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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 225856 matches for " Clayton R. Wright "
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Developing and Deploying OERs in sub-Saharan Africa: Building on the Present
Clayton R. Wright,Sunday A. Reju
International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning , 2012,
Abstract: Open educational resources (OERs) have the potential to reduce costs, improve quality, and increase access to educational opportunities. OER development and deployment is one path that could contribute to achieving education for all. This article builds on existing information and communication technology (ICT) implementation plans in Africa and on the experiences of organizations and initiatives such as the African Virtual University (AVU), OER Africa, the South African Institute of Distance Education (SAIDE), and the Teacher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa (TESSA) Project, to present one view of the benefits, challenges, and steps that could be taken to realize the potential of OERs in sub-Saharan Africa. Thus, the article focuses on the factors necessary for creating and sustaining a vision for OER development and deployment; developing and distributing resources with an open license; improving technology infrastructure and reducing the cost of Internet access; establishing communities of educational collaborators; sustaining involvement in the OER initiative; producing resources in interoperable and open formats; establishing and maintaining the quality of OERs; providing local context to address national and regional needs and conditions; informing the public about OERs; and taking the initiative to build on the knowledge, skills, and experiences of others. In order to assist educators and decision makers, links to a variety of resources are provided.
Recurring Issues Encountered by Distance Educators in Developing and Emerging Nations
Clayton R. Wright,Gajaraj Dhanarajan,Sunday A. Reju
International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning , 2009,
Abstract: This article explores a number of challenges faced by e-learning or distance educators in developing and emerging countries, provides a context for many of the challenges, and outlines some measures devised to overcome them. These educators must determine a sound rationale for employing online learning, recognize that technology is only part of the educational transformation process, address the lack of infrastructure and the cost of Internet bandwidth and equipment, counter the cultural imperialism of courseware from Western nations, deal with limited educational resources, place a greater emphasis on quality assurance systems and change negative perceptions of distance education, respond to the needs and concerns of both students and faculty, access or develop up-to-date educational resources, and consider the implementation of mobile learning. The continued growth and success of distance education in developing and emerging nations will depend on the extent to which issues covered in this article are addressed as they bear on the quality of the learning experience provided to students.
The Challenges of Implementing Distance Education in Uganda: A Case Study
Gudula Naiga Basaza,Natalie B. Milman,Clayton R. Wright
International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning , 2010,
Abstract: This brief case study provides a pithy introduction to Uganda and outlines key factors that affect the implementation of distance education in the nation: poor infrastructure, the high cost of an education, an outdated curriculum, inadequate expertise in distance education, and poor attitudes towards distance learning. These factors are also evident in other African countries.
Mucin Variable Number Tandem Repeat Polymorphisms and Severity of Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease: Significant Association with MUC5AC
XueLiang Guo, Rhonda G. Pace, Jaclyn R. Stonebraker, Clayton W. Commander, Anthony T. Dang, Mitchell L. Drumm, Ann Harris, Fei Zou, Dallas M. Swallow, Fred A. Wright, Wanda K. O'Neal, Michael R. Knowles
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025452
Abstract: Variability in cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease is partially due to non-CFTR genetic modifiers. Mucin genes are very polymorphic, and mucins play a key role in the pathogenesis of CF lung disease; therefore, mucin genes are strong candidates as genetic modifiers. DNA from CF patients recruited for extremes of lung phenotype was analyzed by Southern blot or PCR to define variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) length polymorphisms for MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC7. VNTR length polymorphisms were tested for association with lung disease severity and for linkage disequilibrium (LD) with flanking single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). No strong associations were found for MUC1, MUC2, or MUC7. A significant association was found between the overall distribution of MUC5AC VNTR length and CF lung disease severity (p = 0.025; n = 468 patients); plus, there was robust association of the specific 6.4 kb HinfI VNTR fragment with severity of lung disease (p = 6.2×10?4 after Bonferroni correction). There was strong LD between MUC5AC VNTR length modes and flanking SNPs. The severity-associated 6.4 kb VNTR allele of MUC5AC was confirmed to be genetically distinct from the 6.3 kb allele, as it showed significantly stronger association with nearby SNPs. These data provide detailed respiratory mucin gene VNTR allele distributions in CF patients. Our data also show a novel link between the MUC5AC 6.4 kb VNTR allele and severity of CF lung disease. The LD pattern with surrounding SNPs suggests that the 6.4 kb allele contains, or is linked to, important functional genetic variation.
Addressing Soil Degradation and Flood Risk Decision Making in Levee Protected Agricultural Lands under Increasingly Variable Climate Conditions  [PDF]
Lois Wright Morton, Kenneth R. Olson
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2014.512117
Abstract: Public and private levee systems may not be robust enough to address flooding risk to agriculture under changing climate conditions. Of concern are levee protected riverine bottomlands with intensive agricultural uses and diminished wetland systems that give resilience to floodplain hydrologic functions. In the United States natural and induced levee breaching has caused soil damage, loss of agricultural productivity, and public tension among agricultural landowners, urban residents, and environmental interests. Risk management and adaptive capacity of this humannatural system could be improved by assessments of 1) soil damage and 2) stakeholder values, fears, and knowledge about the riverine bottomland agroecosystem.
The abundance and isotopic composition of nitrogen in mantle xenoliths: Implication for nitrogen evolution in the mantle and the atmosphere
L. Huang,R. N. Clayton
Chinese Science Bulletin , 1998, DOI: 10.1007/BF02891452
GPS Composite Clock Analysis
James R. Wright
International Journal of Navigation and Observation , 2008, DOI: 10.1155/2008/261384
Abstract: The GPS composite clock defines GPS time, the timescale used today in GPS operations. GPS time is illuminated by examination of its role in the complete estimation and control problem relative to UTC/TAI. The phase of each GPS clock is unobservable from GPS pseudorange measurements, and the mean phase of the GPS clock ensemble (GPS time) is unobservable. A new and useful observability definition is presented, together with new observability theorems, to demonstrate explicitly that GPS time is unobservable. Simulated GPS clock phase and frequency deviations, and simulated GPS pseudorange measurements, are used to understand GPS time in terms of Kalman filter estimation errors.
Correlative Structural Biology: How to Investigate the Fine Details of Viral Structure
Elizabeth R. Wright
Viruses , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/v2010107
Abstract: Commentary on Byeon, I.J.; Meng, X.; Jung, J.; Zhao, G.; Yang, R.; Ahn, J.; Shi, J.; Concel, J.; Aiken, C.; Zhang, P.; Gronenborn, A.M. Structural convergence between Cryo-EM and NMR reveals intersubunit interactions critical for HIV-1 capsid function. Cell 2009, 139, 780-790.
The decreasing importance of acidification episodes with recovery from acidification: an analysis of the 30-year record from Birkenes, Norway
R. F. Wright
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2008,
Abstract: The 30-year record 1975–2004 of weekly samples of streamwater chemistry from Birkenes, Norway, shows 106 acid episodes below the threshold of ANC 50 μeq l 1. The frequency, severity and duration of episodes have diminished since about 1990 due to chemical recovery following reduced deposition of sulphur. In particular SO4-driven episodes in the first runoff following drought have become less intense and less frequent, whereas episodes driven by climate (wind, high flow) continue. The data show significant empirical relationships between strength of the driver, degree of chemical recovery, and severity of ANC depression.
Circulating Vaccine Derived Poliovirus and the polio eradication endgame
R Davis, PF Wright
Pan African Medical Journal , 2012,
Abstract: No Abstract.
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