs) in the Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom. Data was collected using household questionnaire survey and focus group discussions. It was apparent that the bulk of WSWFPs had moderate (CFSI 20–99) to very high (CFSI ≥ 300) cultural food significance indices. The most outstanding being Bidens pilosa (410.1), Capsicum frutescens (377.0) and Amaranthus spinosus (366.0). Most people perceived WSWFPs as medicinal, nutritious, sources of income; emergency and supplementary foods. Other people, however, perceived some WSWFPs as weedy and problematic in the gardens; toxic and/or fatal if adequate care is not taken during their preparation before consumption. Most people noted that consumption of WSWFPs is often considered as a source of shame and a sign of poverty especially by the elites. Some alleged their consumption is a sign of uncivilized and backwardness associated with loss of respect and dignity in the society. Others regarded WSWFPs as food for the lazy, elderly or handicapped persons. Investigation of the food-medicinal properties of documented WSWFPs that had high food-medicinal role indices (FMRI) is needed. In addition, those plants that had high taste score appreciation indices (TSAI) should be investigated for their nutritional attributes. There is a need for investigation of anti-nutrient factors or toxic compounds that could be present in some of the documented WSWFPs. So far in Uganda, little attempt has been made in this direction. Therefore, attempts to research in this aspect of WSWFPs would be quite rewarding. There is also a need for massive awareness campaigns about the nutritional and or food-medicinal properties of WSWFPs as a measure to reduce the negative perception towards their consumption.
On-Farm Management of Vitellaria paradoxa C. F. Gaertn. in Amuria District, Eastern Uganda
Paul Okiror,Jacob Godfrey Agea,Clement Akais Okia,John Bosco Lamoris Okullo
International Journal of Forestry Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/768946
Abstract: The population of shea butter tree (Vitellaria paradoxa C. F. Gaertn.)—a priority tree with enormous economic and cultural values to the parkland communities in Uganda, is rapidly declining due to rapid human population growth, increasing land fragmentation, and high demand for woodfuel especially charcoal. Reversing this trend will depend on the rural community involvement in the planting, facilitating natural regeneration, and tending of shea trees on farm. As such a survey was conducted in Amuria district, eastern Uganda, to assess local strategies and constraints to on-farm management of shea trees, and document socio-demographic factors influencing the on-farm conservation. About 93% of the households protected naturally regenerated V. paradoxa trees mainly on farms. V. paradoxa was mostly propagated through coppices and seedlings. Although insecure land tenure, insecurity, pests, disease, and shortage of planting materials were reported as major hindrances, farmsize, family size, and gender significantly ( ) influenced people’s willingness to conserve V. paradoxa. Byelaws and policies on shea conservation need to be properly enforced, and further propagation research is required especially towards shortening the juvenile period of V. paradoxa so that more farmers can start propagating the tree other than relying on its natural regeneration. 1. Introduction The shea butter tree (Vitellaria paradoxa C. F. Gaertn.) is one of the many economically valuable trees frequently seen in parkland landscapes in Sudano-Sahelian belt of Africa [1, 2]. It is a tree species of high priority for African genetic resources [3]. The fruit pulp can be eaten by both humans and animals, while the butter extracted from the seed kernel has remarkable importance in traditional food security, manufacturing of body care products, pharmaceutical, and confectionery industries [4]. The wood is used for charcoal, construction and furniture, while the latex may be used in glue making [5]. It also plays a role in amelioration of microclimate and soil fertility in savanna woodlands [6]. Protected for its edible fruit pulp and butter, income generation, cosmetics, medicines, wood, and soap production, V. paradoxa is one of the most abundant indigenous tree species in the Sudanian zone that forms the backbone of livelihoods over most of its 5000?km range [7, 8]. However, V. paradoxa faces a high degree of thinning, selection, and natural mortality leading to a noticeable reduction in density [5, 9, 10]. In Uganda, indiscriminate burning of bushes and cutting of trees coupled with
Perennial Biomass Production in Arid Mangrove Systems on the Red Sea Coast of Saudi Arabia
Refaat Atalla Ahmed Abohassan,Clement Akais Okia,Jacob Godfrey Agea,James Munga Kimondo,Morag M. McDonald
Environmental Research Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/erj.2012.22.31
Abstract: Above and below biomass production were estimated in two Avicennia marina mangrove stands in Yanbu and Shuaiba regions on the Red sea coast of Saudi Arabia. Allometric equations were used to estimate above ground biomasses including stem, branches, leaves and total biomass while aerial and fine roots were estimated using ground plots and random coring, respectively. Linear relationships on log-log scale with tree DBH and height as predictor parameters best described the biomass variations. The total aboveground biomass in Shuaiba, (18.58 ha-1) was significantly higher than that of Yanbu (10.77 t ha-1) (p<0.05). Shuaiba also had significantly higher aerial and fine roots (23.7 and 96.42 t ha-1) than Yanbu (10.1 and 39.1 t ha-1, respectively) (p<0.05). Overall, aboveground biomass of the two sites was 14.77 t ha-1 while belowground fine roots was 67.8 t ha-1 and a shoot to root ratio of 0.22 indicating high biomass allocation to roots. These findings are the first reported for the Red sea mangroves and were comparable to estimates reported in other locations at similar extreme environmental conditions. In addition, these finding can serve as a baseline study for monitoring annual biomass increment as a function of site productivity and health.
