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Intelligence vs. Artificial Intelligence: The King Is Naked  [PDF]
Claudio Messori
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103115
Abstract:
The sociological dimension of Artificial Intelligence (AI), and automation, is placed in the path traced by the man-machine integration process, started in the eighteenth century by the Industrial Revolution that assumes its current connotation after World War II. The use of the term intelligence, which appears in the expression Artificial Intelligence, is shown to be improper and misleading, and the expression itself should be replaced, eventually, by Artificial Simulation of the Savant Syndrome. By adopting a theoretical perspective, namely Endo-Dynamo-Tensive Model [Messori 2012B], it is traced the mapping of human’s neurological (neuro-dynamics) and psychological (psycho-dynamics) dimension, and is provided the coordinates to be followed in the phenomenological qualification and definition of the psychic-mental-cognitive function intelligence. The neuro-dynamics of the Nervous System (NS), is taken into account by adopting the theoretical, interpretative and investigative perspective indicated by the particular line of research developed in the context of Quantum Field Theory (QFT) and QED (Quantum Electrodynamic Field Theory), that describes the water of which all living systems are composed, i.e. biological water, as water in a coherent oscillatory phase or state other than that of common water, named super-coherent oscillatory state. By introducing the possible functional role exerted within brain activity by glial cells, cerebrospinal fluid, intra- and extra-cellular fluid is outlined the overcoming of the classical neuroscience paradigm, based on the vision of brain activity as ruled by networks of neurons interconnected by synapses. The body-mind hard problem is taken into account and a solution is advanced. The psycho-dynamics of the humans mind territory is taken into account according to the four poles of mental functions introduced by C.G. Jung in his Psychological Types (1921), where he introduces a hierarchy of mental functions in two mental bipolar dimensions (dichotomies). These are sensing (attentiveness by means of the sense organs) coupled to intuition (awareness in unconscious way or being aware of unconscious contents) and thinking (function of intellectual cognition; the forming of logical conclusions) coupled to feeling (function of subjective estimation). At the conclusion of this work, it is provided the phenomenological definition of intelligence that does not contemplate the possibility to apply to neuroscience, and to natural and human sciences in general, the paradigm that inspires the research on AI, i.e. computational model and Information Theory.
From Enlightenment to Cyborgs  [PDF]
Claudio Messori
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104033
Abstract:
The decline of the feudal system and the progressive rise of the medieval bourgeoisie to power roles and government functions, leads the West (17th century) to theorize and assume a materialistic, reductionist and mechanistic model of thought, based on a privileged, tendentially exclusive, relationship with Science (Galilean scientific method), technique and technology. This paper takes into account the historical, sociological, and anthropological elements (such as the unlimited perfectibility of humanity advocated by the French Enlightenment and the mechanization of the production cycle envisaged by English pro-to-liberalism) of this paradigmatic revolution, which more than others help us understanding the causal process that led to contemporary techno-centrism 4.0. It is highlighted that thanks to the interweaving between the ideals of the French Enlightenment, with its two souls (Naturophilus and Technophilus), and the Anglo-Saxon entrepreneurial foresight (proved successful with the Industrial Revolution 1.0), takes shape the Positivist paradigm, and with it the Positivist secular religion, whose affirmation and diffusion generate a stream of widely shared thought throughout the West, i.e. Eugenics, which radicalizes the most ambivalent (pseudo-scientific) and reactionary (philocolonialist) instances of Enlightenment and Positivism, leading to a series of crimes against the person and against humanity, which will result in the mass eliminations conducted, in particular but not only, by Nazi-fascism and Stalinism (two totalitarian regimes that share the same Positivist roots and the same passion for Eugenics thought). It is highlighted that the heart of the industrialization process begins to throb in factories, where the introduction of mechanical systems into the production cycle triggers the man-machine integration process, which soon becomes the ful-crum, the economic, social and cultural driving factor of the western civilization. It will be thanks to the evolution of the mechanical systems employed in the production chains and to the establishment of the Liberalist economic model, that between the second and third Industrial Revolution consolidates the alliance between academic, industrial and military (the academic/industrial/military iron triangle). An alliance destined to play a decisive role in the two World Wars of the 20th century and in all subsequent warfare. The present paper therefore highlights how the two World Wars have exponentially increased western scientific and technological development, which once transferred from the military to the civilian sector, has taken off the Industrial Revolution 3.0. Thanks to the Second World War, the US academic/industrial/military iron triangle is strengthened and becomes the world leader in scientific, military, economic and technological development. The computerization of society and the development of so-called Artificial Intelligence are side effects of the new way of conceiving the integrated relationship between soldier and armament, matured in the US military sector during World War II. The soldier-armament automation model that emerged from that war experience, and the enormous technical and technological developments that have taken place, paved the way for the creation of man-machine hybrids (cyborgs) and for the robotization of society (Industrial Revolution 4.0), intended to be a complementary effect of contemporary warfare. In conclusion, the birth of a neo-positivist secular religion, inspired by a scientific and hermaphroditic divinity, called Universal Consciousness, is contemplated.