Use and Management of Balanites aegyptiaca in Drylands of Uganda
Clement Akais Okia,Jacob Godfrey Agea,James Munga Kimondo,Refaat Atalla Ahmed Abohassan,Paul Okiror,Joseph Obua,Zewge Teklehaimanot
Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjbsci.2011.15.24
Abstract: There is strong evidence across the drylands of Africa that local communities have utilized Indigenous Fruit Trees (IFTs) including Balanites for generations. IFTs have however, received limited recognition from research and development community. It is now widely accepted that IFTs research needs to embrace local knowledge since this can be a useful resource in solving local problems and contribute to meaningful development. This study explored local use and management of the Balanites aegyptiaca among two contrasting dryland communities in Uganda. A survey involving 150 respondents was conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire. Focus group discussions and key informant interviews were conducted to capture detailed information on various aspects of Balanites use and management. The results revealed a wealth of information on local use and management of B. aegyptiaca tree and its products. Besides being a market commodity, several uses of the tree products were reported, especially among women and children. Contrary to its early reference as famine food, B. aegyptiaca products were used by most households. The young leaves and ripe fruits were regarded as dependable dry season food sources in both years of food scarcity and plentiful harvest. However, institutional arrangements for management of Balanites and other IFTs are weak and trees are increasingly being cut for fuelwood. There is a need to build on the local peoples knowledge, especially on processing of products so as to realise increased contribution of Balanites to rural livelihoods in the drylands of Uganda and other areas where the species grows.
Vitex payos (Lour.) Merr Fruit Trees in the Drylands Areas of Eastern Kenya: Use, Marketing and Management
James Munga Kimondo,Jacob Godfrey Agea,Clement Akais Okia,Refaat Atalla Ahmed Abohassan,Jackson Mulatya,Zewge Teklehaimanot
Botany Research Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.3923/brj.2010.14.21
Abstract: This study explored the local use, marketing and management of Vitex payos in drylands areas of Eastern Kenya. Data were collected through household surveys using semi-structured questionnaires; transect walks, informal discussions and direct observations. Questionnaire responses were analyzed to generate descriptive statistics using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) while graphs were generated using Excel. Vitex payos fruits were found to be used in >90% of the households and the management of the fruit trees was incidental rather than deliberate. A majority of farmers (>80%) pruned the Vitex payos trees found on the farm to reduce shading effects on the associated crop plants. Coppices from cut trees were managed to provide new crops. Some farmers smoked the flowering and fruiting trees to repel the flying insect pests while a few others sprinkled ash at the base of the tree to deter crawling insects. Besides the consumption of Vitex payos fruits as snacks and sale for income generation, fruits were used for treatment of diarrhoea. The trees were also used for placing of beehives while the leaves, bark and roots were used for making herbal medicine. The wood was used for timber, fuelwood and tool handles. The naturally ripe and fallen fruits were collected on the ground although a few gatherers harvested fruits by climbing and shaking the tree or branches to dislodge the fruits. Within households, the fruits were spread on mats under shade for 1-3 days before taking to the market. Traditionally, mature unripe fruits are placed in buckets and covered with wood ash to hasten ripening. Taste of the fruits was the main criteria used by consumers to select the best fruits. Farmers retained on their farmlands trees with high fruit productivity and those that produce sweet fruits. Ripe fruits were sold on farms, roadside stalls and local markets either by gatherers themselves or through fruit vendors. Gatherers and fruit vendors suffer heavy losses due to fruit damage during transportation to the markets. Lack of storage facilities and low market value lowers the overall income from the sales of the fruits. Small land sizes and lack of planting material negatively affected farmers planting of the trees. There is need to promote the fruits through initiating processing activities to improve on their shelf live and to add value to generate higher income at the farm level. Processing of fruits into high value products like fruit jam and juices should be explored. Increasing the accessibility and availability of good planting material should be explored through vegetative propagation techniques to capture desired traits such as taste, size and high tree productivity.
Wild and Semi-Wild Food Plants of Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom of Uganda:Growth Forms, Collection Niches, Parts Consumed, Consumption Patterns, Main Gatherers and Consumers
Jacob Godfrey Agea,Clement Akais Okia,Refaat Atalla Ahmed Abohassan,James Munga Kimondo,Joseph Obua,John Hall,Zewge Teklehaimanot
Environmental Research Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/erj.2011.74.86
Abstract: Numerous publications provide detailed knowledge of Wild and Semi-Wild Food Plants (WSWFPs) in specific locations in Africa. These studies reveal that WSWFPs are essential components of many Africans diets especially in periods of seasonal food shortage. In this study, researchers present the commonly consumed WSWFPs in Bunyoro-Kitara kingdom of Uganda; their growth forms, collection niches, parts mainly consumed, consumption patterns, main gatherers and the main consumers. A total 385 respondents sampled according to Krejcie and Morgan from two sub-countries (Mutunda and Kiryandongo) of Kibanda country in Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom were administered with semi-structured questionnaires. Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were also held to validate questionnaire responses and to characterise the commonly consumed WSWFPs in terms of their growth forms and life cycles. Excel spreadsheet and MINITAB statistical software were used to analyze the questionnaire responses. The outputs of FGDs were subjected to thorough content analysis. A total of 62 WSWFPs were reported as being consumed. The most frequently mentioned were Amaranthus dubius Mart. ex Thell (73.8%), Amaranthus spinosus L (71.4%), Tamarindus indica L (69.1%). Hibiscus sabdariffa L (51.9%) and Vitex doniana Sweet (50.1%). But in terms of botanical family, members of Solanaceae (9.7%) and Fabaceae (9.7%) families were the most commonly consumed followed by Amaranthaceace (8.1%), Malvaceae (8.1%) and Asteraceae (6.5%) families, respectively. Out of the 62 documented WSWFPs, herbs (51.6%) and shrubs (24.2%) constituted the highest the numbers. Trees, vines/climbers and graminoid were few. Fresh leaves and shoots (97.1%) and fruits (74.3%) were predominantly consumed plant parts in the study area. Most WSWFPs were largely consumed as the main sauce and side dishes after cooking, raw as snacks and as condiments (spices or appetizers). Their consumption as wine and porridge component, beverages, raw in salads, potash salts in other foods and as relishes were infrequent. Women (85.7%) and children (75.1%) were the main gatherers. Few men (10.4%) engaged in gathering activities. Majority (75.8%) of the respondents reported that the gathered plants are consumed nearly by entire household members. About 21% said women are the major consumers. Collection niches varied greatly from forests (forest gaps and margins) (77.8%), bushlands (woodlands) (65.7%), cultivated farmlands (63.2%) and grasslands (59.8%). Other niches included homegardens (homesteads), swampy areas (wetlands), abandoned homesteads and farmlands, wastelands, farm borders, roadsides (footpaths) and areas around animal enclosures/cattle corridors. There is a need for more research on the possibility of adapting, growing and intentionally managing the WSWFPs on farms since large proportion of them are still gathered from out-of-farm niches.
Harvesting and Processing of Balanites aegyptiaca Leaves and Fruits for Local Consumption by Rural Communities in Uganda
Clement Akais Okia,Jacob Godfrey Agea,James Munga Kimondo,Refaat Atalla Ahmed Abohassan,Joseph Obua,Zewge Teklehaimanot
Journal of Food Technology , 2013, DOI: 10.3923/jftech.2011.83.90
Abstract: Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del. commonly known as desert date is an important multipurpose tree found in most African countries. Like in many parts of dryland Africa, Balanites leaves and fruits provide livelihood support to many rural households in the drylands of Uganda where other options are limited. The young succulent leaves are a dependable dry season vegetable while the seed kernel obtained after cracking the nut is a valuable oil source. Local methods for harvesting and processing of Balanites products were examined as a step towards promoting their wide use and development of improved processing methods. Harvesting and preparation of Balanites leaves in Katakwi district and fruits/nuts collection and oil extraction in Adjumani district, Uganda were documented. The results revealed that Balanites leaf harvesting involves cutting the young branches and twigs and plucking leaves under the tree. Leaves are boiled within 24 h after collection to avoid loss of taste and to shorten boiling time. Boiled leaves have a shelf life of 2 days only. On the other hand, Balanites oil production starts from the fruits or nuts mainly collected from beneath the parent trees. Oil processing entails cracking the nuts to extract seed kernels followed by pounding and roasting of kernels and oil extraction by hot water floatation method. Cracking the hard nuts to obtain seed kernels is a major challenge in oil extraction process. Oil produced is too little to meet the demand. Processing of Balanites oil is a promising option for improving rural livelihoods in the dryland areas of Uganda where Balanites trees grow naturally and are abundant. However, appropriate tools for cracking the hard Balanites nuts are required to increase oil production. Ways of increasing the shelf life of processed Balanites leaves should also be explored.