Near Death Experiences: Falling Down a Very Deep Well  [PDF]
Claudio Messori
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104985
Abstract:
The huge progress made in recent decades in the medical-health field, together with the large-scale introduction of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and other emergency techniques and procedures, has made it possible to save a growing number of human lives. Also because of this, the testimonies classified as Near Death Experiences (NDEs) have increased exponentially, mostly in Western countries. The present work aims at first to identify six basic inclusion-exclusion clinical criteria to be adopted for the definition of a Near Death State (NDS), distinguishing between an objective NDS and a subjective Near Death Like State (NDLS). This classification leads to having NDEs split into two distinct groups: Near Death Experiences associated to NDS and Near Death Like Experiences (NDLEs) associated to NDLS. A general frame of reference, namely Tenso-Relational Model, within which consciousness and the mind-body system (MBS) can be located, is discussed. In conclusion it is introduced a bio-physical frame of reference to be adopted for a possible explanation 1) of the so called Out of Body Experience (OBE), which can occur while experiencing an NDS or an NDLS, 2) of the so-called Electromagnetic After-Effects (EAEs), namely electro-sensitivity, which can be caused both by an NDS or by an NDLS, and 3) of other NDS-NDLS aftereffects such as the so-called Energy Healing Abilities (EHA) and the psi abilities, i.e. psychokinesis, telekinesis and psychic-teleportation, and Extra-Sensory Perceptions (ESPs) such as telepathy, clairvoyance, precognition and psychometry.
The Super-Coherent State of Biological Water  [PDF]
Claudio Messori
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105236
Abstract:
Exceptional solvent, water is the life-giving molecule on Earth: it covers about 70% of the Earth’s surface, accounts for 65% of a human and 90% of macromolecules present in biological systems. If the water did not exist, no chemical reactions, no transport of nutrients and waste, etc. would exist. In a word, without water, there would be no life. Within the range of envi-ronmental temperature and pressure, water is found in three conventional physical aggregation states plus one: solid (ice), liquid (liquid water), gas-eous (water vapor) and semi-crystalline (biological water). Most of the models proposed to explain the peculiar properties of water start from the study of an isolated water molecule, then extend its characteristics and behaviors to the water molecules bound to it. Each model aims to predict the behavior of water in its three conventional aggregation states and subsequently verify its compatibility with experimental chemical-physical properties. Problems arise when, through intermolecular electrostatic at-traction forces (short-range forces), a lot of water molecules are assembled to form the liquid phase together. None of the water models proposed to date, based on short-range forces, is able to describe satisfactorily the “abnormal” chemical-physical behavior of water. In the present work, it is presented the Quantum Electro Dynamics (QED) approach to water, introduced and developed, with the contribution of other physicists and researchers, by Giuliano Preparata and Emilio del Giudice, two Italian theoretical physicists and researchers of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), over the last thirty years.
Paleoanthropology of Consciousness, Culture and Oral Language  [PDF]
Claudio Messori
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105237
Abstract:
It is presented an updated version of my previous paleoanthropological inter-pretation of the available utilitarian and non-utilitarian Paleolithic finds (Messori 2016), aimed at establishing the earliest human developmental stages of consciousness, culture and oral language. The environmental transformations to which Earth has gone to meet from its formation to the Archean period of the Precambrian Era, during which the terrestrial proto-biological phenomenon develops, are briefly discussed. By following the quantum electrodynamic explanation of biological water it is assumed that the transition from organic to biological it would have happened during late Hadean with the formation of colloid lyophilized bubbles, dissipative systems embedded by anticipatory systems, at the phase boundary between chaotic and ordered (coherent) regimes, composed by perturbed prebiotic water maintained in a regime of oscillatory super-coherence by an endogenous electromagnetic field of suitable intensity and frequency, bounded by a selective electronic pump consisting of a semi-crystalline film of reducing water, and containing macromolecules such as proteins and amino acids, synthesized on a enantioselective basis. A brief recapitulation of the geological phases and biological events that characterized the ca. 1.5 billion years that stand between eukaryotic cells stabilization and genus Homo appearance is provided. By adopting a non-Darwinian approach, the biological phenomenon is described as an eco-systemic non-linear dissipative system embedded by super-complex anticipatory systems, at the phase boundary between chaotic and ordered (coherent) regimes, ruled by thermodynamics of non-equilibrium laws. By comparing utilitarian and non-utilitarian finds dating from Lower Paleolithic (ca. 2.7 - 2.4 mya to ca. 300 - 120 tya) with finds dating from Middle Paleolithic (ca. 300 - 120 to ca. 45 - 30 tya), it is assumed that the inner life (insight) of our distant ancestors underwent a slow process of psycho-relational and psycho-biological individuation (incubation and settling of a distinct and relatively autonomous neuro-psychological identity), that only recently (second half of Lower Paleolithic) led to the formation of the relatively autonomous and independent psychic complex called epigenetic function of the real, or consciousness, the essential requirement for there to be a fully established cultural production. The slow process that went from a musically established sound emission (second half of Lower Paleolithic), to a fully syntactical and semantics codification of a suitably emitted and articulated range of sounds, that through time became speech communication, namely oral language (first half of Middle Paleolithic), is discussed. The slow process to which oral language has gone from acquiring the power to re-create the world by naming it—semantic baptism—as an act of legitimation of reality (Upper Paleolithic), to becoming an instrument of power in the hands of the male gender (Neolithic), which thanks to it tames Nature and subjugates the generatrix power of women’s uterus (where the pneuma is transmuted into offspring by which the progeny is re-created) to the generatrix power of oro-larynx (where the pneuma is transmuted into speech by which the World is re-created), is also discussed.