Contribution of Wild and Semi-Wild Food Plants to Overall Household Diet in Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom, Uganda
Jacob Godfrey Agea,James Munga Kimondo,Clement Akais Okia,Refaat Atalla Ahmed Abohassan,Joseph Obua,John Hall,Zewge Teklehaimanot
Agricultural Journal , 2013, DOI: 10.3923/aj.2011.134.144
Abstract: The contribution of Wild and Semi-wild Food Plants (WSWFPs) to overall household diet was assessed in Mutunda and Kiryandongo, sub-counties of Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom, Uganda. The assessments were made using a combination of methods namely: household using semi-structured questionnaires and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs). A total of 385 households from the two sub-counties were selected for household survey following the method described by Krejcie and Morgan. Each informant was asked to list, the preferred WSWFPs consumed in the area and to estimate the amount harvested by members of his or her household in the previous 12 months period. In addition, they were asked to report whether or not WSWFPs were used by members of the household during the previous 12 months period. They were also asked to report whether or not the WSWFPs was given away and/or received by members of the household during the previous 12 months period. In addition, they were asked to estimate how long in a year their household members depend on WSWFPs. FGDs were held to construct seasonal calendar of availability of different WSWFPs consumed in the area. Contribution of WSWFPs to household diet was computed using two generic types of measures-mean per capita harvest and mean per capita use (consumption). The durations upon which households depend on WSWFPs was computed and presented in a chart. About 62 WSWFPs belonging to 31 botanical families were reported as commonly being consumed in the study area. Their consumption comprised a major part (7-9 months) of the dietary intake of the poor households. Many are almost available throughout the year for gathering with exception of a few species that are gathered mainly in the rainy or dry seasons. Mean per capita harvests varied substantially by species as high as 31.59 g day-1 in Amaranthus dubius to about 0.04 g day-1 as in Lantana camara. Like mean per capita harvest, mean per capita consumption also varied from one species to another. Mean per capita consumption of some the WSWFPs such as Hyptis spicigera (107.02 g day-1) and Borassus aethiopum (91.82 g day-1) were higher than the reported vegetable and fruit per capita consumption of 79.45 g day-1 in sub-Saharan Africa although, much although much lower than the world average of 205.48 g consumed per person per day. There is a need for policy-makers and technocrats both at the local (counties, sub-counties, parishes, villages) and national levels (e.g., Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries) to create policies by-laws or any other avenues for mainstreaming, the management of some of the WSWFPs with high per capita harvest and per capita consumption rates into the existing, the farming systems and/or any the programs (e.g., Plan for Modernisation of Agriculture) aimed at addressing household poverty and food insecurity. While wild foods cannot entirely bridge, the existing supply and demand gaps of poor household food requirements without them, the gaps woul
Candidate Agroforestry Technologies and Practices for Uganda
Clement Akais Okia,Jacob Godfrey Agea,Jude Sekatuba,Gerald Ongodia,Balikitenda Katumba,Vincent Ibwala Opolot,Henry Mutabazi
Agricultural Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Agroforestry is rapidly gaining interest of many farmers in Uganda and it is widely thought that it can make a significant contribution towards addressing the high levels of poverty and associated land degradation in the country. For this to happen, however there is need to promote agroforestry technologies and innovations that farmers can invest in and that in turn generate incomes. This study therefore, presents an inventory of agroforestry technologies/practices in Uganda and prioritises these technologies/practices according to Association of Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa (ASARECA) criteria and TOFNET (Trees on Farm Network of ASARECA) different problems domain areas in Uganda. The inventory involved the use of structured questionnaires administered to various agroforestry stakeholders. Sixty organizations were surveyed comprising NGOs, CBOs, District extension departments, research and training institutions from 11 districts of Uganda (Iganga, Kabale, Kampala, Kisoro, Kumi, Mbale, Mbarara, Mukono, Ntungamo, Wakiso and Soroti). Validation and prioritization of the agroforestry technologies/practices were conducted in a stakeholders’ workshop. Twenty-one agroforestry technologies/practices were documented ranging from apiculture, aquaforestry, biomass transfer, to homegardens and woodlots. High value fruit tree orchards, home gardens, woodlots, trees on cropland, contour hedges, improved fallowing, relay and rotational cropping, fodder banks, apiary systems, ornamental/avenue planting, trees on hillsides were the top ten highly scored technologies according to ASARECA criteria. According to TOFNET criteria, most of the technologies were spread in nearly all the problem domain areas (Lake Victoria and associated river basins, humid highlands, marginal areas, buffer zones and urban/peri-urban) of Uganda. This therefore, calls for the need to promote diversified agroforestry technologies/practices, which might be the best option to reduce risks and satisfy farmers’ wants directly from the land resources under their management.
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