Attraverso il paesaggio. Naturalità del teatro e teatralità della natura
Rita Messori
Ricerche di S/Confine , 2013,
Abstract: From an aesthetic point of view to rethink the relationship between theater and landscape means primarily to question the relationship between theatrical action and nature: from what aestheticexperience this action is generated and how it affects and sets out fruition? To immerse oneself in nature according to the unity of feeling and movement involves the formation of space and thereforethe birth of a ‘landscape theater’ and at the same time of a theatrical landscape. To cross the landscape means overcoming a linear and continuous orientation, that very much resembles themovement of dance which shapes rhythmically the space of landscape.
La porosità dei muri. Su alcune analogie tra Walter Benjamin e Maurice Merleau-Ponty
Rita Messori
Ricerche di S/Confine , 2011,
Abstract: Una analisi delle analogie tra l'idea di "porosità", che Benjamin propone in Immagini di città e l'utilizzo da parte di Maurice Merleau-Ponty del medesimo termine in quanto immagine di una dialettica rivisitata, che esalta le ambivalenze della dimensione "estetica" o "pre-categoriale".
Consolidation, ownership structure and efficiency in the Italian banking system
Marcello Messori
PSL Quarterly Review , 2002,
Abstract: This paper aims to analyze the effects of Italian banking consolidation during the nineties on the efficiency of the financial system, on competition in the market forbanking and financial services, and on the reallocation of bank ownership. Whereas a review of the recent theoretical and empirical literature shows that none of these aspects has received an unequivocal solution, an analysis of the Italian case indicates that the banking consolidation processes were accompanied by gains in efficiencyand competitiveness. Consolidation did not, however, offset the increasing distortions in the ownership structure of a large part of the Italian banking groups.
Transferrin: From Inorganic Biochemistry to Medicine
Luigi Messori,Felix Kratz
Metal-Based Drugs , 1994, DOI: 10.1155/mbd.1994.161
Abstract:
Workers’ Effort: A Comparison between Capitalist and Cooperative Firms  [PDF]
Michele Alessandrini, Marcello Messori
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2016.63066
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to compare the efficiency of capitalistic and cooperative firms by focusing on the workers’ effort in production activity, when this effort is only known to workers, thus causing information asymmetries between workers and managers of both types of firms. Therefore, our model uses a principal-agents framework with workers’ hidden actions. The agency relations are not centered on the optimal design of incentive mechanisms but on the efficient (albeit incomplete) managerial monitoring of workers’ private effort. Moreover there is a trade-off between this monitoring activity and another managerial activity, i.e. the organization of production processes. We show that, taking into account the information asymmetries that characterize our model, the cooperative firm requires less monitoring than the capitalist firm to achieve the same efficient level of workers’ effort. This allows the manager of the former firm to devote more working time to organizational activity than the manager of the latter firm. In this respect, the governance of the cooperative firm dominates that of the capitalist firm. However, both types of firms need capital to operate and face different financial constraints in terms of the capital’s purchasing cost. These financial constraints affect the cooperative firm more severely than the capitalistic firm. Our conclusion is that these two types of firms have specific strengths and weaknesses, which make it difficult to reach general analytical results in terms of their relative efficiency. Additionally, the financial constraints characterizing the cooperative firm hinder maximization of its long-term growth rate; on the other hand, this kind of firm can better exploit the virtuous circle between increases in the employment level and increases in the growth rate.
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